What Is Acid Reflux Or Gastric Reflux? | ENT Specialist

Overview of acid reflux or gastric reflux

Acid reflux is a common condition called heartburn in the lower chest. This happens when acid from the stomach backs up into the esophagus.

If you have acid reflux symptoms more than twice a week, you may have a condition called Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is diagnosed when acid reflux occurs more than twice a week. Most people experience acid reflux from time to time. GERD is mild acid reflux that occurs at least twice a week or it is a moderate to severe acid reflux that occurs once a week.

Symptoms of gastric reflux

Acid reflux can cause an uncomfortable burning feeling in your chest, which can radiate up toward your neck. This feeling is often known as heartburn.

If you have acid reflux, you might develop a sour or bitter taste at the back of your mouth. It might also cause you to regurgitate food or liquid from your stomach into your mouth.

In some cases, GERD can cause difficulty swallowing. It can sometimes lead to breathing problems, like chronic cough or asthma.

Causes of acid reflux

A common cause of acid reflux disease is a stomach abnormality known as a hyaline hernia. This occurs when the upper abdomen and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) move above the diaphragm, which separates your abdomen from your chest. In general, the diaphragm helps keep acid in our stomach. If you have a hyaline hernia, acid can enter the oesophagus and cause symptoms of acid reflux disease.

Risk factors

Gastric reflux affects people of all ages, sometimes for unknown reasons. It is often caused by a lifestyle factor, but it can also be caused by factors that cannot always be prevented.

An unavoidable cause is a hyaline (or intermittent) hernia. A hole in the diaphragm allows the upper abdomen to enter the chest cavity, sometimes leading to GERD.

Other risk factors are more easily controlled:

  • Smoking (active or passive).
  • Less exercise
  • Medications including asthma, calcium channel blockers, antihistamines, pain relievers, narcotics, and antidepressants.
  • Acid reflux is also caused by the added pressure on internal organs caused by pregnancy.

Diet and Eating Habits Associated With Acid Reflux:

  • Caffeine
  • Alcohol
  • Excessive intake of table salt
  • Low fibre diet
  • Eat a great meal
  • Lie down for 2 to 3 hours after eating.
  • Consumption of chocolate, carbonated drinks and acidic juices
  • A recent study suggests that dietary options, such as the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), may be effective in treating acid reflux.

How gastric reflux diagnosed?

If your doctor suspects you might have GERD, they’ll conduct a physical exam and ask about any symptoms you’ve been experiencing.

They might use one or more of the following procedures to confirm a diagnosis or check for complications of GERD:

  • Barium swallow: after drinking a barium solution, X-ray imaging is used to examine your upper digestive tract.
  • Upper endoscopy: a flexible tube with a tiny camera is threaded into your esophagus to examine it and collect a sample of tissue (biopsy) if needed.
  • Esophageal manometry: a flexible tube is threaded into your esophagus to measure the strength of your esophageal muscles.
  • Esophageal pH monitoring: a monitor is inserted into your esophagus to learn if and when stomach acid enters it.

Treatment options for acid reflux

Your doctor may recommend that you try lifestyle changes and over-the-counter medications first. If you don’t feel relief within a few weeks, your doctor may recommend medicine or surgery.

Over the counter drugs Options include:

For people who experience heartburn or indigestion infrequently, perhaps in association with occasional food and drink triggers, OTC treatments to reduce the acidity of the stomach contents are available.

These liquid and tablet formulations are called antacids, and there are dozens of brands available, all with similar effectiveness. They may not work for everyone, and any need for regular use should be discussed with a doctor.

Antacids provide rapid but short-term relief by reducing the acidity of the stomach contents.

They contain chemical compounds such as calcium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, aluminium, and magnesium hydroxide. They can also inhibit nutrient absorption, leading to deficiencies over time.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Lifestyle changes can help reduce the frequency of acid reflux.

  • Keep a healthy weight. The extra pounds put pressure on the abdomen, pushing the stomach upward and causing acid reflux into the esophagus.
  • Smoking. Smoking reduces the ability of the lower esophageal sphincter to function properly.
  • Do not lie down after a meal. Wait at least three hours before going to bed or before going to bed.
  • Eat food slowly and chew well. Squeeze the fork after each bite and pick it up again after chewing and swallowing.
  • Avoid foods and drinks that trigger reflux. Common triggers include fatty or fried foods, ketchup, alcohol, chocolate, mint, garlic, onion, and caffeine.
  • Avoid tight clothing. Clothing that fits snugly at the waist puts pressure on the abdomen and lower esophageal sphincter.

Alternative medicine

Alternative medicine has not been tried to treat GERD or reverse damage to the esophagus. Some complementary and alternative therapies can provide some relief when combined with your doctor’s care.

Talk to your doctor about which alternative GERD treatments are safe for you. Options can include:

  • Herbal. Liquorice and chamomile are sometimes used to relieve GERD. Herbal remedies can cause serious side effects and interfere with medication. Ask your doctor about a safe dose before you start taking any herbal medicine.
  • Relaxation therapies. Methods to relieve stress and anxiety can reduce the signs and symptoms of GERD. Ask your doctor about relaxation techniques, such as progressive muscle relaxation or guided imagery.

Everything You Need to Know About Strep Throat | ENT Specialist

What is strep throat?

Strep throat is a bacterial infection that causes irritation and pain in the throat. This condition is caused by group A streptococcus bacterium. Strep throat can move children and adults of all ages.

However, it’s especially common in children between the ages of 5 and 15. Sneezing and coughing can spread the infection from one person to another.

Alternative names

  • Strep throat
  • Tonsillitis – streptococcus
  • Sore throat

Symptoms of strep throat

Symptoms of strep throat include:

  • Sore throat
  • Fever
  • Red and swollen tonsils
  • Painful or swollen neck glands
  • Red and white patches in the throat
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • A headache
  • Stomach ache
  • General malaise, malaise, or malaise
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Eruption
  • Illustration

Not all sore throats are strep throat. Children often have a sore throat due to a virus, which usually goes away without medical treatment.

Is strep throat contagious?

Strep throat is very contagious. Anyone can get it, but most cases are school-age children and adolescents. Infections are common during the school year when large groups of children and teens are in tight spaces.

Causes of strep throat

Like other infections, strep throat is spread through close contact. When sick people cough or sneeze, they release droplets that trap bacteria in the air.

You can become infected if you touch something that a person with strep has coughed or sneezed and then brush your eyes, mouth, or nose with your hand. You can also get sick if you share a glass or other personal item with somebody who has strep. Strep is most common in children and teens. Adults sometimes get it too.


Many other causes of a sore throat can have the same symptoms. Your healthcare provider should run a test to diagnose strep throat and choose whether to prescribe antibiotics.

A rapid strep test can be complete in most provider offices. However, the test can be negative, even if there is strep.

If the rapid strep test is negative and your provider still suspects that strep bacteria is causing your sore throat, a throat swab may be tested (cultured) to see if the strep grows. Results will take 1 to 2 days.

Treatment for strep throat

In most cases, sore throats do not require treatment and will resolve on their own within a week. Over-the-counter medications can help relieve symptoms.

Patients with stomach or kidney glitches should not take aspirin or ibuprofen. The following tips can also help control a sore throat:

  • Avoid foods or drinks that are very hot as they can irritate the throat.
  • Cold drinks and cold soft foods can help relieve symptoms.
  • Hot (not hot) drinks can also help.
  • Smoking will aggravate the throat, as will smoky environments.
  • Sucking on ice cubes can ease symptoms (be careful giving them to young children).
  • Gargling with mouthwash can reduce swelling and relieve pain, Slightly salty warm water is best.
  • Antibiotics

If the patient has been diagnosed with a bacterial infection, antibiotics should not be used. In fact, experts say that even for bacterial throat infections, antibiotics do not appear to be more effective than normal over-the-counter pain relievers.

Antibiotics are used when chances are high that a bacterial infection is involved. If the patient has a weak immune system, which increases the risk of complications from the infection, physicians can also treat with antibiotics deprived of testing for bacteria. This may also be the case in patients with a history of heart disease or rheumatic fever. Patients who incline to get repeated bacterial throat infections may also be given antibiotics.

If strep throat is diagnosed with a rapid strep test or culture, a doctor will give you antibiotics to clear the infection. In a very small percentage of people, the bacteria can cause rheumatic fever (bacterial particles that affect the heart) or kidney problems.

Risk factors

Risk factors for strep throat include:

  • Young age. Strep throat caused by bacteria is most common in children ages 5 to 15.
  • Frequent exposure to other people. Young children in school or daycare are frequently exposed to germs. Similarly, people who live or work in cities or take public transportation may have more exposure to tonsillitis germs.
  • Time of year. Strep throat is most common in the fall and early spring.


Strep throat can lead to serious complications. Antibiotic treatment reduces risk.

Spread of infection

Strep throat bacteria can spread and cause infections in:

  • Anginas
  • Nasal sinuses
  • Skin
  • Blood
  • Middle ear
  • Inflammatory reactions

A strep throat infection can lead to inflammatory diseases, including:

  • Scarlet fever, a streptococcal infection categorized by a prominent rash.
  • Kidney inflammation (post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis).
  • Rheumatic fever, a serious inflammatory disease that can affect the heart, joints, nervous system, and skin.
  • Post-streptococcal reactive arthritis, a condition that causes inflammation of the joints.

A possible relationship between streptococcal infection and a rare condition called pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder related to group A streptococci (PANDAS) has been suggested. Children with this condition experience a worsening of symptoms of neuropsychiatric conditions, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder. This relationship currently remains unproven and controversial.


To prevent strep infection:

  • Wash your hands. Washing your hands properly is the best way to prevent all kinds of infections. That is why it is important to wash your hands regularly with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. Teach your children to wash their hands properly with soap and water or to use an alcohol-based hand sanitiser if soap and water are not available.
  • Cover your mouth. Teach your children to cover their mouths with an elbow or a tissue when they cough or sneeze.
  • Don’t share personal items. Do not share glasses or silverware to eat. Wash plates in hot soapy water or a dishwasher.

Natural home remedies for strep throat

In addition to antibiotics, there are home treatments that can help relieve the symptoms of strep throat. These remedies include:

  • Drinking warm liquids, such as lemon water and tea.
  • Drinking cold liquids to help numb the throat.
  • Turning on a cool-mist humidifier.
  • Taking over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen.
  • Sucking on throat lozenges.
  • Adding 1/2 teaspoon of salt to 1 cup of water and gargling the mixture.

Foods and drinks to avoid

When a sore throat makes swallowing difficult and painful, several foods and drinks should be avoided.

These include:

  • Crunchy and hard foods: Foods that are likely to have a lot of sharp edges, such as crackers, dry toast, nuts, or raw vegetables, can make a sore throat more painful.
  • Citrus fruits and juices: Many persons turn to orange juice when they have a cold as a source of vitamin C. However, citrus juices can make a sore throat worse due to their acidity. This means that they can irritate the already sensitive surface of the throat. Also, an investigation has not confirmed that taking vitamin C can help cure a cold or sore throat.
  • Acidic, pickled, or brined foods: Foods made with vinegar or salt, such as pickles, can make sore throat inflammation worse.
  • Tomato Juice and Sauces: The acidic nature of tomatoes can make them a poor choice for people with a sore throat.
  • Irritating spices: About spices and hot foods can help with a sore throat, but others, like chilli peppers, hot sauces, and nutmeg, can make inflammation inferior.
  • Alcohol: Drinks and mouthwashes that contain alcohol can cause a stinging sensation in a sore throat. Alcohol is also desiccating, which is not helpful for a person with a sore throat.
  • People should also avoid smoking, counting secondhand smoke, when they have a sore throat.

Treatment and Types of Musculoskeletal Pain | Othopaedics

What is musculoskeletal pain?

Musculoskeletal pain refers to pain in muscles, bones, tendons, ligaments, and nerves. You may experience this pain only in one area of the body such as the back. If you have an extensive condition like fibromyalgia, it can be all over your body as well.

The pain can range from mild to severe enough to interfere with your daily life. It can start suddenly and be short-lived, called acute pain. Pain that lasts longer than 3 to 6 months is called chronic pain.

Types of musculoskeletal pain

There are several symptoms and causes of musculoskeletal pain. Some common types of pains are:

  • Bone pain: Usually deep, piercing, or numb. It usually comes from an injury. It is important to make sure the pain is not related to a fracture or tumor.
  • Muscle pain: Often less severe than bone pain, but still debilitating. Muscle pain due to injury, autoimmune reaction, loss of blood flow to the muscles, infection, or tumor. Pain can also include muscle aches and cramps.
  • Tendon and tendon pain: Pain in the tendons or ligaments is often caused by injuries, including sprains. This type of muscle pain is often aggravated when the affected area is stretched or moved.
  • Fibromyalgia: Fibromyalgia is a condition that causes pain in the muscles, tendons, or ligaments. The pain usually appears in several places and is difficult to explain. Fibromyalgia is often accompanied by other symptoms.
  • Arthritis: Joint injuries and diseases generally cause stiff and painful “arthritic” pain. The pain can range from mild to severe and worsens when the joint is moved. The joints can also swell. Inflammation of the joints (arthritis) is a common cause of pain.
  • “Tunnel” syndromes: Refers to muscle disorders that cause pain due to nerve compression. These defects include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, and tarsal tunnel syndrome. The pain spreads along the innervation pathway and feels like burning. These disorders are often due to overuse.

Symptoms of musculoskeletal pain

People with musculoskeletal pain sometimes complain of pain throughout the body. Your muscles may feel stretched or overworked. Sometimes muscles twist or burn.

  • Muscle pain can be severe and short-lived due to numbness or the powerful muscle contraction commonly known as Charlie Horse. The muscle can twist or contract uncomfortably.
  • Tendon pain from an injury can feel sharp. It usually intensifies when the affected tendon is moved or stretched and improves with rest.
  • Joint pain feels like pain. It is characterized by firmness and swelling.
  • Fibromyalgia causes multiple spots all over the body.

Nerve compression pain may have tingling, tingling, or burning sensation. Other symptoms depend on the cause of the pain and include:

  • Perspective
  • Pain
  • Inflammation
  • Red
  • Cracking or popping sound in the joint
  • Difficulty moving the affected area
  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Sleeping problems
  • Muscle aches or seizures
  • Injuries

Causes of musculoskeletal pain

The causes of musculoskeletal pain vary. Damage to muscle tissue with the wear and tear of daily activity. Injuries to one area (jerky movements, car accidents, falls, fractures, sprains, dislocations, and direct injuries to a muscle) can also cause muscle pain. Other causes of pain include postural stress, repetitive movements, overuse, and chronic stabilization. Changes in posture or body mechanics can lead to spinal alignment problems and muscle contraction, causing other muscles to become overused and painful.

Muscle disorders: These disorders directly affect the bones, muscles, joints, and tendons. Injury to bones, joints, muscles, tendons, or ligaments is the most common cause of muscle pain. Waterfalls, sports injuries, and car accidents are some of the events that can cause pain.

There are more than 150 different muscle defects. The most common are:

  • Arthritis including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus, osteoarthritis, gout, and ankylosing spondylitis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Injuries such as fractures and dislocations.
  • Muscle damage (sarcopenia)
  • Problems with bone or joint formation, such as scoliosis

Diagnosis of musculoskeletal pain

Because there are many causes of musculoskeletal pain, your doctor will first take a detailed medical history and ask about your symptoms. Expect answers to questions like:

  • When did the pain start?
  • What are you doing at the moment (for example, exercising or playing sports)?
  • What does it feel like throbbing, burning, pain, tingling?
  • Where does the pain arise?
  • What other symptoms do you have (drowsiness, fatigue, etc.)?
  • What is worse or better?

Your doctor may press or move the affected area in different positions to find the exact location of your pain. Many tests can help determine the cause of your pain.

  • Blood tests to look for signs of inflammation that indicate arthritis.
  • X-rays or CT scans to find problems with the bones
  • Magnetic resonance imaging to detect problems with soft tissues such as muscles, tendons, and ligaments
  • Joint fluid test to detect crystals that cause infection or gout

Treatment for musculoskeletal pain

A variety of manual therapies or equations can be used to treat people with spinal alignment problems. For some severe musculoskeletal pain, these techniques have been shown to heal quickly. Medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be used to treat inflammation or pain.

In patients with a musculoskeletal disorder such as fibromyalgia, low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine (neurotransmitters that modulate sleep, pain, and immune system function) may be indicated at the body level. Some sleep aids include Zolpidem (Ambion), Esopiclone (Lunesta), and Ramaltian (Rozerem).

Other treatments may include:

  • Sedative or anti-inflammatory injections in or around painful areas
  • Exercises such as muscle stretching and strengthening
  • Physical or occupational therapy
  • Acupuncture or acupressure
  • Leisure/biofeedback methods
  • Osteopathic manipulation (the entire evaluation and treatment system designed to achieve and maintain health by restoring normal body function)
  • Chiropractic care
  • Therapeutic massage
  • Drugs
  • Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), or naproxen (Olive)
  • Corticosteroid injections in the painful area
  • Opioids (only for more severe pain due to addiction and risk of side effects)
  • Practical therapy
  • Therapeutic massage
  • Chiropractic / Osteopathic Manipulation
  • Physical therapy
  • Alternative therapies
  • Acupuncture
  • Herbs, vitamins, and minerals
  • Aids and equipment
  • Orthosis
  • Suspenders
  • Cervical collars
  • Pressing
  • Pelvic support

Surgery: Surgery is usually reserved for cases that do not improve with conventional treatments. Policies can include:

  • Joint replacement
  • Laminectomy
  • Cartilage and soft tissue repair
  • Arthroscopy

Changes in lifestyle

For injuries or problems related to overuse, your doctor may recommend resting until the affected body part has healed. If you have arthritis or other muscle pain, it may help to do some stretching and other exercises as directed by a physical therapist.

Both ice and heat are good pain relief options. Ice reduces inflammation and reduces pain immediately after the injury. Reduce heat stress a few days after the initial injury.

Sometimes it helps to talk to someone about your pain. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) teaches ways to manage pain more effectively.


Causes and Types of Metastatic bone cancer | Orthopaedics

What is metastatic bone cancer?

When cancer spreads to the bones, it is called bone metastasis. Metastatic bone cancer is also known as metastatic bone disease or secondary bone cancer because cancer does not start in the bone. Bone metastasis usually occurs in people who have had cancer in the past or who have advanced cancer. But sometimes pain from bone metastases can be the first sign of cancer.

Bone metastasis is an advanced stage in which the cancer of reliable origin is often incurable. But not all bone metastases develop quickly. In some cases, it develops more slowly and is considered a chronic condition that requires careful maintenance. Bone metastasis may not be curable, but treated people can live longer and feel better.

The exact mechanism by which cancer cells spread to the bones is not fully understood. This is a very active area of ​​scientific research. A new understanding of how metastasis works will lead to new methods of treatment.

Cancer types can spread to the bones

The most common cancers that spread to the bones are breast, prostate, and lung. But many other cancers can metastasize to the bones, including:

  • Thyroid
  • Kidney
  • Melanoma
  • Lymphoma
  • Sarcoma
  • Uterus
  • Gastrointestinal

The third most common site of bone cancer spread. Two lungs and the first two liver.

Cancer cells can metastasize to one or more of your bones at the same time. The most common sites of bone metastases are:

  • Spine
  • Ribs
  • Fruits
  • Breastbone
  • Skull

Symptoms of metastatic bone cancer

Sometimes bone metastasis does not cause any signs or symptoms. When this occurs, the signs and symptoms of metastatic bone cancers are:

  • Bone-ache
  • Broken bones
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Bowel incontinence
  • Weakness in legs or arms
  • Elevated levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia), which causes nausea, vomiting, constipation, and confusion.

When to see a doctor

If you experience persistent signs and symptoms that bother you, make an appointment with your doctor. If you have been treated for cancer in the past, tell your doctor about your medical history and your concerns about your signs and symptoms.

Types of metastatic bone cancer

Usually, your bones are constantly changing. New bone tissue is forming and old bone tissue is broken down into circulating minerals in the blood. This process is called rebuilding. Cancer cells disrupt the normal bone remodeling process, causing the bones to become weak or very dense, depending on the type of bone cells.

Its bone metastases can be:

  • Osteoporosis, if there are too many new bone cells (this usually occurs with metastasized prostate cancer)
  • Osteolytic, with more bone loss (which often occurs with metastasized breast cancer)
  • In some cases, there may be two types of metastases in your bones.

Causes of metastatic bone cancer

Bone metastasis occurs when cancer cells break away from the original tumor and spread to the bones, where they begin to multiply.

Doctors don’t know what causes some cancers to spread. And it is not clear why some cancers travel to the bones rather than to other common sites of metastasis, such as the liver.

Risk factors of metastatic bone cancer

Actually, any type of cancer can spread to the bones, but some of the cancers that cause metastatic bone cancer include:

  • Breast cancer
  • kidney cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Lymphoma
  • Multiple myeloma
  • prostate cancer
  • Thyroid cancer

Diagnosis of metastatic bone cancer

Imaging tests are used to investigate signs and symptoms that may indicate metastatic bone cancer. Which tests you undergo depends on your specific situation.

Tests may include:

  • X-ray
  • Bone scan (bone scintigraphy)
  • Computerized tomography (CT)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Biopsy

Treatment for metastatic bone cancer

Treatment of each individual for metastatic bone cancer is individualized and requires a multisectoral approach. Your treatment plan depends on:

  • The type of primary cancer you have
  • Your stage of cancer
  • No bones
  • Pre-cancerous treatments
  • Your overall health

You may have a combination of treatments including:

  • Radiation to slow the growth of metastases and reduce pain
  • Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells and shrink the tumor
  • Hormone therapy to lower hormones associated with breast and prostate cancer
  • Analgesics and steroids to relieve pain
  • Medications that specifically target the bones
  • If surgery is needed to stabilize your bone, fix the fracture, and help with pain
  • Physical therapy to strengthen your muscles and help you with mobility
  • Excess heat or cold targets cancer cells and reduces pain
  • Bone directed therapy
  • Specific medications that target the bone are an important part of treatment and a growing area of ​​research

It is important to start bone targeting treatment as soon as possible and do not wait until you have a fracture or other bone injury. The breast cancer study reported a lower risk of bone problems in people who started treatment at 6 months. A reliable source of diagnosis of bone metastases.

Drugs targeting bones currently used:

  • Denosumab, a human antibody effective in the prevention of osteoporosis and osteoporosis
  • Bisphosphonates, bone-building drugs used for osteoporosis, strengthen the bones and reduce the pain of metastases.
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin), which targets specific breast cancer cells
  • Bortezomib, which inhibits proteases that break down proteins, is approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma and in the study of other cancers.
  • Radiopharmaceuticals, which are injected into a vein and detect and destroy cancer cells in the bones.
  • As we learn more about the mechanisms by which cancer cells attack and disrupt bones, scientists are developing new ways to attack and slow these cancer cells as a reliable source.

Be aware that most cancer treatments have side effects. Discuss these with your doctor and evaluate the benefits of your treatment.

Surgery: Surgical procedures can help stabilize a bone that is at risk of breaking or repairing a broken bone.

  • Surgery to stabilize the bone: If there is a risk of bone fracture due to bone metastasis, surgeons can stabilize the bone using metal plates, screws, and pins (orthopedic fixation). Orthopedic fixation relieves pain and improves performance. Radiation therapy is often given when you recover after surgery.
  • Surgery to inject cement into the bone: Bones that cannot be easily strengthened with metal plates or screws, such as the pelvic and vertebral bones, may benefit from bone cement. Doctors inject bone cement into the bone that is broken or damaged by bone metastases. This procedure reduces pain.
  • Surgery to repair a broken bone: If metastatic bone cancer causes a bone to break, surgeons can work to repair the bone. This involves the use of metal plates, screws, and nails to stabilize the bone.
  • Placement of a joint replacement: Such as a hip replacement, maybe another option. In general, broken bones caused by bone metastases will not help by placing a cast over the broken bone.

Cancer cell heating and clotting:

  • Techniques that kill cancer cells with heat or cold can help control pain. These procedures may be an option if you have one or two areas of bone metastasis and other treatments do not help.
  • During a procedure called radiofrequency ablation, a needle containing an electrical probe is inserted into the bone tumor. Electricity passes through the probe and heats the surrounding tissue. The fabric is allowed to cool and the process is repeated.
  • A similar procedure called cryoablation freezes the tumor and then allows it to dissolve. The process is repeated several times.
  • Side effects include damage to nearby structures like nerves and bone damage, increasing the risk of bone fracture.

Physical therapy: A physical therapist can work with you to create a plan that will help you increase your energy and improve your awareness. The physical therapist can prescribe assistive devices to help you. Examples: crutches or walkers to lift a weight off the affected bone while running, cane or weed to stabilize the spine and improve balance.

The physical therapist may also suggest specific exercises to help you keep your strength up and reduce your pain.


Chordoma – an Overview | Orthopaedics

What is chordoma?

A chordoma is a rare type of cancerous tumor that can happen anywhere along the spine, from the base of the skull to the tailbone. Chordomas grow slowly, slowly extending into the bone and soft tissue around them. They frequently recur after treatment, and in about 40 per cent of cases, cancer spreads (metastasizes) to other areas of the body, such as the lungs.

Who is affected by chordoma?

It is diagnosed in only one in a million people per year. That means about 300 patients are diagnosed with this disease each year in the United States and around 700 across Europe. At any given time, less than one in 100,000 people live with chordoma.

It is most often diagnosed in people between the ages of 50 and 60, but it can occur at any age. Skull base chordomas occur more often in younger patients, while spinal chordomas are more common later in life. About twice as many men are diagnosed with this disease than women.

What causes chordoma?

Chordoma tumors develop from cells in a tissue called the notochord, which is a structure in an embryo that helps in the development of the spine. The notochord vanishes when the fetus is about 8 weeks old, but some notochord cells remain in the bones of the spine and the dishonourable of the skull. Very rarely, these cells develop into cancer called chordoma. It is not yet completely known what causes notochord cells to become cancerous in some people, but researchers are working to learn the answer.

What are the symptoms of Chordoma?

It can press on the spine, brain, and nerves as they grow, causing pain and nerve problems exact to the part of the brain or spinal cord where they are located. These symptoms can include tingling, numbness, weakness, lack of bladder or bowel control, sexual dysfunction, vision problems, endocrine problems, and swallowing difficulties. If the chordoma has grown a lot, you may be able to feel a lump.

Diagnosis of chordoma

The tests and procedures used to diagnose chordoma include:

  • Removing a sample of cells for laboratory analysis (biopsy). A biopsy is a procedure to eliminate a sample of suspicious cells for laboratory testing. In the laboratory, specially trained doctors called pathologists examine cells under microscopes to check for cancer cells.
  • Determining how the biopsy should be performed requires careful planning on the part of the medical team. Doctors should perform the biopsy in a way that does not interfere with future surgery to remove cancer. For this reason, ask your doctor for a referral to a team of experts with extensive experience treating this disease.
  • Obtaining more detailed images. Your doctor may recommend imaging tests to help visualize your chordoma and determine if it has spread beyond the spine or skull base. Tests may include an MRI or CT scan.

After getting a chordoma diagnosis, your doctor will develop a treatment plan tailored to your needs in discussion with experts in ear, nose, and throat medicine (otorhinolaryngology), cancer (oncology), and radiation therapy (radiation oncology) or surgery. Your care side may also involve experts in endocrinology, ophthalmology, and rehabilitation, as wanted.

Treatment of chordoma

Your treatment will depend on:

  • Your age
  • Your Health
  • Tumor size

Where is the tumor?

Doctors often remove the tumor with surgery. Removing as much of the tumor and some of the tissue around it as possible can prevent it from coming back.

Sometimes surgeons cannot remove the entire tumor because it can damage healthy cells in the brain or spine. Radiation (high-energy x-rays) can kill any cancer cells that are left after surgery. This reduces the chance that cancer will come back.

Still, It usually comes back after treatment. For the first year after your surgery, your doctor will check you with an MRI about once every 3 months to make sure you haven’t. If it comes back, you may need another surgery.

Researchers are studying several new treatments for this disease. They test them in clinical trials to see if they are safe and if they work. These are often a way for people to try a new therapy that is not available to everyone. Your doctor can tell you if there is a trial that might be right for you.


What Is The Larynx? | ENT Specialist

The larynx

The larynx (voice box) is an organ located in the anterior neck.

It is located between the trachea and the base of the tongue, in the upper and anterior part of the neck, where it provides an important projection of the midline.

The male larynx is slightly different in size from the female until puberty. In women, their growth after puberty is slight. In males, it undergoes a significant increase. All cartilage is expanded and thyroid cartilage is prominent in the midline of the neck, almost doubling the length of the rima glottis.

The larynx is wide at the top, where it flattens the triangular box shape at the back and is bordered by a prominent vertical ridge in front. Below, it is narrow and cylindrical. It is made up of cartilage, which is connected to tendons and moves through many muscles. It is continuously covered by the mucous membrane with the pharynx and trachea underneath.

The cartilage of the larynx is attached, as follows:

  • Thyroid
  • Two corniculatus
  • Cricoids
  • Two arytenoids
  • Epiglottis

The larynx is a very busy organ. In many ways, it is a key gateway because it draws air into the lungs. It directs food into the esophagus as it travels to the stomach.

The larynx is also responsible for creating sound for the voice. The larynx contains the vocal cords that open to allow breathing. Close to protect the trachea when swallowing, and it vibrates to give voice. The sound that comes through the larynx is converted by the tongue, lips, and gums.

Since the larynx is a very important organ for breathing, digestion, and speech, laryngeal cancer can occur in many ways and affect these functions. The location and size of cancer determine the symptoms that patients present.

Laryngeal cancers are generally divided into three common areas:

  • Below the vocal cords (subglottis)
  • At the level of the vocal cords (glottis)
  • In the vocal cords (supraglottis)

Cancers that are confined to one of these three regions are treated in very different ways. When cancers are found in multiple areas, treatment becomes more challenging and complicated.

Determining the best treatment for patients with laryngeal cancer depends largely on the type, size, location, and involvement of the lymph nodes in the disease. As surgeons, we generally divide cancers into early (stage I or stage II) and late (stage III, stage IV). Generally speaking, early cancers can usually only be treated with surgery or radiation. Advanced or late-stage cancers are treated with a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

Any cancer treatment, especially advanced-stage cancer is most effective when performed by a team of doctors who are familiar with the disease and who cooperate on a regular basis.

Symptoms of laryngeal disorders

Symptoms of laryngeal disorders depend on the cause, but can include:

  • Blunt
  • Loss of tone
  • Sore throat
  • Raw tenderness in the back of the throat.
  • Constant desire to clear the throat.
  • Difficulty breathing.

Acute laryngitis is characterized by a sudden inflammation of the larynx, which is caused by a viral infection such as the common cold. Excessive use of the voice, for example, yelling or singing or irritation from cigarette smoke can also cause the larynx to become red and swollen.

Symptoms of chronic laryngitis

Common symptoms of chronic laryngitis include:

  • Hoarseness
  • Loss of voice
  • A raw or irritated throat
  • A dry cough
  • Fever
  • Swelling of the lymph nodes in your neck
  • Difficulty swallowing

Acute laryngitis will typically clear up within two weeks. Your doctor should evaluate symptoms that last longer than two weeks as soon as possible.

Ulcers affecting the airways

Some sounds are produced by abruptly lowering the epiglottis into the trachea. If this happens repeatedly, the sore may form from the epiglottis rubbing against the surrounding tissue, screaming or straining the throat.

Laryngeal cancer

The two main types of laryngeal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma and warty carcinoma. Most cases of cancer are directly related to smoking. Dry cough and sometimes coughing up blood after initial numbness. Eventually, the person will experience difficulty breathing and swallowing.

Diagnosis of larynx disorders

The larynx can be seen through the open mouth. Diagnostic methods depend on the disorder, but may include:

  • Physical exam
  • Neck radiography and fluoroscopy (which uses real-time x-rays to show body movement)
  • Laryngoscopy (using equipment called a laryngoscope to view the throat)
  • Biopsy (taking a tissue sample for analysis).

Treatment of laryngeal disorders

Treatment depends on the cause, but may include:

  • Acute laryngitis: relaxation of the voice, pain relievers, and inhalation of vapours.
  • Chronic laryngitis: speech therapy, voice rest, inhalation and, if necessary, antibiotics to clear any infection
  • Croup: Fluids, acetaminophen, rest, and steam inhalation are generally required. When breathing is difficult, a short course of corticosteroids can be used. In severe cases of shortness of breath, the child may need to be hospitalized, given nebulized adrenaline, and sometimes intubated (a tube that is placed into the airway to overcome the obstruction).
  • Inhaled foreign bodies – usually a general anaesthetic, removed by hospital bronchoscopy.
  • Ulcers: rest your voice for at least six weeks and learn to treat your vocal cords to prevent a recurrence.
  • Polyps, nodules, and growths: Lumps and bumps can be removed surgically. Nodules in children are sometimes treated with voice therapy alone, which teaches them to use their voice without unnecessary stress.
  • Cancer: radiation therapy and surgery, including partial or complete removal of the larynx (larynx). To speak after laryngeal surgery, the person can learn to swallow and inhale air through the esophagus or use an electro laryngeal device placed against the throat.

What Is A Giant Cell Tumour Of Bone? | Orthopaedics

Overview of giant cell tumour of bone

A giant cell tumour of bone is a rare non-cancerous tumour. It usually occurs in adults between the ages of 20 and 40 when skeletal bone growth is complete.

It usually grows near a joint at the end of the bone. The location of a giant cell tumour is usually the knee, but it can also affect the bones of the arms and legs. It can also affect flat bones, such as the sternum or pelvis.

Causes of giant cell tumour of bone

While the exact cause of the Giant cell tumour of bone remains unknown. In some cases, they have been linked to Paget disease of bone. This is a chronic bone disorder in which bones become enlarged and misshapen.

In rare cases, the tumours may be associated with overactive parathyroid glands, a condition known as “hyperparathyroidism.”

What are the symptoms of a giant cell tumour?

The following are the most common symptoms of a giant cell tumour of bone. But each person can experience symptoms differently. It can include:

  • A visible lump
  • Bone fracture
  • Accumulation of fluid in the joint closest to the affected bone
  • Limited movement in the nearest joint
  • Swelling
  • Pain in the nearest joint

The symptoms of a giant Giant cell tumour of bone may resemble other health problems. Always speak with your healthcare provider to get a diagnosis.


Giant cell tumour of bone is usually diagnosed by X-ray and verified by histological evaluation with results that generally meet the specific characteristics of giant cell tumours. Below is a list of diagnostic tests that can be used to help identify and distinguish the type of tumour that is present.

  • Tumour biopsy: A sample of the tumour is removed and inspected under a microscope, allowing the doctor to determine how aggressive the tumour is. The cell structure of the tumour is then examined to rule out other malignant tumours that may resemble a giant cell tumour.
  • X-rays: X-rays are diagnostic tests used to produce radiographic image projections of bone tissue and other organ tissue onto film. Giant cell tumours appear as translucent lesions within the bone that are usually found near the joint line. The affected section of bone is surrounded by a thin border of white bone in the region of the tumour is occasionally extended outward. Chest x-rays should be obtained at the time of tumour diagnosis, as well as randomly during follow-up to see if there are metastases in the lung.
  • MRI Imaging – MRIs are diagnostic tests that use powerful magnetic fields to produce detailed images of structures inside the body. This imaging procedure will allow a more in-depth evaluation of the affected bone.
  • CT scan: CT scan is a diagnostic image that uses a combination of computer processing and X-rays to generate cross-sectional images of the body. They can also generate three-dimensional images of the internal structure of the body. CT scans are more detailed than X-rays and can show images of bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are often done on the lungs of patients with giant cell tumours to examine for signs of metastasis to the lung.
  • Bone scan: Bone scans are used to help diagnose whether a tumour is present and whether it has spread to other areas of the body. A bone scan will show a “hot spot” at the location of the bone where the tumour is present.
  • Complete blood count: measures the size, number, and maturity of different blood cells in a precise amount of blood.

Treatment of giant cell tumour of bone

Giant cell tumour of bone treatment should be started as soon as it is diagnosed to avoid further destruction of the surrounding bone. The goals of giant cell tumour treatment are:

  • Tumour removal
  • Prevention of major damage to the bone.

Giant cell tumour of bone treatment may include:

  • Surgical treatment: curettage, bone graft
  • Non-surgical treatment modalities: chemotherapy, radiation therapy or radiation therapy, targeted therapy.
  • The treatment of choice for a giant cell tumour is surgery. However, there may be some cases where the surgery is not effective. Such cases require nonsurgical treatment options.

Surgical treatment

Giant cell tumour surgery or giant cell tumour of bone surgical treatment can be done by the following methods:


For local tumour control, surgical treatment in conjunction with curettage is the optimal treatment. Curettage is the most commonly performed surgical procedure to treat giant cell tumours. In this procedure, the part of the tumour is removed from the bone. Subsequently, a “bone cementation” or bone filling is performed in the discarded area to strengthen the affected bone and destroy the remaining tumour cells.

The substance used for bone cementation is usually “polymethylmethacrylate” or PMMA. Cementation with PMMA in defect filling has shown good results. The exothermic reaction of PMMA produces a local increase in temperature, which damages cancer cells/tissues in and around that site, while not affecting normal cells/tissues. Other materials for this purpose can be phenol, liquid nitrogen.

Bone graft

A bone graft is a part of the bone that is taken from the patient’s own body (autograft), most commonly from the hip in the case of an autograft or from another person/donor (allograft) that is used to fill the socket created after curettage that helps stabilize the affected and operated bone. Or a bone cement mix can also be used for the same purpose in case of small holes/cavities. To reduce the risk of cancer coming back (recurrence), additional chemicals, such as liquid nitrogen, hydrogen peroxide, or phenol, are also placed into the bone cavity to reduce the risk of recurrence.

In cases where the tumour has caused excessive destruction of the bone, more complex surgical removal and reconstruction may be required. This intervention is carried out especially in the treatment of the recurrence of giant cell tumours. The bone tumour specialist may choose to use bone grafts, artificial joints, or both to help rebuild the affected bone, joint, or soft tissue structures. The end goal is the proper rehabilitation of the affected joint/bone/soft tissue to restore its functional form so that the patient can easily perform their daily activities.

Non-surgical treatment modalities:


At present, there are no recognized and particularly effective chemotherapy agents for giant cell tumours of Giant cell tumour of bone available. Some of them are sometimes used in the treatment of the recurrence of giant cell tumours to further reduce the risk of recurrence.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is reserved for cases where a complete excision or curettage cannot be performed due to locational, functional, or medical reasons, for example, spinal and sacrum injuries or aggressive tumours. Radiation therapy, when given after surgery, can help improve tumour control. However, the administration of radiation to these types of tumours may increase the risk that a benign, less aggressive form of a giant cell tumour will transform into a malignant (cancerous) later in the patient’s life. This condition is known as radiation-induced sarcoma.

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy targets a specific malfunctioning molecule/protein, either overexpressed or mutated in this type of cancer, as opposed to healthy cells. Targeted therapy for giant cell bone tumour aims to abolish the giant cells that make up the tumour, thus allowing surgery to have a negligible impact on the appearance and functionality of the affected bone. Most patients need periodic X-rays to help assess the effect of therapy on the tumour and estimate the best time to operate.

It could be concluded that each case is different and the result of treatment after treatment depends on many factors such as:

  • Patient age
  • Size, stage, and location of the tumour.
  • The treatment method

Giant cell tumour of bone tend to reappear, so regular follow-up visits to the specialist doctor, perhaps for several years after treatment, are necessary for monitoring.


What Is Pharynx? | ENT Specialist

Overview of pharynx

The pharynx is a five-inch long tube that begins near our nose and ends in our windpipe. The pharynx is commonly considered a part of the throat in vertebrate and invertebrate animals. In humans, it is a hollow structure (or muscle cavity) covered with a moist tissue. It is typical of all the structures of our digestive and alimentary systems.

The muscular pharynx effectively forms the entrance to the esophagus or trachea, also known as the “alimentary canal” and “windpipe.” For this reason, the pharynx is considered part of our respiratory and digestive systems.

Since it is the upper part of the airway, the pharynx also helps with speech.

The pharynx has three physical divisions:

  • Nasopharynx: the back of the throat, from the line that meets the soft/rough palate. Behind the nasal area.
  • Otopharynx – the lower part of the back throat. The tonsils, soft palate, and uvula form the posterior wall of the oropharynx.
  • Laryngopharynx: the area at the back of the throat that corresponds to the uterus.

Types of pharynx

Despite the development and growth of abnormal cells in all throat cancers, your doctor must identify your specific type to determine the most effective treatment plan.

There are two main types of throat cancer:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma. This type of throat cancer affects the flat cells that line the throat. It is the most common throat cancer in the United States.
  • Adenocarcinoma This type of throat cancer affects the cells of the glands and is very rare.

Pharyngeal cancers that develop in the neck and throat:

  • Nasopharyngeal (upper throat) cancer
  • Cancer of the oropharynx (middle part of the throat)
  • Hypopharyngeal (lower throat) cancer
  • Laryngeal cancer

This cancer forms in the larynx.

Identifying possible signs of throat cancer

Throat cancer is difficult to detect at an early stage. Common signs and symptoms of throat cancer:

  • A change in your tone
  • Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
  • Weight Loss
  • Sore throat
  • You need to constantly clear your throat.
  • A persistent cough (you may cough up blood)
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck.
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Earache
  • Hoarseness

Make an appointment with a doctor if you have any of these symptoms and they do not improve after two to three weeks.

Causes and risk factors of the pharynx

Men are more likely to develop throat cancer than women. Some lifestyle habits increase the risk of throat cancer, including:

  • Smoking
  • Excessive drinking
  • Poor nutrition
  • Exposure to asbestos
  • Dental hygiene
  • Genetic syndromes

Throat cancer is associated with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPV is a sexually transmitted virus. According to cancer treatment centres in the United States, HPV infection is a risk factor for some oropharyngeal cancers.

Throat cancer is associated with other types of cancer. In fact, some people with throat cancer can be diagnosed with esophageal, lung, or bladder cancer at the same time. This may be due to the presence of certain risk factors in these cancers.

Conditions related to the pharynx

Laryngeal conditions range from mild to severe. A sore throat from a virus or cold, allergies, strep throat, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can affect the pharynx and make you feel uncomfortable. Fortunately, there are over-the-counter and over-the-counter treatments that can cure most of these common ailments to heal the pharynx quickly. In many cases, these problems can go away on their own. Other conditions may require treatment, and a sore throat is one of the main symptoms. These include:

  • Tonsillitis
  • Croup
  • Throat cancer
  • Almonds
  • Herpangina
  • Flu
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

If you have a persistent sore throat after a few days to a week, it’s time to make an appointment with a healthcare provider to diagnose this problem. Although it’s okay to try sore throats, never take antibiotics that are not prescribed to treat a sore throat. Antibiotics only treat bacterial infections, and these drugs may do you more harm than good, depending on the cause of your sore throat (such as developing resistance to antibiotics).


Your healthcare provider may need some additional tests to determine the cause of your pharyngeal pain. This is a laryngoscopy that allows your doctor to view the larynx and larynx using a small device, with a telescope inserted into the nose and throat, or directly through the pharynx. If you have a chronic cough or sore throat, voice changes or laryngoscopy may be the next step in determining the cause of these symptoms.

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. If you experience symptoms such as a sore throat, numbness, and a persistent cough, without any improvement and other explanation, they may suspect throat cancer.

To detect throat cancer, your doctor may directly or indirectly perform a laryngoscopy or refer you to a specialist for the procedure.

Laryngoscopy allows your doctor to take a closer look at your throat. If this test reveals abnormalities, your doctor may take a tissue sample (called a biopsy) from your throat and analyze the sample for cancer.

Your doctor may recommend one of the following types of biopsies:

  • Conventional biopsy. For this procedure, your doctor will make an incision and remove a tissue sample. This type of biopsy is done in the operating room under general anaesthesia.
  • Fine needle aspiration (FNA). For this biopsy, your doctor inserts a fine needle directly into the tumour to remove sample cells.
  • Endoscopic biopsy. To remove the tissue sample with an endoscope, your doctor inserts a long, thin tube through your mouth, nose, or incision.

Throat cancer treatment options

Throughout your treatment, you work with a wide variety of specialists. These experts:

  • An oncologist performs surgical procedures such as tumour removal.
  • A radiation oncologist who treats your cancer with radiation therapy.
  • A pathologist who examines tissue samples from your biopsy.

If you have a biopsy or surgery, you will also have an anesthesiologist who will perform the anaesthesia and monitor your condition during the procedure.

Throat cancer treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The treatment regimen recommended by your doctor depends on the extent of your disease.


If the tumour in your throat is small, your doctor may surgically remove it. This surgery is done in a hospital when you are intoxicated. Your doctor may recommend one of the following surgical procedures:

  • Endoscopic surgery. The procedure uses an endoscope (a long, thin tube with a light and camera on the end) through which surgical instruments or lasers can be sent to treat early-stage cancers.
  • Cardiectomy: This procedure removes all or part of your vocal cords.
  • Laryngectomy: This procedure removes all or part of your larynx, depending on the severity of cancer. Some people can speak normally after surgery. Some learn to speak without a larynx.
  • Neck amputation: If throat cancer has spread to the neck, your doctor may remove the lymph nodes.


After the tumour is removed, your doctor may recommend radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. It targets cancer cells left behind by the tumour. Types of radiation therapy:

  • Intensity-modulated radiation therapy and 3D conformal radiation therapy. In both types of treatment, the radiation beams correspond to the shape of the tumour. Radiation is the most common treatment route for cancer of the larynx and hypopharynx.
  • Brachytherapy. The radioactive seeds are placed in or near the tumour. Although this type of radiation is used for cancer of the larynx and hypopharynx, it is very rare.


For large tumours that have spread to the lymph nodes and other organs or tissues, your doctor may recommend radiation along with chemotherapy.

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapies are drugs that stop the spread and growth of cancer cells by interfering with specific molecules that are responsible for tumour growth. One type of targeted therapy used to treat throat cancer is cetuximab (Erbitux).

Other types of targeted therapy are being researched in clinical trials. Your doctor may recommend this therapy along with standard chemotherapy and radiation.

Cure with home remedies

Here are a few home remedies:

  • Gargle salt water: Stir 1/2 tsp of salt into 1 cup of warm water. You can gargle this saltwater solution several times a day. This helps loosen mucus and draws excess fluid out of your inflamed throat tissue.
  • Throat lozenges: over-the-counter throat lozenges and hard candy can help ease the pain.
  • Throat sprays: These can help numb the throat, which helps to stop the pain.
  • Tea with honey: Honey has been shown to relieve throat irritation, and hot water from a mild tea can do the same.
  • Remedies are aimed at keeping the throat moist, as well as symptom relief.

Everything You Need To Know About Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma | Orthopaedics

What is malignant fibrous histiocytoma?

Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma (MFH), a type of sarcoma, is a malignant neoplasm of uncertain origin that arises in both soft tissue and bone. It was first presented in 1961 by Kauffman and Stout. In 1977, HFM was considered the most common soft tissue sarcoma of adult life. Despite the frequency of diagnosis, MFH remains an enigma. A true cell of origin has never been identified. In 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO) declassified MFH as a formal diagnostic entity and renamed it an undistinguishable pleomorphic sarcoma.

What causes it and who is at risk?

These tumours are related to other medical conditions such as Paget’s disease, certain chemotherapy treatments, or previous radiation treatments. But it is not clear what causes them. They can happen at any age but are more common in older adults.

Symptoms of malignant fibrous histiocytoma

You may have:

  • Pain at the tumour site
  • Swelling over a bone or joint
  • A lump that you can feel
  • A bone that disruptions for no clear reason

These symptoms can also be caused by other glitches. Only a doctor can know for sure if they are caused by this type of cancer.

What treatments are available for malignant fibrous histiocytoma?

Your treatment depends on:

  • Where the cancer is
  • How fast it’s growing
  • How big it is
  • If it has spread to other parts of your body
  • Your general health
  • Your age
  • Your weight

Surgery to take out the tumour is the main treatment. Many times, doctors use chemo first to try to shrink the tumour. When you have chemo, you get drugs that kill cancer cells and help keep them from growing and spreading. You would then get surgery to take out the tumour. Your doctors will try to keep as much of your normal bone as possible.

You may get chemo or radiation after surgery. Radiation treatment uses high-powered radiation from X-rays and other sources to kill any cancer cells left in your body.

Palliative care is also important for anyone with a serious illness. It includes taking care of your pain and addressing any emotions you may be dealing with.

Diagnosis of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH)

Your doctor will do a physical exam and ask you about your health history and the changes or problems you’ve noticed.

An X-ray can show these tumours. You may get a CT scan or MRI to show more details and how much of your bone is affected. Your doctor may also use a bone scan or PET scan to see if it has spread.

When this type of cancer spreads, it tends to go to the lungs. So you may also get a chest X-ray or chest CT scan.

The only way to know for sure that it’s cancer is to do a biopsy. A small piece of the tumour is taken out and checked to see if there are cancer cells in it.


What You Need To Know About Laryngitis | ENT Specialist

What is laryngitis?

Laryngitis occurs when your voice box or vocal cords become inflamed from overuse, irritation, or infection. Laryngitis can be acute (short-term), lasting less than three weeks, or it can be chronic (long-term), lasting more than three weeks.

Many conditions can cause inflammation that results in laryngitis. Viral infections, environmental factors, and bacterial infections can all cause laryngitis.

Symptoms of laryngitis

Laryngitis is usually related to another illness, such as cold, flu, or bronchitis. Symptoms in children and adults are often similar. Symptoms of laryngitis include:

  • Sore throat or raw throat
  • A tingling sensation in the throat
  • Slight fever
  • Hoarseness
  • Trouble speaking
  • A dry cough
  • A constant need to clear your throat
  • Inflamed glands

Causes of laryngitis

Several conditions can cause laryngitis. Acute and chronic forms of laryngitis are usually the result of different factors.

Acute laryngitis

The most common cause is viral infection, often similar to those caused by the common cold or flu. Overemployment of the voice can also cause inflammation of the larynx. Examples of overuse include singing loudly or yelling excessively.

In very rare cases, acute laryngitis can be caused by diphtheria, a bacterial infection. Most people in the US have received a diphtheria vaccine.

Chronic laryngitis

It is usually caused by the following:

  • Acid reflux, a condition in which stomach acid and contents back up into the throat
  • Bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection
  • Chronic sinusitis
  • Excessive cough
  • Exposure to inhaled irritants, such as allergens or toxic fumes
  • High alcohol consumption
  • Habitual misuse or excessive use of the voice
  • Smoking, including secondhand smoke
  • Use of inhaled steroids, such as asthma inhalers

Diagnosis of laryngitis

The most common sign is hoarseness. Changes in your voice can vary with the degree of infection or irritation, ranging from mild hoarseness to almost total loss of your voice. If you have chronic hoarseness, your doctor may review your medical history and symptoms. He or she may want to listen to your voice and examine your vocal cords, and he or she may refer you to an ear, nose and throat specialist.

Expected duration

For laryngitis to be truthfully chronic, hoarseness must last for at least two weeks. Once chronic laryngitis develops, it is often a long-term problem in people who continue to smoke, drink a lot of alcohol, work with irritating powders or chemicals, or abuse their voices by yelling or talking constantly. It is caused by GERD will previous as long as acid.


Treatment depends on the source of the problem, but mainly involves resting the larynx, not abusing the voice while there is hoarseness. Drinking warm fluids and using medicated throat lozenges can help soothe the throat.

Home remedies like adding ginger or turmeric to hot drinks can help fight off the causative infections. Simple pain relievers (ibuprofen or acetaminophen) can help with the pain. If the condition is caused by bacteria, treatment may include antibiotics.

Risk factors

Risk factors for laryngitis include:

  • Having a breathing infection, such as a cold, bronchitis, or sinusitis.
  • Contact to irritants, such as cigarette smoke, excessive alcohol intake, stomach acid, or chemicals in the workplace.
  • Excessive use of the voice, talking too much, speaking too loud, yelling or singing


In approximate cases of laryngitis caused by an infection, the infection can spread to other parts of the respiratory tract.


To prevent dryness or irritation of your vocal cords:

  • Avoid smoking and stay away from secondhand smoke. The smoke dries out your throat. It can also make your vocal cords irritate.
  • Limit alcohol and caffeine. They cause you to lose total body water.
  • Drink plenty of water. Liquids help keep mucus in your throat thin and easy to clean.
  • Keep spicy foods out of your diet. Spicy foods can push stomach acid into the throat or esophagus. This can lead to heartburn or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
  • Include a variety of healthy foods in your diet. Eat fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. These have various vitamins, such as vitamins A, E, and C, which are important for overall health. These foods can also help keep the mucous membranes in your throat healthy.
  • Avoid clearing your throat. This does more harm than good because it causes abnormal vibration of the vocal cords and can increase swelling.
  • Avoid upper respiratory infections. Wash your hands frequently and avoid contact with people who have upper respiratory infections, such as colds.

Food and nutrition

Food to take

  • Fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C.
  • Protein foods like chicken and fish give the body the building blocks to fight infection in the form of protein and zinc.
  • The acidic nature of lemon juice can kill bacteria and alleviate various symptoms of laryngitis.
  • The antimicrobial property of garlic can help kill bacteria and viruses.
  • Honey can be very beneficial in soothing a sore throat due to its astringent property. It will also reduce inflammation.

Foods to avoid

Avoid spicy, oily, and acidic foods such as tomatoes, onions, garlic, onions, peppers, and fried fish. Alcoholic and caffeinated beverages.

Yoga and exercise


Yoga techniques that help relieve laryngitis symptoms include:

  • Breathing Pranayama
  • Rabbit pose