What Is Brachial Plexus Injury? | Orthopaedics

Overview of brachial plexus injury

A brachial plexus injury is a collection of nerves that arise from the spinal cord in the neck and travel from the arm. These nerves control muscles in the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and arm, as well as feeling in the hand. Some brachial plexus injuries are small and fully heal in several weeks. Other injuries are serious enough and can cause permanent deformity of the hand.

The brachial plexus can be injured in many ways: under pressure, strain, or over long distances. Cancer or radiation treatment can cut or damage nerves. Sometimes brachial plexus injuries occur in babies during delivery.


  • Avulsion: The origin of the nerve is completely separated from the spinal cord (the most serious type).
  • Rupture: The nerve is torn, but not at the spinal insertion.
  • Neuroma: Scar tissue around the injured area increases, putting pressure on the injured nerve and preventing the nerve from sending signals to the muscle.
  • Neurapraxia: The nerve was stretched and damaged, but not torn.
  • Brachial plexitis: It is a rare syndrome and no cause can be identified. This is also known as Parsonage-Turner syndrome.

brachial plexus injury risk factors

Factors that may increase your risk include:

  • Shoulder dystocia (the baby’s shoulder holding restricted on the mother’s pelvis)
  • Maternal diabetes
  • Large gestational size
  • Difficult delivery needing external assistance
  • Prolonged labour
  • Breech presentation at birth
  • Above half of brachial plexus injuries have no identified risk factors

Brachial plexus injury causes

Damage to the upper nerves that make up the brachial plexus tends to occur when your shoulder is forced down while your neck stretches up and away from the injured shoulder. The lower nerves are more likely to be injured when your arm is forced above your head.

Brachial plexus injury is mild and can occur:

  • Contact sports. Many football players experience burners or stingers, which can occur when the nerves in the brachial plexus get stretched beyond their limit during collisions with other players.
  • Difficult births. Newborns can sustain brachial plexus injuries. These may be associated with high birth weight, breech presentation or prolonged labor. If an infant’s shoulders get wedged within the birth canal, there is an increased risk of brachial plexus palsy. Most often, the upper nerves are injured, a condition called Erb’s palsy.

What are the symptoms of brachial plexus injury?

Depending on the severity and location of the injury, the symptoms of brachial plexus injury vary from person to person. Usually, only one arm is affected.

Minor brachial plexus injury symptoms

People often undergo minor brachial plexus injuries while performing contact sports – soccer, hockey, or wrestling.

Any of these symptoms can be difficult:

  • Loss of sensation
  • Muscle weakness
  • Numbness or tingling
  • Redness, warmth, or swelling
  • Reduction in limb flexibility
  • Shoulder, arm, hand, or finger pain
  • Soreness
  • Tingling or different unusual feelings in the shoulder, arm, or hand

Symptoms from moderate to severe injuries

A more severe brachial plexus injury can lead to significant weakness and, in more severe cases, complete paralysis of one or more muscles in the hand. If all the nerves in the brachial plexus are severely damaged, the entire arm from the shoulder to the fingers can also be paralyzed. These more serious injuries can include severe pain or even a full sensation from the injury.


A brachial plexus injury is diagnosed with a complete history and physical examination. It is necessary to see a doctor who practices in examining, diagnosing, and treating a brachial plexus injury within the first few weeks of an accident or incident.

After an exam, your doctor may order tests to discover the location and severity of your injury.

The brachial plexus may have one or more of the following tests to help determine the severity of the injury:

  • Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scans
  • Myelography
  • Angiogram


Treatment depends on several factors including the severity of the injury, the type of injury, the length of time since the injury and other existing conditions.

Nerves that have only been stretched may recover without further treatment.

Your doctor may recommend physical therapy to keep your joints and muscles working properly, maintain range of motion, and prevent stiff joints.

Surgery to repair brachial plexus nerves should generally occur within six months after the injury. Surgeries that occur later than those who have lower success rates.

Nerve tissue grows slowly, so it can take several years to know the full benefit of surgery. During the recovery period, you must keep your joints flexible with a program of exercises. Splints may be used to keep your hand from curling inward.


For acute brachial plexus injuries, immediate surgical treatment is required to regain function. Without it, you may have a permanent disability and will not be able to use your arm.

If you have a brachial plexus injury due to a lack of sensation, you should be especially careful when handling hot objects, razors, knives, or other objects that may damage it. Brachial plexus injury stops you from undergoing any other injury to the affected area, so you may not notice that you are suffering.


It depends on the severity of the nerve damage. For most babies, weakness is mild and heals within three to six months after birth. In these cases, the child should not experience any symptoms after the nerves have healed. For more serious injuries, including those in which the nerves are torn, more treatment is needed, including surgery to repair the damaged nerves.

When to contact the doctor

Brachial plexus injuries can cause constant instability or disability. Even if yours seems small, you may need medical attention. Consult your doctor if you have:

  • Recurrent burners and stingers
  • Weakness in your hand or arm
  • Neck pain
  • Symptoms in both arms

Swimmer’s Ear (Otitis Externa) | Things You Need to Know | ENT

What is a swimmer’s ear?

Swimmer’s ear is an infection in the outer ear canal, which runs from your eardrum to the outside of your head. It’s often brought on by water that remains in your ear after swimming, creating a moist environment that aids bacterial growth. Putting fingers, cotton swabs or other objects in your ears also can lead to a swimmer’s ear by damaging the thin layer of skin lining your ear canal.

Swimmer’s ear is also known as otitis externa. The most common cause of this infection is bacteria invading the skin inside your ear canal. Usually, you can treat a swimmer’s ear with ear drops. Prompt treatment can help prevent complications and more-serious infections. No matter how you got your swimmer’s ear, once you learn to recognize the signs, you have plenty of options to treat it.

Swimmer’s ear, which has the medical name of otitis externa, is an infection in your ear canal. That’s the tube that runs from the hole on the outside of your ear to your eardrum. Swimmer’s ear is different from the common ear infection that your young child often gets after a cold. Those are middle ear infections, or “otitis media” in doctor-speak, and they happen deeper in the ear, behind the eardrum.

Usually, a swimmer’s ear is caused by bacteria, but it can sometimes be brought on by a virus or fungus. Symptoms you may get are:

  • Itchiness in the ear
  • Pain, which can become severe
  • Trouble hearing (sound may seem muffled as your ear canal swells)
  • Fluid or pus draining out of the ear

Here’s one way to tell which type of ear infection you have. If it hurts when you tug or press your ear, you may have a swimmer’s ear. 

Why do people have a swimmer’s ear?

Most of the time, your ear will fight the germs that cause otitis externa. You can thank your earwax for that. While not a groundbreaking contribution to the genre, Earwax impresses with his tough, straightforward style.

But if you scratch your skin, germs can enter the ear canal and cause an infection. Some common reasons why you have a swimmer’s ear:

  • Sticking objects to the ear: If you use a cotton swab, fingers, hairpins, pen caps, or anything else to clean your ears, you can rub a protective wax or scratch your skin. Hearing aids, earplugs, and earphones can also cause this effect, especially if you wear them a lot.
  • Moisture is trapped in your ear: When water gets trapped in the ear canal after swimming, or even after soaking in a hot tub or after bathing or showering, it removes some wax and softens the skin, making it easier for germs to get in.
  • Wet weather and sweat cause the same problem: Germs are like a warm, humid place to grow, so the moisture trapped in your ear is perfect for them.

Other things play a role in the swimmer’s ear,

  • Your age: Swimmer’s ear can happen to anyone and is most common in children and teens.
  • Narrow ear canals: Children often have small ear canals.
  • Skin reactions and conditions: Sometimes hair products, cosmetics, and jewellery can irritate the skin and increase your chances of having a swimmer’s ear. It can also cause skin problems like eczema and psoriasis.

Symptoms of swimmer’s ear

The ear infection is external

Swimming ear symptoms are usually mild at first but can worsen if the infection is not treated or does not spread. Doctors typically classify the swimmer’s ear into mild, moderate, and advanced stages of progress.

Mild signs and symptoms

  • Itching in the ear canal
  • A little red inside your ear
  • Mild discomfort when pulling the outer ear (pinna or atrium) up or pushing a small “bulge” in front of the ear (tragus)
  • Some clear, odorless liquid drainage

Moderate progress

  • More severe itching
  • Increased pain
  • More extensive redness in your ear
  • Excess fluid drainage
  • Fullness inside your ear and partial obstruction of your ear canal from swelling, fluid, and debris
  • Hearing is reduced or muffled

Advanced progress

  • Severe pain that radiates to your face, neck, or head.
  • Complete obstruction of your ear canal
  • Redness or swelling of your outer ear
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck.
  • Fever

Causes of swimmer’s ear

A swimming ear is usually a bacterial infection. The swimmer is less likely to have a fungus or virus in the ear.

The natural protection of your hearing

The external auditory canals have a natural defence that helps keep them clean and prevent infection.

Protective functions:

  • Glands that secrete wax (serum): These secretions form a thin film that repels water on the skin inside your ear. The serum is also slightly acidic, which further discourages bacterial growth.

The serum also collects dirt, dead skin cells, and other debris and helps pull these cells out of the ear, leaving earwax that knows when the ear canal starts.

  • The cartilage that partially covers the ear canal. This helps prevent foreign bodies from entering the drain.

How the infection occurs

If you have a swimmer’s ear, your natural defences are down. Conditions that weaken your hearing protection and promote bacterial growth:

  • Excess moisture in your ear: Water in your ear after sweating a lot, prolonged humid weather, or swimming creates a favourable environment for bacteria.
  • Scratches or abrasions in the ear canal: Cleaning the ear with a cotton swab or hairpin, scratching the finger inside the ear, or wearing headphones or earphones can cause small breaks in the skin that allow bacteria to grow.
  • Sensitivity reactions: Hair products or jewellery can cause allergies and skin conditions that promote infection.

How to diagnose and treat a swimmer’s ear

If you have an earache, don’t wait; consult your doctor immediately. Getting treatment quickly can prevent the infection from getting worse. During your appointment, your doctor will examine your ear and gently clean it. This will help the treatments work better.

Then you can probably use antibiotics, steroids, or other substances to help the earrings fight infection and inflammation. In some cases, you may even need to take antibiotics.

Ear problems when swimming

Most of the time, the swimmer’s ear feels better within 2 days of starting treatment. But sometimes, it gets worse or leads to other problems,

Chronic swimming ear (chronic otitis externa). Swimmer’s ear does not go away in 3 months. This can happen if you have difficult skin conditions like bacteria, fungi, allergies, or psoriasis, or eczema. Your doctor will need to test a sample of any fluid in your ear.

Other infections Sometimes the bacteria can spread deep into your skin or other parts of your body. A rare condition is malignant otitis externa, which occurs when the infection develops into bone and cartilage in the head. It is a medical emergency and is more common in older people with diabetes and people with HIV or other immune system problems.

Treatment for these infections can be with oral or injectable (IV) antibiotics.

Treatments for external ear infection

Ear infections can clear up on their own without treatment. Antibiotic earrings are the most common treatment for an outer ear infection, which does not clear up on its own. Your doctor can prescribe them. Doctors may also prescribe antibiotic drops mixed with steroids to reduce inflammation in the ear canal. Ear drops are generally used 7-10 days a day.

If a fungus is the cause of the outer ear infection, your doctor may prescribe antifungal ear drops. This type of infection is more common in people with diabetes or a weakened immune system. To reduce symptoms, it is important to keep water out of the ears while treating the infection.

Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, can be used to reduce pain. In severe cases, prescription pain relievers may be prescribed.

Home remedies for external ear infection

Prevention is an important part of home treatment for external ear infections. Keeping the ear as dry as possible reduces the risk of infection.

Other tips to keep in mind:

  • Use a cotton ball or soft earplugs to prevent water from entering the ear while bathing or showering
  • Wear a shower cap
  • Avoid scratching the inner ear even with a cotton swab
  • Avoid removing ear wax on your own
  • Use a mixture of alcohol airdrops and/or vinegar massage after swimming to drain excess water (mix 50 per cent alcohol massage, 25 per cent white vinegar, and 25 per cent distilled water)
  • The head and ears are dry after swimming.
  • Buy soft earplugs online.
  • Buy swim caps online.

Complications of swimmer’s ear

A swimmer’s ear is usually not serious if it is treated right away, but problems can arise.

  • Temporary hearing loss: You may generally have better hearing after the infection clears.
  • Chronic infection (chronic external otitis): An outer ear infection is generally considered chronic if the signs and symptoms persist for more than three months. If there are conditions that make treatment difficult, such as a chronic bacterial allergic skin reaction, an allergic reaction to an antibiotic pendant, a skin condition such as dermatitis or psoriasis, or a combination of bacteria, it is a fungal infection.
  • Deep tissue infection (cellulitis): In rare cases, the swimmer’s ear extends into the deeper layers and connective tissues of the skin.
  • Bone and cartilage damage (early osteomyelitis of the skull base): It is a rare swimmer’s ear problem, as the infection spreads to the cartilage of the outer ear and bones in the lower part of the skull, causing severe pain. The elderly, people with diabetes, or people with weakened immune systems are at higher risk for this problem.
  • More widespread infection: If a swimmer’s ear develops into advanced cranial base osteomyelitis, the infection can spread and affect other parts of your body, such as your brain or nearby nerves. This rare problem is fatal.

Prevention of swimmer’s ear

Follow these tips to avoid a swimmer’s ear:

  • Keep your ears dry. Dry your ears well after swimming or showering. Dry only the outer ear, wipe it gently and delicately with a soft towel or cloth.
  • Tilt your head to allow the water to flow through the ear canal. You can keep the ear in a minimal setting with a hairdryer and dry it at least one foot (about 0.3 meters) from the ear.
  • Preventive treatment at home. If you know you don’t have a pierced ear, you can wear homemade earrings before and after swimming. Rubbing 1 part alcohol to 1 part white vinegar promotes drying and can prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi that can cause a swimmer’s ear.
  • Pour 1 teaspoon (about 5 millilitres) of the solution into each ear and let it drain again. Similar over-the-counter solutions can be found at your pharmacy.
  • Swim smartly. Look for signs that warn swimmers of a high bacteria count, and don’t swim on those days.
  • Avoid putting foreign objects in your ear. Never attempt to scratch or scratch the wax with objects such as a cotton swab, paper clip, or hairpin. The use of these elements can cause the materials to penetrate deep into the ear canal, irritating the thin skin inside the ear or breaking the skin.
  • Protect your ears from irritation. Keep cotton balls in your ears when applying products like hairspray and hair dye.
  • Be careful after an ear infection or surgery. If you have a recent ear infection or ear surgery, talk to your doctor before swimming.

Symptoms and Causes of Avascular Necrosis | Orthopaedics


What is avascular necrosis?

Avascular necrosis (AVN) is the death of bone tissue due to loss of blood supply. You may also hear it called osteonecrosis, aseptic necrosis, or ischemic bone necrosis. If left untreated, AVN can cause the bone to collapse. Avascular necrosis most often affects your hip. Other common sites are the shoulders, knees, and ankles.

Symptoms of avascular necrosis

The hip bone is the joint most commonly affected with avascular necrosis. AVN also commonly affects the knee. Less commonly, AVN affects the bones in these areas:

  • Shoulder
  • Ankle
  • Hands
  • Feet

In its early phases, AVN may not cause symptoms. As blood cells die and the disease progresses, symptoms may appear roughly in this order:

  • Mild or severe pain in or about the affected joint
  • Pain in the groin that extends to the knee
  • Pain that occurs when weight is placed on the hip or knee
  • Joint pain severe enough to limit movement

The pain can dramatically increase in intensity due to small breaks in the bone, called microfractures. These can cause the bone to collapse. Ultimately, the joint can break and develop arthritis. The time between the first symptoms and the inability to move a joint varies.

In general, it varies from a few months to more than a year. Symptoms can appear bilaterally, that is, on both sides of the body. If avascular necrosis grows in the jaw, symptoms comprise exposed bone in the jaw bone with pain or pus, or both.

Causes of avascular necrosis

Although the precise mechanism for the development of avascular necrosis is unknown, it is suspected that interruption of the blood supply to the affected bone plays a role. This can occur when a traumatic impact injures the blood vessels of the bone or when diseases produce areas of abnormal circulation.

There are many causes of avascular necrosis, but the vast majority of avascular necrosis is caused by traumatic injury to the affected bone (such as fracture and dislocation), the use of steroid medications (glucocorticoid medications such as prednisone and prednisolone, particularly when administered in high doses). dose), or excessive alcohol consumption.

Other risk factors for developing avascular necrosis include cigarette smoking, pregnancy, radiation and chemotherapy treatments, diseases of the bone marrow and blood (including sickle cell disease, leukemia, Gaucher disease, thalassemia), and diver’s disease. underwater (from the bone effects of Caisson’s disease, too). known as dysbarism or “the curves”). Avascular necrosis occurs more frequently in patients with certain underlying diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus, vasculitis, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Currently, some researchers suspect that intravenous bisphosphonate medications, including zoledronate (Zometa) and pamidronate (Aredia), are used to reduce elevated calcium levels in cancer patients and to treat osteoporosis, which may grow the risk of avascular necrosis of the chin and bone. Ironically, some use bisphosphonates to treat bone pain and decrease disability in patients with avascular necrosis.

Risk factors of avascular necrosis

Risk factors include:

  • Injury
  • Use of steroids
  • Gaucher disease
  • Caisson disease
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Blood disorders, such as sickle cell anemia
  • Radiation treatments
  • Chemotherapy
  • Pancreatitis
  • Decompression sickness
  • Hypercoagulable state
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Autoimmune disease
  • HIV

Diagnosis of avascular necrosis

  • An X-ray is usually the first test done when AVN is suspected. It can help distinguish AVN from other causes of bone pain, such as a fracture. Once the diagnosis is made, and in the latter stages of AVN, X-rays are helpful in monitoring the course of the condition.
  • MRI is sometimes used to diagnose AVN because it can detect AVN in the early stages when symptoms are not yet present.
  • Bone scans can also be used to diagnose AVN. They are helpful because a scan can show all areas of the body affected by AVN. However, bone scans do not detect AVN in the early stages.
  • A CT scan provides a three-dimensional image of the bone and can be helpful in determining the extent of bone damage.
  • Surgical procedures, such as a bone biopsy, can conclusively diagnose VAP but are not often performed.

Treatment for avascular necrosis

Treatment will be contingent on your symptoms, age, and overall health. It will also be contingent on the severity of the condition. The goal of treatment is to improve your ability to use the joint and stop further damage to the bone or joint. Treatments are needed to prevent the joints from breaking. They may include:

  • Medicines: They are used to control pain.
  • Assistive devices: They are used to reduce weight on the bone or joint.
  • Core decompression: For this surgery, the inner layer of bone is removed to reduce pressure, increase blood flow, and slow or stop the destruction of bones and joints.
  • Osteotomy: This procedure reshapes the bone and reduces stress on the affected area.
  • Bone injury: In this procedure, healthy bone is transplanted from another part of the body to the affected area.
  • Joint replacement: This surgery removes and substitutes an arthritic or injured joint with an artificial joint. This can be considered only after other treatments have failed to alleviate pain or disability.

Other treatments may comprise electrical inspiration and combination therapies to promote bone growth.

Complications of avascular necrosis

Untreated avascular necrosis worsens over time. Eventually, the bone can collapse. Avascular necrosis also causes the bone to lose its smooth shape, which could lead to severe arthritis.

Prevention of avascular necrosis

To reduce your risk of avascular necrosis and improve your overall health:

  • Restrict alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the main risk factors for developing avascular necrosis.
  • Keep cholesterol levels low: Small pieces of fat are the most common substance that blocks the blood supply to the bones.
  • Monitor steroid use: Be sure to tell your doctor about your past or present use of high-dose steroids. Steroid-related bone damage seems to worsen with repeated cycles of high-dose steroids.
  • Do not smoke: Smoking increases your risk.

Tinnitus (Ringing in the Ears) | What to do about it? | ENT

What is tinnitus?

Tinnitus is a medical term for ringing or ringing in the ears. Many people call tinnitus “ringing in the ears.” However, you can hear more than a ringtone. If you have this disease, you may also hear:

  • Roar
  • Noise
  • Whistles

Even if you hear sounds in your ears, there is no external sound source. This means that there is nothing near your head that causes the sounds you hear. For this reason, the sounds of tinnitus are sometimes called phantom sounds.

Tinnitus is frustrating. Sometimes the sounds you hear interfere with hearing the real sounds around you. Tinnitus occurs with depression, anxiety, and stress. You may experience tinnitus in one or both ears. People of all ages can develop tinnitus, but it is more common in adults.

Tinnitus can be objective or subjective. Objective tinnitus means that you and other people can hear certain sounds in your ears. This is usually due to abnormal blood vessels in and around your ears. When your heart beats, you and others may hear a different pulsing sound.

Objective tinnitus is very rare. Subjective tinnitus is very common. Only you can hear the roars, chimes, and other sounds of subjective tinnitus. 

Symptoms of tinnitus

Tinnitus involves the sensation of hearing a noise when there is no external noise. Symptoms of tinnitus can include these types of phantom sounds in your ears:

  • Sonar
  • noise
  • Roar
  • Clicking
  • Whistle
  • Buzzer

Phantom noise can range in pitch from a low roar to a high burst and you can hear it in one or both ears. In some cases, the sound may be so loud that it interferes with your ability to concentrate or hear outside sounds. It can be present at all times or it can come and go.

There are two types of tinnitus.

  • Subjective tinnitus: This means that you can only hear. This is the most common type of tinnitus. It can be caused by an ear problem in the outer, middle, or inner ear. It can also be caused by the auditory (auditory) nerves or by parts of my brain that interpret nerve signals as sound (auditory pathways).
  • Target tinnitus: Tinnitus is something your doctor can hear when testing. This rare type of this disease can be caused by a vascular problem, a condition of the middle ear bone, or a muscle contraction.

What causes tinnitus?

Prolonged exposure to loud noise is the most common cause of tinnitus. Up to 90% of people with this disease have some degree of noise-induced hearing loss. Noise causes permanent damage to the sound-sensitive cells of the spiral-shaped cochlea in the inner ear. Carpenters, pilots, rock musicians, street repair workers, and landscapers were among those who worked, worked with chainsaws, guns, or other large equipment, or repeatedly listened to loud music. Sudden exposure to loud noises can also cause tinnitus.

Many other conditions and diseases can lead to this disease, including:

  • Wax, ear infection or, more rarely, ear blockage is a benign tumor of the nerve that allows us to hear (auditory nerve)
  • Some medications, especially aspirin, include a variety of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, loop diuretics, and antidepressants, as well as quinine medications; It has been reported to be a side effect of approximately 200 prescription and non-prescription medications.
  • The natural aging process causes atrophy of the cochlea or other parts of the ear.
  • Meniere’s disease affects the inner part of the ear.
  • Otosclerosis, a disease that causes the small bones of the middle ear to harden.
  • Other medical conditions such as high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, circulatory problems, anemia, allergies, thyroid gland dysfunction, autoimmune diseases, and diabetes.
  • Neck or jaw problems, such as temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ)
  • Head and neck injuries
  • Some people develop this disease from things like drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, drinking caffeinated beverages, or eating certain foods. Stress and fatigue can make this disease worse for reasons that are completely unknown to researchers.

Risk factors for tinnitus

Anyone can experience this disease, but these factors increase your risk:

  • Exposure to loud noises: Long-term exposure to loud noises can damage the tiny sensory hair cells in your ear, which transmit sound to your brain. People who work in noisy environments – factory and construction workers, musicians, and soldiers – are at particular risk.
  • Years: As you age, the number of nerve fibres working in your ears decreases, possibly causing hearing problems associated with this disease.
  • Gender: Men are more likely to experience this disease
  • Of smoking: Smokers are at risk for this disease
  • Cardiovascular problems: Conditions that affect your blood flow, such as high blood pressure or narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis), increase your risk of this disease.

Tinnitus diagnosis

Anyone experiencing this should visit a doctor for tests and evaluations to determine the root cause. A medical evaluation can rule out rare but fatal causes of this disease. Referral to an otolaryngologist or an ear, nose, and throat specialist may be necessary.

The doctor’s questions include:

  • How or when did it start?
  • Are the sounds consistent, intermittent, or pulsating?
  • Do you have hearing loss or dizziness?
  • Is there any pain or clicking in the jaw?
  • Have you had a recent illness or injury?
  • Has there been any exposure to loud noises like rock concerts or explosives?

Exams may include:

  • A comprehensive examination of the ear, head, neck, and torso
  • Hearing tests
  • Laboratory blood tests
  • Imaging studies

Tinnitus treatment

Treatment for the underlying health condition

To treat this disease, your doctor will first try to identify any underlying treatable conditions associated with your symptoms. If this is due to a health problem, your doctor can take steps to reduce the noise. Examples:

  • Wax removal: Removing the affected ear wax will reduce the symptoms of this disease.
  • Treatment for vascular conditions: Underlying vascular conditions require medication, surgery, or other treatment to fix the problem.
  • Change your medications: If your medicine seems to cause this disease, your doctor may recommend stopping or reducing the stopping of medicine or switching to another medicine.

Noise suppression

In some cases, white noise helps suppress sound, making it less annoying. Your doctor may suggest the use of an electronic device to suppress the noise. Devices include:

  • White noise machines: These devices, which produce simulated ambient sounds like rain or ocean waves, are often an effective treatment for this disease. You can try a white noise machine with pillow-like speakers to help you sleep. Bedroom fans, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, and air conditioners can also help cover indoor noise at night.
  • Headphones: These are especially helpful if you have hearing problems in addition to this disease.
  • Masking equipment: Used in the ear and similar to hearing aids, these devices produce a continuous low-level white noise that suppresses the symptoms of this disease.
  • Tinnitus retraining: The portable device provides individually programmed tonal music to mask the specific tinnitus frequencies you experience. Over time, this technique will get you used to this disease, thus helping you avoid concentrating on it. Counselling is often part of tinnitus retraining.


Ugs medications do not cure this disease, but in some cases, they can help reduce the severity of symptoms or problems. Possible medications include:

  • Tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline and nortriptyline, have been used with some success. However, these medications are generally only used for severe tinnitus because they can cause troublesome side effects, such as dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and heart problems.
  • Alprazolam (Ganax) helps reduce these symptoms, but side effects include drowsiness and nausea. It also becomes a habit.

Complications of tinnitus

It can significantly affect the quality of life. Although it affects people differently, if you have this disease, you may also experience:

  • Fatigue
  • Stress
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Concentration problems
  • Memory problems
  • Depression
  • Anxiety and irritability

Treating these connecting conditions may not directly affect this, but it may make you feel better.

Prevention of tinnitus

In many cases, it is an inevitable result. However, some precautions can help prevent certain types of disease.

  • Wear hearing protection: Over time, exposure to loud noise can damage the nerves in the ears and lead to hearing loss and tinnitus. If you use chainsaws, musicians, work in an industry that uses noisy machines or uses guns (especially pistols or shotguns), always wears ear protection.
  • Use Low volume: Prolonged exposure to unprotected music or listening to large amounts of music through headphones can cause hearing loss and tinnitus.
  • Take care of the health of your heart: Exercising regularly, eating a proper diet, and taking other steps to keep your blood vessels healthy can help prevent this disease associated with vascular disorders.

Snoring Remedies | How to Stop Snoring | ENT

What is snoring?

Snoring is noisy breathing during sleep. It is a common condition that affects anyone, although it is more common in men and people who are overweight. Snoring gets worse with age.

Snoring once is usually not a serious problem. This is especially frustrating for your bed partner. But if you have chronic snoring, it will not only disrupt the sleep patterns of those close to you, it will damage your own quality of sleep.

It is a symptom of a health problem such as obstructive sleep apnea. If you snore frequently or too loudly, you (and your loved ones) may sleep better, so you may need medical help.

When we are asleep, the turbulent airflow causes the tissues of the palate (roof of the mouth) and throat to vibrate and cause snoring. In particular, it is a noise caused by a turbulent airflow that causes tissues to vibrate during sleep.

  • It is caused by vibrating tissues in the airways of the nose and throat.
  • The vibrations that cause snoring are caused by turbulent airflow through narrow airways.
  • It is affected by sleep, sleeping position, and drug and alcohol use.
  • It can be a problem for family members and sleeping partners.
  • It can also be a sign of an underlying medical problem.
  • Treatments for snoring are surgical and non-surgical.

Why do people snore?

To breathe at rest, the ideal is to breathe through the nose. The mouthpiece acts as a humidifier, heater, and filter for the incoming air. When you breathe through your mouth, these changes take place a little bit in the air that goes into your lungs. Our lungs can still use cold, dry, dirty air; But you may have noticed that breathing in very cold, dry, or dirty air can be uncomfortable. Therefore, our bodies naturally want to breathe through the nose if possible.

The nose has two parallel tubes, one on each side, called the nasal cavities. They are separated by a thin wall (septum), which is a relatively flat wall of cartilage, bone, and lining tissue (called the nasal mucosa). On the lateral side of each duct (near the cheek wall of the nose), there are three nasal turbines, which are elongated cylindrical structures that run parallel to the floor of the nose. Turbines contain many small blood vessels that work to control airflow. As the blood vessels of the turbinate increase in size, the total bulging of the turbinate and the airflow decrease. If the vessels are narrow, the turbines become smaller, and the airflow increases.

Almost everyone has a natural nasal cycle, generally shifting to the side that breathes the most every 2 to 6 hours. For example, if the right nostrils are inflamed, too much air will flow into the left nostril. After about 6 hours, the right nasal turbinate becomes smaller, and the left nasal turbinate swells, converting more breath into the right nasal passage. You may notice this cycle when you have a cold or if you have a chronic (chronic) swollen nose. The turbinates can also cause swelling from allergic reactions or external stimuli such as cold air or dust.

Symptoms of snoring

Snoring is often associated with a sleep disorder called obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Not all snoring has OSA, but if snoring has any of the following symptoms, it may be advisable to see a doctor for further OSA evaluation:

  • Witnesses breathing stops while they sleep
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness
  • Difficult to focus
  • Morning headache
  • Sore throat upon waking
  • Sleep without rest
  • Gasping or choking at night
  • Hypertension
  • Chest pain at night
  • Your snoring is so loud that it can interfere with your partner’s sleep
  • In children, little attention, behaviour problems or poor school performance

OSA is often characterized by loud snoring, followed by silence when breathing stops or almost stops. Eventually, this shortening or pause in breathing may signal you to wake up and you may wake up with loud snoring or swelling.

You can easily fall asleep due to sleep disturbances. These respiratory breaks are repeated several times during the night. People with obstructive sleep apnea often experience periods when their breathing slows or stops at least five times every hour during sleep.

Causes of snoring

An illustration showing how narrow airways contribute to snoring. Snoring is caused by a number of factors, including the anatomy of your mouth and sinuses, alcoholism, allergies, colds, and weight.

When you fall asleep and go from light sleep to deep sleep, the muscles of the roof of the mouth (soft palate), tongue and throat relax. The throat tissue can partially block the airways and vibrantly relax.

The narrower your airway, the more powerful the airflow becomes. This increases the vibration of the tissues, which makes your snoring louder.

The following conditions affect the airways and cause snoring:

  • The anatomy of your mouth: Having a short, thick soft palate can narrow the airway. Overweight people may have extra tissue in the back of the throat that can narrow the airway. Similarly, if the triangular part of the tissue that hangs from the soft palate (uvula) is elongated, the airflow can become obstructed and the vibration can increase.
  • Alcohol: Snoring can also be caused by drinking more alcohol before going to bed. Alcohol relaxes your throat muscles and reduces your natural defences against airway obstruction.
  • Nasal problems: Chronic nasal congestion or crooked parting between the nostrils (crooked nasal septum) can contribute to your snoring.
  • Sleep deprivation: Not getting enough sleep can lead to a more sore throat.
  • Sleeping position: Snoring is very frequent and loud when sleeping on your back because of the effect of gravity on the throat narrows the airways.

Risk factors for snoring

Risk factors that contribute to snoring:

  • Human being: Men are more likely than women to have snoring or sleep apnea.
  • Being overweight: People who are overweight or obese have snoring or obstructive sleep apnea.
  • You have a narrow airway: Some may have a long soft palate or large tonsils or adenoids that narrow the airway and cause snoring.
  • Drinking alcohol: Alcohol relaxes the throat muscles and increases the risk of snoring.
  • Nasal problems: If you have a structural defect, such as a deviated septum in the airway, or if your nose is chronically congested, you are at increased risk of snoring.
  • You have a family history of snoring or obstructive sleep apnea. Heredity is a risk factor for OSA.

Snoring diagnosis

To diagnose your condition, your doctor will review your signs and symptoms and your medical history. Your doctor will also do a physical exam.

Your doctor may ask your partner some questions about when and how she snores to assess the severity of the problem. If your child is snoring, ask yourself about the severity of your child’s snoring.


Your doctor may order an imaging test, such as an X-ray, CT scan, or MRI. These tests check the structure of your airways for problems such as an altered septum.

Sleep study

Depending on the severity of your snoring and other symptoms, your doctor may order a sleep study. Sometimes sleep studies can be done at home.

However, depending on your other medical problems and other sleep symptoms, you may need to stay in the sleep centre overnight for an in-depth analysis of your breathing during sleep through a study called polysomnography.

In polysomnography, is connected to many sensors and can be observed at night. During a sleep study, the following information is recorded:

  • Brain waves
  • Blood oxygen level
  • Heart rate
  • Respiratory rhythm
  • Stages of sleep
  • Eye and leg movements

What are some objective tests to measure sleep?

For those who report falling asleep during the day, it can sometimes be helpful to measure how much you sleep. Also, after treating sleep problems, we sometimes want to measure the improvement in daytime sleepiness.

Sleep can be measured with the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Generally, MSLT measures how fast a person sleeps during the day. This should be done after the nocturnal sleep study (polysomnogram) has been recorded the day before adequate sleep opportunity and after untreated obstructive sleep apnea. The test consists of four to five “naps,” each of which lasts 20 minutes and lasts for two hours. The person is instructed to “try to fall asleep.” Average sleep time is calculated for four or five tests. The normal time is more than ten minutes before going to bed. Excessive sleep is defined as falling asleep within five minutes.

The maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT) also measures daytime sleepiness. The person doing this test is instructed to “try to stay awake.” This is repeated for four 40-minute sessions over a two-hour period. Insomnia in all four tests is a strong target for daytime insomnia.

Some companies use these tests to prevent their employees from sleeping too much at work. In particular, airline pilots and truck drivers who experience sleep require a test to ensure public safety and productivity on the job. Unfortunately, there is no test that guarantees that someone will not fall asleep while working or driving.

What are the treatments for snoring?

The goals for treating snoring are difficult to identify. Snoring is often a problem for a bed or a roommate. Therefore, successful treatment must also include the goal of achieving a satisfactory night’s sleep for the bed or roommate. This makes treating snoring challenge. For example, If your bed partner is happy, then the snoring problem is “cured”. However, someone else’s snoring may decrease from low noise to a heavy breathing level, although there may be an unhappy bed partner.

Most procedures to treat snoring focus on reducing flapping or movement of the soft palate (roof of the mouth). Refers to palatal snoring. If the snoring originates from the back of the tongue or the sidewalls of the throat, palatal procedures are less effective.

It is advisable to look at the “success” reports of various treatments with a critical eye. If the number of nights a bed partner leaves the room is reduced from seven nights a week to one night a week, is it a success? Some would say yes. However, the bed partner (or snorer) still has to leave the room one night a week. It is important to know what the prognosis of “prevention” is before considering any treatment.

Home remedies to stop snoring

Try these other solutions for better sleep.

  • Lie on your side instead of on your back.
  • Raise the head of the bed a few inches.
  • Use elastic strips that adhere to the bridge of the nose to widen the nostrils.
  • Use decongestants to open your airways. Do not use them for more than 3 days without checking with your doctor.
  • Stick to a sleep schedule.

Snoring problems

  • Snoring doesn’t seem to have a problem. But sleep apnea can cause problems.
  • Even if you don’t realize it, he often wakes up from the dream.
  • Light sleep. Sleeping too many times at night interferes with your normal sleep pattern, so you may spend more time in light sleep than in deep, restful sleep.
  • Stress in your heart. Chronic obstructive sleep apnea often raises blood pressure and enlarges the heart with an increased risk of heart attack and stroke.
  • Sleep poorly at night. It can make you sleepy during the day, alter your quality of life, and increase the likelihood of car accidents.