What You Need To Know About Sleep Apnea | Ent Specialist

Overview of sleep apnea

Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder that occurs when a person’s breathing is interrupted during sleep. People with untreated sleep apnea often stop breathing repeatedly during sleep, sometimes hundreds of times. This means that the brain and the rest of the body may not get enough oxygen.

In most cases, people are unaware that they have stopped breathing and believe that their sleep cycle is normal. This is like snoring.

This can cause you more fatigue in the morning, as well as many health problems. If left untreated, this sleep condition:

  • Causes mental health problems
  • Immune function is not good
  • Contributes to memory loss.
  • Increases your risk of heart failure.

Common treatments include breathing apparatus, medications, and surgery. However, some lifestyle changes and home care can also improve your quality of life and sleep.

What are the types of sleep apnea?

There are three types of sleep apnea:

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA): OSA occurs when the airways in the back of the throat are physically blocked. That blockage can cause a temporary shortness of breath.
  • Central Sleep Apnea (CSA): CSA occurs because there is a problem in the brain system controlling the muscles involved in breathing, leading to slow, shallow breathing.
  • Mixed sleep apnea: When a person has OSA and CSA at the same time, it is called mixed sleep apnea or complex sleep apnea.

Because the underlying causes are different, there are significant differences in the symptoms, causes, and treatments of OSA and CSA.

How common is sleep apnea?

Obstructive sleep apnea is estimated to affect 2% to 9% of adults in the United States, although most cases are believed to be undiagnosed. It is difficult to determine the exact prevalence because studies have used different criteria to diagnose the condition. The consistent finding is that OSA affects men more than women. It can occur at any age, but it is more common in the elderly.

Central sleep apnea affects 5% of adults over 40 years of age. It is more common in men than in women.

As these data demonstrate, OSA is more common than CSA. For this reason, when people speak of “sleep apnea,” they are generally referring to OSA.

Symptoms of sleep apnea

Often the first signs of OSA are detected by the bed partner and not by the patient. Most of the victims have no sleep complaints. The most common signs and symptoms of OSA are:

  • Snoring.
  • Daytime sleepiness or fatigue
  • Sleep fluctuations, often nocturnal awakenings.
  • Sudden awakenings with a sensation of gasping or pain.
  • Dry mouth or throat upon waking.
  • Cognitive impairment, difficulty concentrating, forgetfulness, or irritability.
  • Mood disturbances (depression or anxiety).
  • Night sweats.
  • Frequent night urination.
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Headache.

People with central sleep apnea often report recurrent awakenings or insomnia, although they may experience a sensation of pain or swelling after waking up.

Symptoms may not be as obvious in children and may include:

  • School performance is not good.
  • Slowness or drowsiness is often misinterpreted as laziness in the classroom.
  • The mouth is difficult to breathe and swallow during the day.
  • Internal movement of the rib during inhalation.
  • Abnormal sleeping positions, such as lying on the arms and knees or a very extended neck.
  • Excessive sweating at night.
  • Learning and behaviour disorders (hyperactivity, attention deficit).
  • Enuresis.


Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when a person’s airway becomes blocked during sleep. Multiple factors have been found to increase the risk of stagnation and OSA:

  • Anatomical features. The size and location of a person’s neck, jaw, tongue, tonsils, and other tissues in the back of the throat directly affect airflow.
  • Family history. People with one or more affiliations with OSA are more likely to develop OSA themselves.
  • Smoking cigarettes. Smokers, especially heavy smokers, were found to have OSA at a higher rate, than non-smokers.
  • Hormonal abnormalities Hormonal conditions such as hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and acromegaly (excess growth hormone) cause inflammation of the tissues near the airways and/or increase a person’s risk of OSA by contributing to the risk of obesity.

Heart failure is considered a risk factor for CSA, and CSA can also occur when a person’s oxygen levels are high.

Treatment for sleep apnea

Treatment aims to normalize breathing during sleep and address any underlying health problems. The options will depend on the cause and severity of symptoms.

Lifestyle changes

Lifestyle modifications are essential to normalizing breathing and are critical first steps in treatment.

They include:

  • Following a heart-healthy diet
  • Developing healthy sleeping habits
  • Limiting alcohol consumption
  • Quitting smoking
  • Managing weight
  • Sleeping on the side

Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease – an Overview | Orthopaedics

What is Perthes disease?

Perthes disease is a rare childhood disorder that affects the hip. It happens when the blood supply to the round head of the femur (thigh bone) is temporarily interrupted. Without an adequate blood supply, bone cells die, a process called avascular necrosis.

Although the term “disease” is still used, Perthes is actually a multifaceted process of stages that can last numerous years. As the condition progresses, the weakened bone in the head of the femur (the “ball” of the “ball” joint in the hip) gradually begins to collapse. Over time, the blood supply to the head of the femur returns, and the bone begins to grow again.

Treatment for Perthes emphasizes helping the bone grow back into a more rounded shape that still fits into the hole of the hip joint. This will help the hip joint to move normally and prevent hip problems in adulthood. The long-term prognosis for offspring with Perthes is good in most cases. After 18 to 24 months of treatment, most children return to their daily activities without major limitations.

Alternate name

Perthes disease, also known as Legg-Calve-Perthes

What causes perthes disease?

Technically, the ball of the femur dies because the blood supply is temporarily cut off. The reasons for this are not well understood. There is some evidence that genetics may play a role, but more studies are needed. The lack of a constant supply of blood to the ball of the femur causes a sequence of events. First, the bone cells in the head of the femur die.

Then weakness in this area causes the head of the femur to eventually collapse (usually over a two-year period) and lose its roundness; This is called “fragmentation”. The body then absorbs the damaged bone tissue. When the blood supply returns, new bone tissue begins to grow and takes the shape of a new head of the femur. This stage can last a few years. Finally, the bone recovers its final shape, although this final shape is not always a perfect round head.

How the head of the femur recovers and becomes rounded depends on the extent of the bone collapse and the age of your child at the time the disease process began. Bone tends to remodel better in younger children and improves as the child grows.

Risk factors for perthes disease

Risk factors for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease include:

  • Although Legg-Calve-Perthes disease can affect children of almost any age, it usually begins between the ages of 4 and 10.
  • The gender of your child. Legg-Calve-Perthes is about four times more common in boys than girls.
  • White children are more likely to develop the disorder than black children.
  • Genetic mutations. For a small number of people, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease appears to be connected to mutations in certain genes, but more studies are needed.

Perthes disease symptoms

The usual presenting symptom is limpness. This can be accompanied by pain, not just in the hip, but also in the knee, groin, or thigh. There may be stiffness in the affected hip (less movement than the other hip).

Perthes disease diagnosis

Hip X-rays can suggest and/or verify the diagnosis. Radiographs usually show a flattened and then fragmented femoral head. A bone scan or MRI can be helpful in making the diagnosis in cases where the x-rays are inconclusive. Simple radiographic changes are usually delayed 6 weeks or more from the clinical onset, so a bone scan and MRI are performed for early diagnosis.

The MRI results are more accurate, that is, 97-99% versus 88-93% on plain radiography. If an MRI or bone scans are necessary, a positive diagnosis is based on irregular areas of vascularization at the epiphysis of the femoral head (the developing femoral head)

Perthes disease treatment options

Nonoperative Treatment

It is very important to keep the joint moving. This is because the cartilage in the femoral head relies on the fluid in the joint, called synovial fluid, for its nutrition. Moving the hip helps supply the cartilage with this fluid.

It is also important to keep the head in the hip socket so that when the bone re-forms, it is as round and as well shaped as possible. Sometimes your child’s hip becomes stiff and may need help keeping the ball in the cup. Your doctor may recommend a period of casting, braces, and/or physical therapy to help achieve this.

Surgical Treatment

Surgery may be warranted to treat Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, but it is often not recommended for children younger than 6 years old. The goal of surgery is containment. The imprint is to keep the femoral head within the acetabulum. To do this, the pediatric orthopaedic surgeon can alter the angle of the femoral and/or acetabulum bones and fix them in a more anatomically correct position. This procedure, called an osteotomy, allows the femoral head to grow into its normal spherical shape.

Prevention of perthes disease

  • Limit activity: Evading high-impact activities, such as running and jumping, will help release pain and protect the femoral head. Sometimes your doctor may also recommend crutches or a walker to prevent your child from putting too much weight on the joint.
  • Physiotherapy exercises: Hip stiffness is common in children with Perthes disease, and physical therapy exercises are recommended to help restore range of motion to the hip joint. These exercises usually focus on hip abduction and internal rotation. Parents or other caregivers are often needed to help the child complete the exercises.

Complications of perthes disease

Complications of this condition include:

  • The head of the femur may lose its normal spherical shape and collapse
  • Degenerative joint disease can occur
  • The affected leg may lose some of its movement and become shorter than the other leg.
  • Children with Perthes disease are at higher risk of developing hip arthritis later in life.
  • Irregular contouring, flattening, or fungal growth on the head
  • Shortening and widening of the neck
  • Flattening of the vertical wall of the acetabulum

Sinusitis (Sinus Infection) – an Overview | ENT

What is sinusitis?

Sinusitis is one of the most commonly diagnosed diseases in the United States, affecting approximately 16 per cent of the adult population annually. The sinuses are an associated system of air-filled cavities located in the skull.

Inflammation of the sinuses is caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or as a result of allergies. The inflammation prevents the sinuses from draining normally, leading to a buildup of mucus and secondary infection.

The main symptoms of a sinus infection are the nasal obstacle, discoloured nasal discharge, and facial discomfort or pressure that has been present for 7 days or more.

Types of sinusitis

  1. Acute sinusitis: Acute sinusitis has the shortest duration. A viral infection caused by the common cold can cause symptoms that usually last 1 to 2 weeks. In the case of a bacterial infection, acute sinusitis can last up to 4 weeks. Seasonal allergies can also cause acute sinusitis.
  2. Subacute sinusitis: Subacute sinusitis symptoms can previous up to 3 months. This condition commonly happens with bacterial infections or seasonal allergies.
  3. Chronic sinusitis: Symptoms of a chronic sinusitis last longer than 3 months. They are often less serious. Bacterial infection can be the culprit in these cases. Additionally, chronic sinusitis commonly occurs in conjunction with persistent allergies or structural nasal problems.

Signs and symptoms of sinus infection or sinusitis

There are many signs and indications of sinusitis and sinus infections. The following is a summary of the predominant ones (18 in total) that can occur. Most patients have several signs and indications at the same time. Others may have some symptoms that are irregular; most do not have all symptoms at once. Signs and symptoms of a sinus infection or sinusitis contain the following:

  1. Headache due to pressure in partially or totally blocked sinuses. Pain may increase when the person bends over.
  2. Facial tenderness and/or swelling when the facial areas over the sinus areas are touched.
  3. Pressure or pain due to mucus pressing on the sinus tissue or inflammation of the sinuses.
  4. Fever due to inflammation of the tissues of the nasal sinuses and infection.
  5. Cloudy and discoloured nasal drainage is often seen in bacterial sinus infections.
  6. Congestion is a feeling of nasal congestion and occurs with both infectious and non-infectious sinusitis.
  7. Postnasal drip is the overproduction of mucus from sinusitis that flows into the throat and irritates the throat tissue.
  8. Sore throat is inflammation of the throat tissue from postnasal drip.
  9. Coughing is a response to postnasal drip and the body’s attempt to flush irritants from the throat tissue.
  10. Tooth pain caused by pressure on immediate nerves and tissues
  11. Earache caused by pressure on surrounding nerves and tissues.
  12. Eye pain caused by pressure on nearby nerves and tissues.
  13. Fatigue due to fever, immune response, and/or cough
  14. Bad breath is usually due to bacterial infections
  15. Itching / Sneezing: In non-infectious sinusitis, other allergy symptoms related to itchy eyes and sneezing may be communal, but may include some of the symptoms listed above for infectious sinusitis.
  16. Nasal drainage is usually clear or whitish in colour in people with non-infectious sinusitis.
  17. Ulceration can occur with rare fulminant fungal infections with well-defined borders and a black necrotic centre in the nasal area. Some fungal infections produce dark, black-appearing exudates. This requires an immediate medical evaluation.
  18. Multiple chronic symptoms (one to three months) are usually a sign of chronic or subacute sinusitis.

Causes of sinusitis

The sinuses are air-filled spaces in the skull. They are found behind the forehead, nasal bones, cheeks, and eyes. Fit sinuses do not contain bacteria or other microorganisms. Most of the time, mucus can drain and air can flow through the sinuses.

When the sinus starts to become blocked or too much mucus builds up, bacteria and other germs can grow more effortlessly.

It can occur from one of these conditions:

  • Small hairs (cilia) in the sinuses are unable to remove mucus properly. This can be due to some medical conditions.
  • Colds and allergies can cause too much mucus to be produced or block the opening of the sinuses.
  • A deviated septum, nasal bone spur, or nasal polyps can block the opening of the sinuses.

Diagnosis of sinusitis

To diagnose a sinus infection, your physician will ask about your symptoms and achieve a physical exam. They can check pressure and sensitivity by pressing a finger against your head and cheeks. They can also examine the inside of the nose for signs of inflammation.

  • In most cases, your physician can diagnose a sinus infection based on your symptoms and the consequences of a physical exam.
  • Though, in the case of a chronic infection, your physician may recommend imaging tests to examine your nasal passages and sinuses. These tests can reveal mucus blockages and any abnormal structures, such as polyps.
  • A CT scan provides a three-dimensional image of your sinuses. An MRI uses influential magnets to create images of internal structures.
  • Your doctor may also use a fibre optic endoscope, which is a lighted tube that goes through your nose. It is used to directly visualize the inside of the nasal passages and sinuses. A sample can be obtained during nasal endoscopy for culture testing to detect the presence of an infection.
  • An allergy test identifies irritants that can cause an allergic reaction. A blood test can detect diseases that weaken the immune system, such as HIV.

Sinusitis treatment

It is treated in several ways, each depending on the severity of the sinus case.

A simple sinus infection is treated with:

  • Decongestants.
  • Over-the-counter cold and allergy medications.
  • Nasal irrigation with saline solution.
  • Drink fluids (sinusitis is a viral infection and fluids will help).

If your sinus symptoms do not improve after 10 days, your doctor may prescribe:

  • Antibiotics (for seven existences in adults and 10 days in children).
  • Oral or topical decongestants.
  • Prescription intranasal steroid sprays. (Don’t use over-the-counter sprays or drops for more than three to five days – they can actually increase congestion.)

Long-term (chronic) sinusitis can be treated by focusing on the underlying condition (usually allergies). This is usually treated with:

  • Intranasal steroid sprays.
  • Topical antihistamine sprays or oral pills.
  • Leukotriene antagonists to decrease swelling and allergy symptoms.
  • Flushing the nose with saline solutions that may also contain other types of medications.

When it is not controlled with one of the above treatments, a CT scan is used to better see your sinuses. Depending on the results, surgery may be necessary to correct structural problems in your sinuses. This is more likely to happen if you have polyps and/or a yeast infection.

Complications of sinusitis

Serious complications of chronic sinusitis are rare, but can include:

  • Eyesight problems. If your sinus infection spreads to the eye socket, it can cause reduced vision or possibly blindness that may be permanent.
  • Infections. Rarely, people with chronic sinusitis may develop inflammation of the membranes and fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord (meningitis), a bone infection, or a serious skin infection.

Prevention of sinusitis

You may not be talented to totally avoid this infection, but there are ways to prevent it in some cases:

  • Do not smoke
  • Avoid dry environments
  • Use a humidifier when needed
  • Drink much liquid
  • Seek treatment for chronic allergies that can trigger inflammation of the sinuses

Risk factors for sinusitis

Several factors can increase your danger of getting a sinus infection:

  • A previous cold
  • Seasonal allergies
  • Smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke
  • Structural problems within the sinuses (such as developments on the lining of the nose or sinuses, recognized as nasal polyps)
  • A weak immune system or taking medications that weaken the immune system

Symptoms and Causes of Ewing’s Sarcoma | Orthopaedics

What is Ewing’s sarcoma?

Ewing’s sarcoma is a rare type of cancer that occurs in the bones or in the soft tissue around the bones. Ewing sarcoma most often begins in the bones of the legs and pelvis, but it can occur in any bone. Less commonly, it begins in the soft tissues of the chest, abdomen, extremities, or other locations.

Ewing sarcoma is most common in children and teens, but it can occur at any age. Major advances in the treatment of Ewing’s sarcoma have helped improve the outlook for people with this cancer. After completion of treatment, lifelong follow-up is recommended to observe possible late effects of severe chemotherapy and radiation.

Symptoms of Ewing’s sarcoma

The signs and symptoms of Ewing sarcoma include:

  • Pain, swelling, or tenderness near the affected area
  • Bone-ache
  • Unexplained tiredness
  • Fever with no known cause
  • Lose weight without trying

Types of Ewing’s sarcoma

There are numerous kinds of Ewing sarcoma, including Ewing sarcoma of bone, Ewing’s sarcoma extraosseous, peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET), and Askin’s tumor. These tumors are considered related because they have similar genetic causes.

Causes of Ewing’s sarcoma

It is not clear what causes Ewing sarcoma.

Physicians know that Ewing sarcoma starts when a cell develops changes in its DNA. A cell’s DNA contains the instructions that tell the cell what to do. The changes tell the cell to multiply rapidly and to continue living when healthy cells would normally die. The result is a mass (tumor) of abnormal cells that can invade and end healthy body tissue. Abnormal cells can separate and spread (metastasize) throughout the body.

In Ewing sarcoma, DNA changes most often affect a gene called EWSR1. If your doctor suspects that you have Ewing sarcoma, your cancer cells may be tested for changes in this gene.

Risk factors of Ewing’s sarcoma

Risk factors for Ewing sarcoma include:

  • Your age: Ewing sarcoma can occur at any age, but it is more likely to occur in children and adolescents.
  • Your ancestry: Ewing sarcoma is more common in people of European descent. It is much less common in people of African and East Asian descent.

Diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma

The diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma usually begins with a physical exam to better understand the symptoms that you or your child may be experiencing. Based on those findings, other tests and procedures may be recommended.

Imaging tests: Imaging tests help your physician examine your bone symptoms, look for cancer, and look for signs that cancer has spread.

Imaging tests may include:

  • X-rays
  • Computed tomography (CT)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Bone scan

Removing a sample of cells for analysis (biopsy): A biopsy process is used to collect a sample of suspicious cells for research laboratory testing. The tests can show if the cells are cancerous and what type of cancer you have.

The types of biopsy procedures used to diagnose Ewing sarcoma include:

  • Needle biopsy: The doctor inserts a fine needle through the skin and guides it to the tumor. The needle is used to eliminate small pieces of tissue from the tumor.
  • Surgical biopsy: The doctor makes an incision through the skin and removes the entire tumor (excisional biopsy) or part of the tumor (incisional biopsy).

Determining the type of biopsy needed and the details of how it should be performed requires careful planning on the part of the medical team. Doctors must perform the biopsy in a way that does not interfere with future surgery to remove cancer. For this reason, ask your doctor for a referral to a team of experts with extensive experience treating Ewing sarcoma before your biopsy.

Cancer cell testing for genetic mutations: A sample of your cancer cells will be tested in the laboratory to determine what DNA changes are present in the cells. Ewing sarcoma cells often have changes in the EWSR1 gene. Very often, the EWSR1 gene fuses with another gene called FLI1, creating a new gene called EWS-FLI1. Testing cancer cells for these genetic changes can help confirm your diagnosis and give your doctor clues as to how aggressive your disease is.

Treatment for Ewing sarcoma

Treatment for Ewing’s sarcoma usually begins with chemotherapy. Surgery to remove cancer usually follows. In certain situations, other treatments may be used, including radiation therapy.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses powerful drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy treatment usually combines two or more drugs that can be given as an infusion into a vein (IV), as a pill, or by both methods. Treatment for Ewing’s sarcoma usually begins with chemotherapy. Medications can shrink the tumor and make it easier to remove cancer with surgery or target it with radiation therapy.

After surgery or radiation therapy, chemotherapy treatments can continue to kill any cancer cells that may remain. For advanced cancer that has spread to other areas of the body, chemotherapy can help relieve pain and slow the growth of cancer.

Surgery: The goal of surgery is to kill all cancer cells. But the planning of the operation also takes into account how it will affect your ability to carry out your daily life.

Surgery for Ewing sarcoma may involve the removal of a small piece of bone or the removal of an entire limb. Whether surgeons can eliminate all of the cancer without removing the entire limb rest on several factors, such as the size and locality of the tumor and whether it shrinks after chemotherapy.

Radiotherapy: Radiation therapy usages high-energy beams, such as x-rays and protons, to kill cancer cells. During radiation therapy, beams of energy are sent from a machine that moves around you as you lie on a table. The rays are carefully aimed at the area of ​​Ewing’s sarcoma to reduce the risk of damage to surrounding healthy cells.

Radiation therapy may be recommended after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells. It can also be used instead of surgery if Ewing’s sarcoma is in a part of the body where surgery is not possible or would lead to unacceptable functional results (such as loss of bowel or bladder function).

For advanced Ewing sarcomas, radiation therapy can deliberate the growth of cancer and help dismiss the pain.

Complications of Ewing’s sarcoma

Complications of Ewing sarcoma and its treatment include:

  • Cancer that spreads (metastasizes): Ewing’s sarcoma can spread from where it started to other areas, making treatment and recovery difficult. Ewing’s sarcoma most often spreads to the lungs and other bones.
  • Long-term side effects of treatment: The aggressive treatments needed to control Ewing sarcoma can cause substantial side effects, both short and long term. Your healthcare team can help you monitor the side effects that occur during treatment and provide you with a list of side effects to watch for in the years after treatment.

Prevention of Ewing’s sarcoma

While it is always good to maintain a healthy weight and stop smoking or using tobacco, there are currently no known lifestyle changes that can prevent Ewing sarcoma.


Chondrosarcoma | Preventive Measures | Orthopaedics

What is chondrosarcoma?

Chondrosarcoma is a bone sarcoma, main cancer composed of cells derived from transformed cells that produce cartilage. Chondrosarcoma is a member of a category of bone and soft tissue tumors known as sarcomas. About 30% of bone sarcomas are chondrosarcomas.

It is resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Different from other primary bone sarcomas that mainly affect children and adolescents, chondrosarcoma can current at any age. It affects the axial skeleton more frequently than the appendicular skeleton.

What causes chondrosarcoma?

As with many cancers, the cause of chondrosarcoma is not perfect. However, people with certain medical conditions are at higher risk of developing this disease. These conditions include:

  • Ollier disease
  • Maffucci syndrome
  • Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE, also known as osteochondromatosis)
  • Wilms tumor
  • Paget’s disease
  • Illnesses in children that required previous treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy

Risk factors

While it can occur at any age, the most prevalent variety generally affects middle-aged to older adults.

Ollier’s disease and Maffucci syndrome are circumstances marked by an increased number of benign cartilage lesions (enchondromas) in the body. These lesions sometimes develop into chondrosarcoma.

Chondrosarcoma symptoms

The symptoms of this disease can vary contingent on the location of the tumor. The subsequent are the most shared symptoms of this disease. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms can include:

  • The large mass in the affected bone
  • The sensation of pressure around the dough.
  • Pain that gradually increases over time. It is usually worse at night and can be relieved by taking anti-inflammatory medications, such as ibuprofen. It is usually not relieved by rest.
  • Pain that is often worse at night and can be relieved with anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen
  • Local swelling

Chondrosarcoma diagnosis

Plain X-ray:

Plain radiography is used for the initial evaluation. Plain radiographs can identify the cartilaginous nature and aggressiveness of the lesion. Plain X-rays can reveal the following findings:

  • Lytic lesions in 50% of cases
  • Intralesional calcifications: in approximately 70% of cases (popcorn calcification or ring and arch calcification)
  • Endosteal scallop
  • Penetrating or moth-eaten appearance in high-grade chondrosarcomas
  • Cortical remodelling, thickening, and periosteal reaction

CT scan:

Computed tomography can reveal the following findings:

  • Calcification of the matrix in 94% of the cases
  • Endosteal scallop
  • A cortical tear in about 90% of long bone chondrosarcoma
  • Heterogeneous contrast enhancement

Magnetic resonance imaging:

In typical forms, MRI shows a lobulated lesion with high signal intensity on T2 and a low or intermediate signal on T1-weighted images.

Tissue biopsy:

Tissue biopsy is essential to diagnose this disease and distinguish it from other malignant or benign bone tumors. A biopsy should be taken from the most aggressive portion of cancer as determined by imaging.

Chondrosarcoma treatment options

Chondrosarcomas are rare, so they are treated by a side of physicians and other healthcare professionals at a specialist hospital. This means you may have to travel to have treatment.

The treatment you have depends on:

  • The position and size of the cancer
  • If it has a feast to other parts of the body
  • The grade of the cancer
  • Your general health.

Surgery is the main treatment for this disease. Other treatments sometimes used are chemotherapy and radiotherapy. You may be offered some treatments as part of a clinical trial.


There is no known way to prevent this disease. People with rare bone-related conditions may be more likely to develop this disease. Also, some scientists have observed a connection between chondrosarcoma and injury to the affected area.


Tumor recurrence

Distant metastasis: The main site of metastasis is the lung. The rate of metastasis differs contingent on the degree of this disease.

  • Low grade: less than 10%
  • Intermediate grade: 10% -50%
  • High grade: 50% -70%.