What is chondrosarcoma?
Chondrosarcoma is a bone sarcoma, main cancer composed of cells derived from transformed cells that produce cartilage. Chondrosarcoma is a member of a category of bone and soft tissue tumors known as sarcomas. About 30% of bone sarcomas are chondrosarcomas.
It is resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Different from other primary bone sarcomas that mainly affect children and adolescents, chondrosarcoma can current at any age. It affects the axial skeleton more frequently than the appendicular skeleton.
What causes chondrosarcoma?
As with many cancers, the cause of chondrosarcoma is not perfect. However, people with certain medical conditions are at higher risk of developing this disease. These conditions include:
- Ollier disease
- Maffucci syndrome
- Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE, also known as osteochondromatosis)
- Wilms tumor
- Paget’s disease
- Illnesses in children that required previous treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy
While it can occur at any age, the most prevalent variety generally affects middle-aged to older adults.
Ollier’s disease and Maffucci syndrome are circumstances marked by an increased number of benign cartilage lesions (enchondromas) in the body. These lesions sometimes develop into chondrosarcoma.
The symptoms of this disease can vary contingent on the location of the tumor. The subsequent are the most shared symptoms of this disease. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms can include:
- The large mass in the affected bone
- The sensation of pressure around the dough.
- Pain that gradually increases over time. It is usually worse at night and can be relieved by taking anti-inflammatory medications, such as ibuprofen. It is usually not relieved by rest.
- Pain that is often worse at night and can be relieved with anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen
- Local swelling
Plain radiography is used for the initial evaluation. Plain radiographs can identify the cartilaginous nature and aggressiveness of the lesion. Plain X-rays can reveal the following findings:
- Lytic lesions in 50% of cases
- Intralesional calcifications: in approximately 70% of cases (popcorn calcification or ring and arch calcification)
- Endosteal scallop
- Penetrating or moth-eaten appearance in high-grade chondrosarcomas
- Cortical remodelling, thickening, and periosteal reaction
Computed tomography can reveal the following findings:
- Calcification of the matrix in 94% of the cases
- Endosteal scallop
- A cortical tear in about 90% of long bone chondrosarcoma
- Heterogeneous contrast enhancement
Magnetic resonance imaging:
In typical forms, MRI shows a lobulated lesion with high signal intensity on T2 and a low or intermediate signal on T1-weighted images.
Tissue biopsy is essential to diagnose this disease and distinguish it from other malignant or benign bone tumors. A biopsy should be taken from the most aggressive portion of cancer as determined by imaging.
Chondrosarcoma treatment options
Chondrosarcomas are rare, so they are treated by a side of physicians and other healthcare professionals at a specialist hospital. This means you may have to travel to have treatment.
The treatment you have depends on:
- The position and size of the cancer
- If it has a feast to other parts of the body
- The grade of the cancer
- Your general health.
Surgery is the main treatment for this disease. Other treatments sometimes used are chemotherapy and radiotherapy. You may be offered some treatments as part of a clinical trial.
There is no known way to prevent this disease. People with rare bone-related conditions may be more likely to develop this disease. Also, some scientists have observed a connection between chondrosarcoma and injury to the affected area.
Distant metastasis: The main site of metastasis is the lung. The rate of metastasis differs contingent on the degree of this disease.
- Low grade: less than 10%
- Intermediate grade: 10% -50%
- High grade: 50% -70%.