Symptoms and Causes of Hearing loss | ENT Specialist

What is hearing loss?

Hearing loss is the condition that occurs when some part of your ear does not work as it should. You can have three different types of conditions, dependent on where your hearing is damaged. Your hearing loss may be:

  • Conductive if it affects the outer or middle ear
  • Sensorineural if it involves your inner ear
  • Mixed if it is a combination of the two

Certain conditions, such as age, diseases like ear infection, and genetics, can play a role in hearing loss. Modern life has added several ear-damaging items to the list, including some medications and many sources of loud, continuous noise.

With so many intractable cases of hearing loss, prevention is the best way to maintain hearing for the long term. If you’ve previously lost some hearing, there are ways to stay connected and connect with friends and family.

Symptoms of hearing loss

In many cases, hearing fades so slowly that it is not noticeable. You may think that people are whispering more, your spouse needs to talk, or you need a better phone. As long as some sound is still coming through, you can assume your hearing is fine. But you may become increasingly disconnected from the world of speech and sound.

Doctors classify hearing loss by degrees.

  • Mild hearing loss: One-on-one conversations are fine, but it’s hard to pick up every word when there is background noise.
  • Moderate hearing loss: It is often necessary to ask people to repeat themselves during conversations in person and on the phone.
  • Severe hearing loss: Next a conversation is almost impossible unless you have a hearing aid.
  • Profound hearing loss: You cannot hear other people speak unless they are extremely loud. You cannot understand what they are saying without a hearing aid or cochlear implant.

At first, high-pitched sounds, such as children’s and women’s voices, and the “S” and “F” sounds become more difficult to distinguish. Also can:

  • Has trouble following a conversation when more than one person speaks at the same time
  • You think that other people murmur or do not speak clearly
  • Often misinterprets what others are saying and responds inappropriately
  • You get complaints that the television is too loud
  • Hear ringing, roaring, or hissing in your ears, known as tinnitus

Types of hearing loss

Hearing loss comes in many forms. It can range from a mild loss, in which a person loses certain high-pitched sounds, such as women’s and children’s voices, to a total loss of hearing.

There are two general categories of hearing loss:

  • Sensorineural hearing loss happens when there is damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve. This type is usually permanent.
  • Conductive hearing loss happens when sound waves cannot spread the inner ear. The cause may be the accumulation of earwax, fluid, or a perforated eardrum. Medical treatment or surgery can typically restore conductive hearing loss.

Causes of hearing loss

Loud noise is one of the most communal causes of hearing loss. Noise from lawnmowers, snowplows, or loud music can damage the inner ear and lead to permanent hearing loss. Loud noises also contribute to tinnitus. It can prevent most noise-related hearing losses. Protect yourself by lowering the sound from your stereo, television, or headphones, get away from loud noise; or wearing earplugs or other ear protection.

A build-up of wax or fluid can block the sounds that are transmitted from the eardrum to the inner ear. If wax blockage is a problem, talk to your doctor. He or she can suggest gentle treatments to soften the wax. Hearing loss is the condition that occurs when some part of your ear does not work as it should.

Diagnosis of hearing loss

There are a variety of tests obtainable to accurately diagnose the type and severity of a hearing loss. These include:

  • Air conduction audiometry: Conventional or standard This test is commonly used to measure the hearing of adults and older children. A range of test tones, from low to high frequency (perceived as “tone”), is transmitted through headphones placed in or in each ear, and patients are asked to indicate by raising their hand, pressing a button, or responding verbally when they hear each one. sound. This test determines the softest signals you can hear at each of the presented frequencies and indicates the frequency regions where hearing may be affected. The louder the sounds are to be heard, the greater the degree of hearing loss at that particular frequency or frequency. The frequencies verified are those important for hearing and sympathetic speech and other environmental sounds.
  • Bone conduction: If the test reveals a hearing loss, another type of earpiece, a bone vibrator, is used to determine bone conduction hearing to determine the type of hearing loss. This device directs sounds directly to the inner ear, bypassing the outer and middle ear. If noises are better heard by bone transmission, the hearing loss is conductive in nature and is likely to be in the outer or middle ear. If sounds are heard equally well with headphones and a bone vibrator, the hearing loss is sensorineural in nature. A combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss may also be present; This is called mixed hearing loss.
  • Word recognition in addition to tone tests: Word recognition tests are generally performed to assess the ability to discriminate the differences between the speech sounds of various words and the clarity with which words are heard. During this test, you will be asked to listen and repeat words.
  • Acoustic immittance: These tests are used to measure the condition of the middle ear and related structures. A type of acoustic immittance test called tympanometry measures the undertaking of the eardrum to see if it moves usually when pressure changes are applied. Restricted movement of the eardrum could indicate a problem with the eardrum or middle ear structures. You can also try the acoustic reflex test, a method of determining how the middle ear reacts to loud sounds.
  • Otoacoustic emissions (OAE): OAEs are used to assess the function of the cochlea. OAEs are usually present when hearing is normal or near-normal, and they are usually absent when there is a problem in the cochlea.
  • Auditory Brainstem Reply (ABR): ABR is a procedure used to measure hearing sensitivity and control if the neural pathways within the brain stem are transmitting sound correctly. This test is used to rule out hearing-neurological problems. Brain wave activity in the brain’s auditory centers is recorded in response to a series of clicks or tones presented to each ear. During this procedure, electrodes are placed on the head to detect the brain’s electrical response to sounds that occur while you are resting or sleeping. The electrodes do not cause pain or discomfort.

Treatment for hearing loss

The most communal type of hearing loss is presbycusis or age-related hearing damage. As we age, the hair cells in our ears stop working as well as they used to and eventually stop working altogether. Almost half of the people 75 and older have hearing loss.

Age-related hearing loss is a type of sensorineural hearing loss, which means that it originates in the inner ear and/or the auditory nerve and is usually caused by damage to the mop cells of the inner ear. Along with aging, noise exposure is another major risk factor for this type of hearing loss.

Sensorineural hearing loss is permanent; hair cells cannot be repaired once damaged. For people with one type of hearing loss, hearing aids are the gold standard treatment. In some cases, cochlear implants or bone-anchored hearing aids may be recommended.

While it is normal to gradually lose your hearing as you age, it is not a good idea to leave it untreated. Your sense of hearing is a critical connection to the world, both for your safety and for your quality of life. If you have a hearing loss, seek treatment from a hearing healthcare provider who can help you find the best options for you.

Risk factors of hearing loss

Factors that can damage or cause the loss of hair and nerve cells in the inner ear include:

  • Aging: Degeneration of the inner ear structures occurs over time.
  • Loud noise: Exposure to loud sounds can damage cells in your inner ear. Damage can occur with prolonged exposure to loud noises or a brief burst of noise, such as from a gunshot.
  • Inheritance: Your genetic makeup can make you more susceptible to hearing damage from sound or deterioration from aging.
  • Work noises: Jobs where loud noise is a common part of the work environment, such as agriculture, construction, or working in a factory, can cause hearing damage.
  • Recreational noise: Contact to explosive noise, such as firearms and jet engines, can cause instant and permanent hearing loss. Other amusing doings with dangerously high noise levels include snowmobiling, motorcycling, carpentry, or listening to loud music.
  • Some medications: Medications such as the antibiotic gentamicin, sildenafil (Viagra), and certain chemotherapy drugs can damage the inner ear. Temporary effects on hearing (ringing in the ear (tinnitus) or hearing loss) may occur if you take very high doses of aspirin, other pain relievers, antimalarial medications, or loop diuretics.
  • Some diseases: Illnesses that cause a high fever, such as meningitis, can damage the cochlea.

Complications of hearing loss

Hearing loss can have an important effect on your quality of life. Older adults with hearing loss can report feelings of depression. Because earshot loss can make conversation problematic, some people experience feelings of isolation. It is also associated with cognitive decline and impairment.

The interaction mechanism among hearing loss, cognitive impairment, depression, and separation is being actively studied. Initial research suggests that treating hearing loss may have a positive effect on cognitive performance, especially memory.

Prevention of hearing loss

Avoid loud noises: The best way to avoid noise-induced hearing loss is to stay away from loud noises as much as possible. In general, noise is likely to be loud enough to damage your hearing if:

  • You have to raise your voice to the conversation with other people
  • You cannot hear what people close to you are saying
  • Your ears hurt
  • Have ringing in the ears or muffled hearing afterward

Noise levels are measured in decibels (dB) – the higher the number, the louder the noise. Any sound greater than 85 dB can be harmful, especially if you are exposed to it for a long time.

To get a clue of ​​how strong it is:

  • whispering – 30dB
  • conversation – 60dB
  • heavy traffic: 70 to 85 dB
  • motorcycle – 90dB
  • listen to music at full volume through headphones: 100 to 110 dB
  • plane taking off – 120dB

You can get smartphone apps that measure noise levels but make sure they are configured (calibrated) correctly to get the most accurate reading.

Be careful when listening to music: Listening to loud music through headphones and earphones is one of the biggest dangers to your hearing.

To help avoid damaging your hearing:

  • Wear headphones or noise-canceling headphones; don’t turn up the volume simply to cover outside noise
  • Turn up the volume enough so that you can listen to your music comfortably, but not louder
  • Do not listen to music at more than 60% of the all-out volume: some devices have settings that you can use to boundary the volume automatically
  • Do not wear headphones or earphones for more than an hour at a time – take a break of at least 5 minutes every hour

Even turning the volume down a little bit can make a big difference in your risk of hearing damage.

Protect your hearing during noisy events and activities: To protect your hearing during noisy activities and events (such as at nightclubs, concerts, or sporting events):

  • Stay away from loud noise sources (such as speakers)
  • Try to take a break from noise every 15 minutes
  • Give your hearing about 18 hours to recover after exposure to a lot of loud noise
  • Consider using earplugs: You can buy reusable musicians’ earplugs that reduce the volume of music but do not muffle it.

Take precautions at work: If you are exposed to loud noises through your work, talk to your department or human resources (HR) manager.

Your employer is required to make changes to reduce your exposure to loud noise, for example by:

  • Switch to a quieter computer if possible
  • Make sure not to be exposed to loud noises for long periods
  • Provide earshot protection, such as earmuffs or earplugs
  • Be sure to wear whatever hearing protection you are given.

Get a hearing test: Get a hearing test as soon as possible if you are concerned that you may be losing your hearing. The sooner hearing loss is found, the sooner something can be done about it.

You may also want to consider having regular hearing checks (once a year, for example) if you are at increased risk for noise-induced hearing loss, for example, if you are a musician or work in noisy environments.


Symptoms and Causes of Trigger Finger | Orthopaedics

What is a trigger finger?

Trigger finger is a painful condition that causes the fingers or toes to catch or lock when bent. It can affect any finger or more than one finger at a time. You can even hold it in both hands. This is called tenosynovitis stenosis. When it affects the big toe, it is called a trigger thumb.

This occurs when inflammation within the sheath surrounding the tendon of the affected finger narrows. If the trigger finger is severe, your finger may be locked in a bent position.

People who require repetitive gripping actions for work or hobbies are at risk of developing a trigger finger. This condition is more common in women and people with diabetes. Trigger finger varies depending on the severity of treatment.

Alternate name

  • Trigger thumb

Who gets the trigger finger?

Trigger finger or trigger thumb usually appears in:

People with jobs, interests, or tasks that require rigorous repetitive movements; Often grasping, or straining the fingers and/or toes. For example, trigger finger often occurs in people who use their fingers or thumbs for multiple repetitive movements. These people may include:

  • Farmers
  • Industrial workers
  • Musicians
  • People with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or diabetes
  • People between 40 and 60 years old

Symptoms of trigger finger

Trigger finger or trigger foot signs and symptoms:

  • Tapping or popping sensation when moving a finger or thumb
  • Pain at the base of the finger or toe in the palm, especially when holding or holding
  • Pain and stiffness when bending the fingers or thumb
  • Swelling or paleness in the palm
  • Lock the finger (s) or toe in a bent position (in severe cases). The fingers or toes should be gently straightened with the help of the other hand.
  • Inability to bend the finger completely
  • The firmness and bent position of the fingers or toes are worse in the morning. Visibility decreases when using fingers and toes.

Causes of trigger finger

Most of the time, it comes from repeated movements or forced use of the finger or toe. This also happens when tendons, the tight bands of tissue that connect the muscles and bones of the finger or toe, become inflamed. Together, they and the muscles in your arms and hands bend and stretch your fingers and thumbs.

A tendon generally moves easily through tissue (called the sheath) thanks to synovial fluid, which surrounds the joints and keeps them flexible. Sometimes the tendon becomes inflamed and swollen. Chronic irritation of the tendon sheath can lead to scarring and hardening that affect tendon movement. When this happens, bending the finger or toe will cause the inflamed tendon to pull, break, or jump through the narrow sheath.

Risk factors

Things you can do more with your trigger finger:

  • Age. It usually appears between the ages of 40 and 60
  • Sex. It is more common in women than in men
  • Healthy conditions. Diabetes, gout, and rheumatoid arthritis can lead to finger sticks
  • Job. This is common for farmers, industrial workers, musicians, and anyone who repeats finger and toe movements
  • Surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome. This is most common in the first 6 months after the operation

Diagnosis of trigger finger

Trigger finger diagnosis does not require extensive testing. Your doctor or health care provider will make a diagnosis based on your medical history and physical exam. During the physical exam, your doctor will ask you to open and close your arm, checking for evidence of pain, sensitivity to movement, and blockage.

Your doctor will also feel your palm to see if there is a lump. If the bulge is attached to the trigger finger, the bulge will move as the finger moves because the bulge is a swollen part of the tendon that moves the finger.

Treatment for trigger finger

Trigger finger treatment varies depending on its severity and duration.


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB) or naproxen (Olive) may reduce pain but not relieve tendon or tendon inflammation.


Non-invasive conservative treatments can include:

Chill out. Avoid repeatedly grasping, repeatedly grasping, or vibrating handheld machines until your symptoms improve. If you can’t completely avoid these activities, fluffy gloves provide some protection.

A fork. Your doctor may recommend that you wear a splint at night to keep the affected finger in an extended position for up to six weeks. It helps to relax the tendon of the splint.

Stretching exercises. Your doctor may also prescribe gentle exercises to keep your finger mobile.


If your symptoms are severe or traditional therapies don’t help, your doctor may prescribe:

Steroid injection. Injecting steroid medications near or near the tendon sheath reduces inflammation and allows the tendon to freely rotate again. This is a very common treatment and is generally effective for most people who have been treated for a year or more. But sometimes more than one injection is needed.

For people with diabetes, steroid injections are less effective.

Percutaneous release. After numbing your palm, your doctor inserts a firmly structured needle into the tissue surrounding the affected tendon. Moving the needle and finger helps to disengage the contraction that prevents smooth movement of the tendon.

This treatment can be done under ultrasound control, so the doctor can see where the tip of the needle is under the skin to make sure it opens the tendon sheath without damaging the tendon or nearby nerves. This procedure is usually done in the doctor’s office or in the office procedure room.

Surgery. If you operate through a small incision near the base of your affected finger, a surgeon can open the contracted section of the tendon sheath. This procedure is usually done in the operating room.

Surgical recovery

When to improve depends on your situation. The choice of treatment also affects recovery. For example, you may need to wear a splint for 6 weeks. But most patients with a trigger finger recover within a few weeks by resting the finger and using anti-inflammatory medications.

You should be able to move your finger after surgery. Raise your arm above your heart to reduce swelling and pain. Full recovery can take a few weeks, but swelling and firmness can be delayed for up to 6 months.


There are some risks to any surgical procedure. Trigger finger surgery can cause problems like:

  • Infection
  • Stiffness or pain in the fingers
  • Scars and tenderness
  • Nerve damage
  • The tendon is in the wrong place (bowstring)
  • Pain and swelling in the hand (complicated regional pain syndrome or CRPS). It usually goes away in a few months.

Symptoms and Complications of Otosclerosis | ENT Specialist

What is otosclerosis?

Otosclerosis is the abnormal development of the middle ear bone. This bone prevents constructions within the ear from working properly and causes hearing loss. For some people with otosclerosis, hearing loss can become severe.

How do we listen?

Hearing is a sequence of events in which the ear converts sound waves into electrical signals and causes nerve impulses to be sent to the brain, where they are interpreted as sound. The ear has three key parts: the outer, middle, and inner ear. Sound waves enter the outer ear and reach the middle ear, where they vibrate the eardrum.

The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones in the middle ear called ossicles. These three bones are called the hammer, anvil, and stirrup (and are also known as the hammer, anvil, and stirrup). The eardrum and ossicles carry the vibrations to the inner ear. The stapes transmit the vibrations through the oval window and into the fluid that fills the inner ear.

The vibrations move through fluid in the snail-shaped auditory part of the inner ear (cochlea) that contains hair cells. The fluid in the cochlea moves the upper part of the hair cells, which initiates the changes that lead to the production of nerve impulses. These nerve instincts are carried to the brain, where they are interpreted as sound. Different sounds stimulate different parts of the inner ear, allowing the brain to distinguish between various sounds, for example, different vowel and consonant sounds.


Hearing loss, the most commonly reported symptom of otosclerosis, usually begins in one ear and then progresses to the other. This loss can appear very gradually. Many people with otosclerosis first notice that they are unable to hear bass sounds or cannot hear a whisper. Approximately people may also experience dizziness, balance problems, or tinnitus. Tinnitus is a ringing, roaring, buzzing, or hiss in the ears or head that sometimes occurs with hearing loss.


The exact cause of otosclerosis is unknown. It can be approved down from parent to child. People who have otosclerosis have an abnormal extension of cancellous bone that grows in the middle ear socket. This development prevents the bones of the ear from vibrating in response to sound waves.

These vibrations are necessary for you to hear. Otosclerosis is the most common cause of mid-ear hearing loss in young adults. It usually begins in early or middle adulthood. It is more shared in women than in men. The condition can affect one or both ears.

Risks for this condition comprise pregnancy and a family history of hearing loss. White people are more probable to develop this condition than people of other races.

Risk factors

Experts are not sure what exactly causes it. But they do know that these risk factors can increase your chances of getting it:

  • Age: Usually starts when you are young. You can grow otosclerosis between the ages of 10 and 45, but you are more likely to develop it in your 20s. Symptoms are usually worse in their 30s.
  • Genetics: It is often hereditary. About half of all people with otosclerosis have a gene related to the disorder. But even if you have the gene, you won’t necessarily have it.
  •   Both men and women get otosclerosis. Women, however, are at higher risk. Experts aren’t sure why, but if you’re a female and develop otosclerosis during pregnancy, you’re possible to lose hearing faster than if you were a man or not pregnant.
  • Race and ethnicity: Caucasians are more likely to get it. About 10% develop otosclerosis. It is less common in other groups and rare in African Americans.
  • Medical history: Certain medical problems can increase your chances of getting otosclerosis. For example, if you had measles at some point, your risk may increase. Stress fractures of the bone tissue around the inner ear can also increase the likelihood of it occurring. And immune disorders, in which your immune system mistakenly attacks parts of your body, can also be linked to the condition.


If you are concerned about hearing loss, make an appointment with your doctor. They will ask about the symptoms you have been having and then usually look at your ears with an auriscope. This is the common instrument used to look into your ears if you have an earache. In otosclerosis, your eardrum usually looks normal and healthy when your doctor looks into your ear.

Your doctor can refer you to an ear, nose, and throat specialist who can diagnose otosclerosis. They will do hearing tests that will show a specific pattern of hearing loss in otosclerosis. The professional may also use a small device that is placed in your ear, called tympanometry. This can help them observe the movement of the bones inside your ear. In otosclerosis, the stapes (stapes) will move less. This test is very rapid and does not cause any pain.

Sometimes the specialist may decide that you need a CT scan that will give them more information about the severity of otosclerosis.


Currently, there is no effective drug treatment for otosclerosis, although there is hope that continued research on bone remodeling can identify potential new therapies. Mild otosclerosis can be preserved with a hearing aid that amplifies sound, but surgery is often required. In a procedure known as a stapedotomy, a surgeon inserts a prosthesis into the middle ear to bypass abnormal bone and allow sound waves to travel to the inner ear and restore hearing.

It is important to discuss any surgical procedure with an ear specialist to clarify the possible risks and limitations of the operation. For example, some hearing loss can persist after stapedotomy, and in rare cases, surgery can make hearing loss worse.


Complications can include complete deafness. Weird taste in the mouth or loss of taste in part of the tongue, temporary or permanent. Infection, dizziness, pain, or a blood clot in the ear after surgery.


It is not possible to prevent otosclerosis, so its early detection is essential to be able to provide the necessary treatment and avoid hearing loss.


Types and Symptoms of Kyphosis | Orthopaedics

What is kyphosis?

Kyphosis is a spinal condition in which the upper outer curve of the spine (usually the thoracic spine) is very rounded. This curve causes a hunched or slanted look, commonly known as a hunchback or round back.

Age-related kyphosis is often caused by compression or fracture due to weakness in the vertebrae. Other types of roundback appear in babies or adolescents due to the deformity of the spine or dislocation of the vertebrae over time.

People with roundback are concerned about their appearance, but in most cases, they are not serious enough to cause problems or require medical treatment or surgery. In more severe cases, people may have pain or trouble breathing. This occurs most often in teens, but it can develop at any time.

Alternate name

  • Roundback
  • Hunchback

Types of kyphosis

There are three types of kyphosis: postural, spike, and congenital.

Postural kyphosis: This is caused by poor posture. This usually occurs during adolescence and is more common in girls than boys. In most cases, this type can be corrected with physical therapy and exercise and does not require medical treatment.

Kyphosis, a hump-shaped curve in the upper right quadrant.

Schneiderman’s kyphosis: This begins in adolescence and is caused by a “breakdown” of the vertebrae, contributing to the development of scoliosis. X-rays are needed to diagnose this type, but doctors are not sure why it occurs.

Schumann’s kyphosis: It can be treated longer with physical therapy and mild pain relievers.

If the patient is still growing and the curve of the spine measures 45 degrees, a weed is recommended.

Kyphotic spinal curves measuring greater than 75 degrees require surgery to treat the deformity and stabilize the spine.

Congenital kyphosis: This is due to abnormal development of the vertebrae before birth and vertebral fusion. Surgery is generally recommended when roundback affects the baby and can help treat it before the disorder worsens.

This can be caused by other disorders, including:

  • Vertebral compression fracture (s)
  • Degenerative spinal arthritis
  • Ankylosing spondyloarthritis
  • Spinal cord infection
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Spinal tumor

Symptoms of kyphosis

Most people with kyphosis do not have symptoms other than rounded shoulders or a lump in the upper back. The larger the curve, the more likely a person is to have other symptoms. These include:

  • Pain or stiffness in the back and/or shoulder blades
  • Numb, weak, or tingly legs
  • Severe fatigue
  • Poor posture
  • Difficulty breathing or other breathing difficulties

Causes of kyphosis

Kyphosis can affect people of any age. Poor posture is often the cause because it rarely occurs in newborns. Kyphosis from poor posture is called postural roundback.

Other possible causes of kyphosis are:

  • Aging, especially if you have poor posture
  • Muscle weakness in the upper back
  • Schweizerman’s disease, which occurs in children and has no unknown cause
  • Arthritis or other osteoporosis diseases
  • Osteoporosis or loss of bone strength due to age
  • Spinal injury
  • Slipped discs
  • Scoliosis or curvature of the spine

The following conditions less commonly lead to kyphosis:

  • Spine infection
  • Birth defects such as spina bifida
  • Tumors
  • Connective tissue diseases
  • Polio
  • Paget’s disease
  • Muscular weakness

Does kyphosis need treatment?

A spine specialist can determine if your kyphosis needs treatment. The evaluation includes your medical and family history, a thorough physical and neurological exam, and imaging tests. The orthopedic spinal surgeon or neurosurgeon may order foot X-rays, computed tomography, and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to fully diagnose roundback. If previous roundback imaging studies are available, the spine specialist will compare the old images with the newer ones.

Imaging studies are used to measure the size or angle of the roundback. Previous imaging studies can provide information on curve size progression and “Is the curve larger?” You can answer the question.

Also, your body’s balance, ability to stand upright, and symptoms are potential indicators that recommend surgical or non-surgical treatment. Other tests may include blood function tests, pulmonary function tests (a measurement of lung and lung capacity), and bone mineral density tests.

Treatment for kyphosis

Treatment for kyphosis depends on its severity and the underlying cause. Here are some common causes and their treatments:

Schweizerman disease. The child may receive physical therapy, braces, or corrective surgery.

Tumors are usually removed only if there is concern about spinal cord compression. If so, your surgeon may try to remove the tumor, but it can often destabilize the bone. In such cases, spinal fusion is often necessary.

Osteoporosis. Treatment of osteoporosis is essential to prevent roundback from increasing. Medications make it great.

Poor posture. Posture exercises can help. You do not need aggressive treatments.

The following treatments can help relieve symptoms of kyphosis:

  • Medications can reduce pain if necessary
  • Physical therapy can help strengthen your core and back muscles
  • Yoga increases body awareness and increases strength, flexibility, and range of motion
  • Excessive weight loss reduces the additional load on the spine
  • Wearing braces can help, especially in children and teens
  • In severe cases, surgery may be necessary


In addition to back pain, kyphosis can cause:

Respiratory problems. Severe roundback puts pressure on the lungs.

Limited physical functions. The muscles behind the roundback are weak and have difficulty performing tasks such as walking and getting up from chairs. The curvature of the spine also makes it difficult to look up or drive and causes pain when lying down.

Digestive problems. A severe roundback can narrow the digestive system and cause problems like acid reflux and trouble swallowing.

Body image problems. People with roundback, especially teenagers, can develop poor body image from having a rounded back or from using a brush to correct the condition. For the elderly, body image can lead to social isolation.