Hip problems in infants

Overview of Hip Problems in Infants | Orthopaedics

What are hip problems in infants?

The hip problems in infants are difficult to solve, both for the child and for the parent or caregiver with the problem. A child with a hip problem may experience pain in the hip, groin, thigh, or knee. A child in pain may be weak or unable to stand, walk, or move the affected leg. The baby in pain may be crying, confused, and have other signs of pain. Hip problems in infants can be congenital or develop from injury, overuse, inflammation, infection, or tumor growth.

To better understand hip problems in infants, it helps to know how the hip works. It is the largest ball and socket joint in the body. The femur fits perfectly into the lumbar cavity (acetabulum). The hip joint is tighter and more stable than the shoulder joint, but it does not move freely. The hip joint is held together by the muscles of the buttocks, groin, and spine; Tendons; And the joint capsule. Lubricate the cushion and the hip joint with several fluid-filled bursae and move them gently, shining tendons and muscles. The largest nerve in the body (nerves in the back of the hip) travels through the pelvis to the leg.

Hip problems in infants

Hip problems in infants can arise from overuse, infection, or congenital problems. Interestingly, a child with hip problems in infants may experience pain in the knee or thigh rather than the hip. Hip problems that affect children:

  • Inflammatory reactions such as transient or toxic sinusitis. This usually happens after a child has a cold or other upper respiratory infection. It is the most common cause of hip pain in children.
  • Slipped capital femoral epiphysis. This occurs when the femur slides at the upper end (head of the thigh) on the growth plate (epiphysis) and fits snugly into the hip socket.
  • Leg-Calve-Perthes disease. This condition is caused by decreased blood flow to the head of the bone, which affects the bone as seen on an X-ray and MRI in children with this problem.
  • Inward torsion of the femur (femoral antiviral). This condition causes the knees and legs to turn inward. Children may have a “pigeon-toed” appearance and may have awkward gait.
  • Development of hip dysplasia (DDH). This condition is caused by a problem in the development of the hip joint. The upper part of the bone does not fit properly into the hip socket (acetabulum), so the bone partially or completely slips out of the socket.
  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). This condition often causes swollen and inflamed joints that are tight and painful.
  • Infection of the joint (septic arthritis), bursa (septic bursitis), or bone of the hip or pelvis (osteomyelitis).
  • In rare cases, such as bone cancer and osteosarcoma.
  • Treatment for a hip problem depends on the location, type, and severity of the problem, as well as the child’s age, general health, and activity level. Treatment may include first aid measures; Brush, plaster, saddle, or traction application; physical therapy; drugs; or surgery.

Symptoms of hip problems in infants

Most babies with CDD are diagnosed in the first few months.

Common symptoms of DDH in infants can include:

  • The leg is less visible towards the affected hip
  • The folds appear unevenly on the skin of the thigh or buttocks
  • There may be a popping sensation with movement of the hip

Causes of hip problems in infants

The exact cause is unknown, but doctors believe that several factors increase the risk of hip dysplasia in children:

  • Family history of DDH in parents or other close relatives
  • Gender: Girls are two to four times more likely to have this condition
  • Babies born first are harder to fit in the womb than later babies
  • Break position during pregnancy
  • Wrap your legs tightly
  • Break position: Babies under the head often expand with one or both legs in a partially upright position without shrinking into the fetal position when the baby is pregnant. Unfortunately, this position can prevent the developing baby’s hip socket from developing properly.
  • Tight swaddling: Wrapping the baby’s legs in an upright position interferes with the healthy development of the joint. If you move your baby, you can comfortably wrap her arms and torso, but leave room for her legs to bend and move.

Diagnosis of hip problems in infants

Usually the doctor will feel if something goes wrong. The doctor will first check your baby’s hips in the hospital after birth. They do this by slowly pushing and pulling to see if the baby’s femurs are loose in the hip socket. An ultrasound may be needed to get an image of the hip. X-rays may be taken after your baby is 3 months old.

There may be no hip problems at birth. They can become a problem as your baby’s body develops. The doctor will check your baby’s hips during each baby checkup. As your baby grows, the doctor will check to see if your baby’s thighs stretch easily.

The doctor will perform a physical exam and diagnostic tests to obtain detailed images of your child’s hip. Common tests include:

  • Ultrasound (sonogram): Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the femoral head (ball) and acetabulum (socket). This is the preferred way to diagnose hip dysplasia in children up to 6 months of age.
  • X-rays: X-rays are more reliable than ultrasounds in children 6 months of age and after bone formation begins at the head of the bone.
  • During the test, the doctor will ask about your baby’s history, including your baby’s history during pregnancy. They also ask if there is a history of hip problems from the parents.

Treatment for hip problems in infants

Treatment may not be needed right away. Instead, the doctor will continue to check if your baby’s hips are growing properly. If the problem does not go away, worsens, or worsens, the doctor may decide to treat the problem.

A soft herb called “pavlik saddle” treats most hip problems in infants. This herb keeps your baby’s knees apart and bends toward the chest. The doctor should check your baby’s hips for the first few weeks to see if the hip is in place or is still there. When the hip is in place, your baby will be shed for another 2 to 3 months. Your baby will use marijuana day and night for a total of 3 to 6 months.

1 in 20 babies need more than grass to solve a hip problem. The most serious cases require surgery. In closed reduction surgery, the hip joint is put back in place. Open hip surgery involves removal or displacement of the hip joint. This allows the doctor to clean the socket and then correctly align and reposition the hip joint. After surgery, your baby may wear a cast and / or grass for several months to support his hips.

Living with hip problems in infants

Treatment and ongoing monitoring must address HRD. There is the possibility of recurring problems in the future, such as dislocation. Talk to your doctor about the benefits and risks of treatment, as well as related problems. You can benefit by joining a support group of other parents who have dealt with a similar problem.

Can hip problems in infants be prevented?

DDH cannot be prevented without knowing the cause. However, there are some things you can do to prevent it from getting worse.

Use proper technique to move your baby. Do not tie the legs too tightly. Your baby should have room to move his hips and keep his joints loose.

Buy products that protect your baby’s legs and hips. This includes baby seats, harnesses, swings, and baby carriers. Follow the instructions to use these products correctly.

Take care when carrying your baby in the carrier. Your baby’s hips should be in an extended squat position. This means that her hips are open and her knees are bent higher or lower than her butt. Her legs should be able to wrap around your torso.

Tell your doctor if you, another child, or a family member have hip problems in infants. This increases the chances that your child will have DDH.

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