What Is A Pediatric Otolaryngologist? | ENT Specialist

Overview of a pediatric otolaryngologist

If your child needs surgical or complex medical treatment for illnesses or problems affecting the ear, nose, or throat, a pediatric otolaryngologist has the experience and qualifications to treat your child. Many general otolaryngologists provide surgical care for children. However, in many areas of the country, more specialized otolaryngology care is available for children.

What type of training do pediatric otolaryngologists have?

Pediatric otolaryngologists are doctors who have had

  • At least 4 years of medical school.
  • One year of surgical practice.
  • Often 1 additional year of general surgery residency training.
  • At smallest 3 to 4 additional years of placement training in otolaryngology and head and neck surgery.
  • Pediatric otolaryngologists often complete additional training in fellowship programs at a medical centre for older children.

Pediatric otolaryngologists treat children from the neonatal period through adolescence. They choose to make pediatric care the centre of their medical practice, and the unique nature of children’s medical and surgical care is learned from advanced training and hands-on experience.

Procedures and treatments do a pediatric otolaryngologist performs

Pediatric otolaryngologists are qualified in both medical and surgical treatments. Common procedures and treatments include:

  • Airway procedures including bronchoscopy and tracheostomy
  • Allergy treatments, including medications and immunotherapy (allergy shots)
  • Cancer treatments counting chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery.
  • Cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, including rhinoplasty (“nose surgery”), otoplasty (pinning the ears back), and cleft lip and palate repair (palatoplasty)
  • Ear surgery including cochlear implants, a myringotomy (small incisions in the eardrum to relieve pressure), and tympanoplasty (reconstruction of the eardrum and middle ear).
  • Endocrine surgery, including surgery of the thyroid gland and parathyroid glands.
  • Treatments for GERD including medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery
  • Laryngeal (laryngeal) procedures including voice therapy, phono surgery (surgery to correct the production of voice or sound), and laryngectomy (removal of the larynx)
  • Nasal treatments counting medicine, balloon sinuplasty, and septoplasty (straightening of the nasal septum).
  • Tongue and throat treatments, including medications, tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, and surgery to correct sleep apnea and snoring.

Tests can pediatric otolaryngologist perform or order

A pediatric otolaryngologist can instructor perform an extensive variety of diagnostic and screening tests, including:

  • Biopsies, including removal of tissue from the thyroid or other areas of the head and neck.
  • General health tests including a physical examination of the ears, nose, throat, head, and neck, blood test, bacterial cultures including group A Streptococcus, and skin tests with allergy patches.
  • GERD tests including pH probe, barium swallow or upper GI series, gastric emptying study with technetium, and endoscopy with biopsy
  • Imaging tests including X-rays and computed tomography (CT) scans.
  • Scoping tests including endoscopy, otoscopy (of the ear), bronchoscopy (of the airways and lungs), and laryngoscopy (of the back of the throat and larynx).

What types of treatments do provide?

Pediatric otolaryngologists are primarily concerned with the medical and surgical treatment of diseases of the ear, nose, and throat in children. Pediatric otolaryngologists generally provide the following services:

  • Diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, and throat illnesses and head and neck diseases.
  • Head and neck surgery, including care before and after surgery
  • Consult with other doctors when ear, nose, or throat diseases are detected.
  • Assistance in identifying communication disorders in children.

What conditions can a pediatric otolaryngologist treat?

A pediatric otolaryngologist treats conditions and diseases including:

  • Ear conditions including ear infections, hearing loss, balance disorders, ruptured eardrum, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), cholesteatoma (abnormal skin growth in the ear), benign (noncancerous) growths, and congenital disorders and deformities of the outer and inner ear
  • Head and neck conditions including tumours of the parotid, thyroid and parathyroid glands, sleep apnea, head or neck masses, hemangiomas (benign blood vessel tumours) and vascular malformations; and facial irregularities, deformities or injuries
  • Nose conditions including sinusitis, deviated septum, chronic or recurring nosebleeds, nasal polyps, nasal obstructions, and loss of smell
General Topics

What Is Bone Mass Risk In Older Women? | Orthopaedics

Overview of bone mass risk in older women

Older women with low bone mineral density (BMD) have a decreased incidence of breast cancer. It is not known whether this association is confined to early-stage, slow-growing tumours.

Prospectively studied 8905 women who were 65 years of age or older during the period from 1986 through 1988 and had no history of breast cancer. At study entry, we used single-photon absorptiometry to measure each woman’s BMD at three skeletal sites: the wrist, forearm, and heel. The women were followed for a mean of 6.5 years for the occurrence of breast cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided.

There are several reasons why women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men, including:

  • Women tend to have lesser and solvent bones than men.
  • Estrogen, a women’s hormone that protects bones, drops dramatically when women reach menopause, which can cause bone loss. That is why the accidental of developing osteoporosis increases as women spread menopause.

Risk factors

Although several risk factors affect the risk of fragility fractures, low bone density, mass, and strength contribute to an increased risk of fracture in the event of a fall. In the prevention of fractures, it is essential to improve both bone health and physical performance.

Bone mineral density among men and women aged 35 to 50 years

  • Context: Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and is believed to be only a major health problem for postmenopausal women. However, osteoporosis and its risk factors have been poorly studied in the male and middle-aged populations.
  • Objective: To assess the probability of low BMD and its association with related risk factors in early middle-aged men and women (defined in this study as 35-50 years).
  • Methods: Men and women completed a questionnaire assessing calcium intake, hours per week of exercise, and other related risk factors associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia. The primary outcome variable, BMD, was obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans taken at the femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric ridge, total femur, and lumbar spine.

Osteoporosis: not just for older women

Women who have been through menopause indeed have a higher risk of osteoporosis, which is a decrease in bone density. But everyone’s bones naturally weaken with age.

Our bodies constantly substitute old bone tissue with new bone tissue. As we age, this rebuilding process takes longer. In fact, your bone density peaks around age 30. After that, you start to lose bone mass. Anything that promotes bone loss or prevents new bone formation can increase the risk of osteoporosis.

In addition to age and gender, family history and having a small, slim body are major risk factors. Also, unhealthy habits can play a role. If you smoke or drink a lot, are sedentary, or if your diet lacks calcium and vitamin D, your risk of osteoporosis will be higher. Some medical conditions and medications can also affect bone health. Among the most common are:

  • Prednisone and other corticosteroids. They are often prescribed for people with asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, or other conditions because they fight inflammation. But taking them for a long period increases the risk of bone loss.
  • Anti-seizure drugs. People with epilepsy may be at higher risk because commonly used anti-seizure medications have been shown to alter the way vitamin D is used in the body, affecting the strength of bones. Also, a seizure itself can result in a fall or other accident that could cause a fracture.
  • Low levels of testosterone and estrogen. Anything that reduces estrogen (in women) or testosterone (in men) has an effect on the bones. This may be due to long-term use of strong pain relievers, cancer treatment, surgery or trauma to the testicles in men or the ovaries in women, elevated levels of sports activity, or genetic factors such as early menopause in women.
  • Other chronic diseases or conditions. Circumstances such as diabetes, untreated hyperthyroidism, extreme levels of the stress hormone cortisol, and kidney or liver disease can affect nutrient and vitamin D levels, and increase bone loss or decrease bone formation.

The loss of bone density related to any of these conditions makes you more vulnerable to bone fractures, especially as you age. If you are at higher risk, it’s important to talk to your doctor about your bone health. The sooner you take steps to protect your bones, the better your chances of avoiding a fracture.


What Do Otolaryngologists Do? | ENT Specialist

Overview of otolaryngologist

Otolaryngologist uses medical and surgical care to treat conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT), as well as related conditions of the head and neck. Surgeons in this medical field have many titles: otolaryngologists, head and neck surgeons, ENT physicians, ENT surgeons, and ENT surgeons.

Common conditions that these specialists treat are sleep apnea, gastric reflux, and hearing loss. Otolaryngologists often treat nasal obstructions with cochlear implant surgery, as well as tonsillectomy, rhinoplasty, and biopsy.

The term, despite its extension, is actually an abbreviation for otorhinolaryngology.

  • Ears: The treatment of hearing loss is exclusive to ENT specialists.
  • Nose: Chronic sinusitis is one of the most common medical complaints in the United States, with 35 million adults being diagnosed with the disease each year. Managing the nasal cavity also involves treating allergy and odour problems.
  • Throat: ENT specialists are responsible for diagnosing and treating diseases of the larynx and upper oesophagus, including vocal problems and swallowing problems.
  • Head and neck: ENT specialists can also treat diseases and disorders that affect the face, head, and neck, including infectious diseases, trauma, deformities, and cancers. In this area, otorhinolaryngology can be crossed with other specialities such as dermatology and oral surgery.

What are the conditions treated by otolaryngologists?

Otolaryngologists provide care for a variety of conditions using medical and surgical skills to treat their patients.

They have a solid understanding of the medical sciences of the head and neck, the upper respiratory and digestive systems, communication systems, and the chemical senses.

The following is a list of common conditions that fall under the category of otolaryngologists.

Airway problems

Breathing difficulties can range from mild to severe, such as stridor and severe airway obstruction. A variety of underlying conditions can cause these problems.

Chronic sinusitis

This condition is characterized by chronic inflammation and swelling of the nasal passages, with difficulty breathing through the mucous membranes and the nose. Infection, increased polyps inside the nose, or an abnormal septum can contribute to chronic sinusitis.

Cleft lip and palate

It is a cleft in the mouth in which the lip, palate, or both do not fully develop as the fetus grows. Ruptures can range in size from those that cause minor problems to severe interference with food, speech, and breathing.

Nasal septum

The nasal septum is the wall that divides the nasal cavity. A deviated septum is severely altered from the midline, which usually causes shortness of breath and chronic sinusitis.

Dropping the eyelids

Excessive sagging of the upper eyelid can be part of the natural ageing process, but it can also be caused by several underlying conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, stroke, and tumours that affect nerve or muscle reactions. Dropping the eyelids can sometimes interfere with vision.

Hearing loss

Hearing loss occurs in people of all ages and can have a variety of causes. Ageing, exposure to loud noises, viruses, heart conditions, head injuries, strokes, and tumours can gradually lead to hearing loss.

Infection of tonsils or adenoids

The tonsils and adenoids of the throat are part of the immune system. Its job is to take samples of bacteria and viruses that enter the body through the nose and mouth but are susceptible to recurring infections that can lead to surgery.

Voice disorders

Many conditions can lead to voice disorders, including vocal cord trauma, viruses, cancer, and recurrent chronic acid reflux. Diseases include numbness, low vocal tone, vocal fatigue, and total loss of voice.

What are the procedures done by otolaryngologist?

Otolaryngologists should be able to perform a wide range of procedures to address a large number of medical problems in their speciality.

These procedures involve the entire neck, from complex microvascular reconstruction to surgery. The following list of policies reveals a wide range of work.


Sagging eyelid repair is the removal of excess skin, muscle, or fat that can damage eyesight. This procedure often occurs for cosmetic reasons and rarely requires a hospital stay.

Endoscopic sinus surgery

This is often done by an otolaryngologist to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases of the sinuses, such as chronic sinusitis or the growth of polyps. Otolaryngologists insert a device called an endoscope into the nose, which allows the sinuses to be seen.

They can be inserted and used with surgical instruments, including lasers, to remove material blocking the sinuses. This procedure is done under local or general anaesthesia.

Excision and biopsy

The surgeon performs a biopsy to identify suspicious lesions and tumours. These can develop anywhere on the body and require recognition to define an effective course of treatment.

They often perform the removal of small wounds and superficial skin cancers under local anaesthesia in the context of a patient.

Facial plastic surgery

This type of surgery can be reconstructive or cosmetic. Otolaryngologists can correct congenital anomalies such as a cleft palate, or accidents, conditions such as previous surgeries or skin cancer.

They also improve the appearance of facial structures, including correcting wrinkles.

Neck dissection

The main form of surgery, which involves removing cancerous lymph nodes in the neck, is performed under general anaesthesia. The extent of the surgery depends on the spread of cancer.

Radical neck dissection requires the removal of all tissues in this area, including muscles, nerves, salivary glands, and major blood vessels, from the jaw bone to the clavicle.

When to contact an otolaryngologist

Otolaryngologists are the most suitable physicians to treat any structural disorder related to the ears, nose, throat, and head and neck.

Because they specialize in both medicine and surgery, they generally do not need to refer patients to other doctors for further treatment.

General Topics

Effect Of Early Menopause Due To Osteoporosis | Orthopaedics

Osteoporosis and menopause

Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bones, increasing the risk of sudden and unexpected fractures. Literally meaning “porous bone,” osteoporosis results in an increased loss of bone mass and strength. The disease often progresses without any symptoms or pain.

Osteoporosis is often not discovered until the weakened bones cause painful fractures, usually in the back or hips. Unfortunately, once you have a broken bone due to osteoporosis, you are at high risk for another. And these fractures can be debilitating. Fortunately, there are steps you can take to help prevent osteoporosis from occurring. And treatments can reduce the rate of bone loss if you already have osteoporosis.

How is osteoporosis related to menopause?

There is a direct relationship between the lack of estrogens during perimenopause and menopause and the development of osteoporosis. Early menopause (before age 45) and any long period in which hormone levels are low and menstrual periods are absent or infrequent can cause bone loss.

Diagnosis of osteoporosis in young women

Diagnosing osteoporosis in premenopausal women is not easy and can be quite difficult. First of all, bone density tests are not routinely recommended for young women. Here are some reasons why:

  • Most premenopausal women with low bone density are not at increased risk of breaking a bone shortly. Therefore, having information about your bone density can only cause unnecessary worry and expense.
  • Some premenopausal women have low bone density because their genetic factor (family history) caused them to have low peak bone mass. Nothing can and should be done to change this.
  • DXA tests can underestimate bone density in small, thin women. So, a DXA test may indicate that a small person has low bone density, but the bone density is really normal for the person’s body size.
  • Medications for osteoporosis are not approved or recommended for most premenopausal women. Jawbone density tests are used to help leader decisions about treatment.

Diagnosing in young women generally involves several steps. While these stepladders may differ for each person, they may include:

  • Medical history
  • Physical exam
  • Bone mineral density test (bone density)
  • Lab tests
  • X-rays

One to two years after an initial bone density test, a second bone density can be done and will determine if you have a low peak bone mass that remains the same or if you are losing bone. If your bone density drops significantly between the first and second test, you may be losing bone and need further evaluation by a healthcare provider.


Treatments for established osteoporosis include:

  • Medications such as alendronate (Binosto, Fosamax), ibandronate (Boniva), raloxifene (Evista), risedronate (Actonel, Atevia), and zoledronic acid (Reclast, Zometa)
  • Calcium and vitamin D supplements.
  • Weight-bearing exercises.
  • Injectable abaloparatide (Tymlos), teriparatide (Forteo) or PTH to rebuild bone.
  • Injectable denosumab (Prolia, Xgeva) for women at high risk of fracture when other drugs don’t work.

Understand the risks

The following are additional risk factors:


Smoking has been shown to increase your risk. It also appears to cause an earlier onset of menopause, which means there is less time that the bones are protected by estrogen. People who smoke also have a more difficult time healing after a fracture compared to non-smokers.

Body composition

Women who are small or thin have a higher risk of developing osteoporosis compared to women who are heavier or have a larger body. This is because slimmer women have less bone mass overall compared to larger women. The same is true of men.

Existing bone density

When you reach menopause, the higher your bone density, the lower your chance of developing osteoporosis.

Think of your body as a bank. You spend your young life building or “saving” bone mass. The more bone mass you have at the beginning of menopause, the less quickly it will “wear out.”

This is why you should encourage your children to actively develop bone density in their younger years.

Family history

If your parents or grandparents had this or a hip fracture as a result of a minor fall, you may have a higher risk of developing osteoporosis.


Women are up to four times more likely to develop osteoporosis than men. This is because women tend to be smaller and weigh less than men. Women over the age of 50 are at the highest risk of developing bone disease.

General Topics

Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction (SPD) in Pregnancy | Orthopaedics

What is symphysis pubis dysfunction (SPD) in pregnancy?

Symphysis pubis dysfunction (SPD) is a group of symptoms that cause uneasiness in the pelvic region. It usually occurs during pregnancy, when the pelvic joints developed stiff or move unevenly. It can occur in both the front and back of the pelvis. Symphysis pubis dysfunction (SPD) is also sometimes known as pelvic girdle pain.

The symphysis pubis dysfunction condition is not harmful to your baby, but it can be extremely painful for you. In some, the pain can be so severe that it affects mobility.

What are the signs and symptoms of SPD?

The most common symptoms of this symphysis pubis dysfunction are difficulty walking and tearing pain (as if the pelvis is tearing). The pain is usually concentrated in the pubic area, but in some women, it radiates to the upper thighs and perineum.

Pain can be worse when you walk and perform weight-bearing activities, particularly those that involve lifting one leg such as climbing stairs, getting dressed, getting in and out of a car, or even rolling over in bed.

What causes symphysis pubis dysfunction?

“We have connective tissue that attaches the two sides of the pubic bone. The connective tissue is called the symphysis pubis,” says Heba Shaheed, a physical therapist specifying in women’s and pelvic fitness who founded The Pelvic Expert in Sydney, Australia. In other words, the symphysis pubis is a cartilaginous joint located between the right and left sides of the pubic bone.

The hormone relaxin increases during pregnancy to increase your body’s range of motion during delivery. This hormonal change causes the ligaments around the pubic symphysis to become elastic, soft and relaxed. In turn, the symphysis pubis can become unstable and cause pain in some women. “People often feel that two sides of the pubic bone are sliding up and down against each other,” Shaheed explains. “It can be incapacitating if you don’t address the problem right away.”

She is aware that in its most severe form, SPD can cause a real separation of the pubic bone. Pelvic and hip pain can be tremendously painful in this situation. But the doctor says that parting of the pubic bone is rare, happening in less than 1 per cent of pregnancies.

Side effects and complications of symphysis pubis dysfunction

Pelvic pain and instability can affect other parts of the body as well. For example, pelvic pain can change the way a person walks and moves, which, in turn, could put stress on different parts of the body, such as the hips or back.

Research indicates that pelvic girdle pain is simple in about 20% of cases. Severe pain can delay mobility and normal daily activities. Walking can be painful and unsteady.

Emotional problems can also develop as a result of pain related to SPD. In one study, women reported feeling irritable, guilty, upset, and unfulfilled due to SPD. When pain touches mobility, it can also lead to social isolation and there is a risk of pain medicine abuse.

Treatment and remedies for symphysis pubis dysfunction

Both medical treatment and home remedies can help treat symphysis pubis dysfunction (SPD). The harshness of the pain will determine the treatment options. During pregnancy, not all treatments are suitable. For example, medication may not be advisable.

Treatment may include the following:

  • Soft tissue therapy: Soft tissue therapy generally includes chiropractic care, which may involve spinal manipulation and massage to improve the stability and position of the pelvic joint.
  • Wearing a pregnancy support belt: A pregnancy belt supports the pelvic bones and helps maintain proper alignment. The belt can relieve pain in the short term. A study involving 46 pregnant women with pelvic girdle pain found that wearing a pregnancy support belt successfully reduced pain, but only when the women used it regularly for short periods.
  • Extension: Since SPD affects everyone differently, stretches that work for one person may not work for another. It’s best to check with a doctor which stretches are safe, especially during pregnancy.

An example of a stretch that can relieve pain is the pelvic tilt. People can achieve this exercise by following these steps:

  • Lie on your backbone with your knees bent and your feet flat on the floor.
  • Pull your stomach muscles inward and squeeze your gluteal muscles to flatten your back and tilt your pelvis.
  • Hold the place for 5 to 10 seconds and then relax.
  • If this movement alleviates the discomfort, a person can do 10 to 20 repetitions.

Remedies of symphysis pubis dysfunction

These home remedies can also reduce SPD-related discomfort:

  • Insertion a pillow between your legs when sleeping
  • Avoiding sitting for a long time
  • Smear an ice pack to the pelvic area
  • Staying active but avoiding any activity that causes you pain
  • Incorporating breaks every day
  • Wearing supportive shoes
  • Keep your knees organized when getting in and out of the car
  • Perform Kegel exercises to reinforce your pelvic floor muscles.
  • Analgesic

Over-the-counter and prescription pain relievers can also help relieve the symptoms of SPD. However, not all pain relievers are safe during pregnancy. A healthcare professional can offer advice on the appropriate options.

Diagnosis of symphysis pubis dysfunction

Potential symptoms from the differential diagnosis of SPD should be firmly excepted thorough medical history, physical inspection, and appropriate investigations, to ensure the diagnosis of pubic symphysis dysfunction.

Symptoms that can lead to the diagnosis of SPD are nerve compression (injury to the intervertebral disc), symptomatic low back pain (lumbago and sciatica), pubic osteolysis, osteitis pubis, bone infection (osteomyelitis, tuberculosis, syphilis), urinary tract infection., rotund ligament pain, femoral vein thrombosis, and obstetric complications.

Diagnostic procedures of symphysis pubis dysfunction

As with all dysfunctions, an early diagnosis is important to minimize the possibility of a long-term problem. However, not all doctors recognize this problem.

Leadbetter et al. described, in accordance with their findings, a scoring system for diagnosing symphysis pubis dysfunction based on pain during four activities and a previous injury, which could be important in determining symphysis pubis dysfunction.

  1. Pain in the pubic bone when walking
  2. Standing on one leg
  3. Climb stairs
  4. Roll over in bed
  5. Previous damage to the lumbosacral spine or pelvis

Often the diagnosis is made symptomatically, eg. Eg after pregnancy, but imaging is the only way to confirm diastasis of the symphysis pubis. Radiography, such as an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), X-ray, computed tomography (CT) scan, or ultrasound [1, level 1A], has been used to confirm separation of the symphysis pubis. Although it is not considered as the method of choice due to the danger of exposing the fetus to ionizing radiation. A better technique with superior spatial resolution and avoiding ionizing radiation is magnetic resonance imaging.

Other techniques that can aid in the diagnosis and follow-up of the treatment of pelvic symphysis dysfunction are transvaginal or transperineal ultrasound, which uses high-resolution transducers.  Ultrasound is a useful diagnostic aid that can measure interpubic distance. This may be a consequence of the diastasis of the pubic symphysis after delivery. Interpubic distance is usually measured with electronic callipers. It is also important to know that ultrasound provides a simple means of measuring the interpubic gap, without exposure to ionizing radiation.

Prevention of SPD

It is very little you can do to avoid getting SPD during pregnancy. However, it is more common if you have had a preceding pelvic injury, so it is always important to take all possible steps to protect this vital part of your body.

General Topics

Common Causes of Hip Pain in Women | Orthopaedics

What is hip pain?

Before getting the details about hip pain in women first of all know about the hip pain.

Hip pain is a common grievance that can be caused by a wide variety of problems. The precise location of your hip pain can provide valuable clues to the underlying cause. Problems within the hip joint tend to lead to pain inside the hip or groin. Hip pain on the outside of the hip, upper thigh, or outside of the buttock is usually caused by problems with the muscles, ligaments, tendons, and other soft tissues that surround the hip joint. This can occasionally be caused by diseases and circumstances in other areas of your body, such as your lower back. This type of pain is called referred pain.

Causes of Hip pain in women

Amongst the most common causes of hip pain in women are:

  • Arthritis: The most common cause of chronic hip pain in women is arthritis, mainly osteoarthritis, the wear-and-tear kind that touches many people as they age. “The ball-and-socket joint flinches to wear out,” Siegrist says. Arthritis pain is often touched in the front of your thigh or the groin, due to stiffness or swelling in the joint.
  • Hip fractures: Hip fractures are communal in older women, especially those with osteoporosis (reduced bone density). Symptoms of a hip fracture contain pain when you straighten, lift, or stand on your leg. Also, the toes on your injured lateral will appear to turn out, a sign that can aid your doctor’s preliminary diagnosis.
  • Tendinitis and bursitis: Many tendons around the hip attach the muscles to the joint. These tendons can easily become inflamed if you’re over employment them or participate in strenuous activities. One of the most common causes of tendinitis at the hip joint, especially in runners, is iliotibial band syndrome — the iliotibial group is the thick distance of tissue that runs from the outer rim of your pelvis to the outdoor of your knee.

An additional common cause of hip pain in women is bursitis, says an orthopaedic doctor. Fluid-filled sacs called bursae to pad the bony part of the hip that is close to the surface. Like the tendons, these sacs can become reddened from irritation or overuse and cause pain whenever you move the hip joint.

  • Hernia: In the groin area, femoral and inguinal hernias — occasionally referred to as sports hernias — can cause anterior (frontal) hip pain in women. Pregnant women can be vulnerable to inguinal hernias because of the additional pressure on the wall of their abdomen.
  • Gynaecological and back issues: “In females can have gynaecological causes,” Siegrist says. “It’s important not to just shoulder that the pain is caused by arthritis, bursitis or tendinitis. Depending on your age and other fitness issues, the pain in your hip could be pending from some other system.”

Endometriosis (when the uterus lining grows somewhere else) can cause pelvic tenderness, which some women label as hip pain. Pain from the back and spine also can be mentioned and felt around the buttocks and hip, Siegrist says. Sciatica, a haggard nerve, can cause pain in the back of the hip, the pain from sciatica can start in your lower back and portable down to your buttocks and legs.

Symptoms of hip pain in women

Depending on the condition that is causing your hip pain, you may feel discomfort in your:

  • Thigh
  • Inside the hip joint
  • Groin
  • Outside the hip joint
  • Buttocks

From time to time pain in other areas of the body, such as the back or groin (from a hernia), can radiate to the hip. You may notice that your pain worsens with activity, especially if it is caused by arthritis. Along with the pain, you may have an abridged range of motion. Some people progress a limp from tenacious hip pain.

Hip pain in women relief

It is caused by a muscle or tendon strain, osteoarthritis, or tendonitis, you can usually relieve it with an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as acetaminophen, or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, such as ibuprofen or naproxen. Treatments for rheumatoid arthritis also include prescription anti-inflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) such as methotrexate and sulfasalazine, and biologics, which target the immune system.

Another way to relieve hip pain is to ice the area for about 15 minutes several times a day. Try to rest the pretentious joint as much as likely until you feel better. You can also try warming the area. A warm bath or shower can help prepare the muscle for stretching exercises that can relieve pain.

Home remedies

Home remedies contain rest, non-weight manner, cold application, and anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen (Motrin and Advil), naproxen (Aleve), and pain relievers such as acetaminophen (Tylenol).

Is it possible to prevent hip pain in women?

This can be prevented by circumventing injury to the hip joint. This includes sports injuries. Sometimes proper conditioning before a sporting event can prevent injuries.

Treatment options for hip pain in women

Treatment can be contingent on the diagnosis, but the hip pain in women caused by overuse or sports injuries is often treated with heat, rest, and over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medicines. To prevent injury, it’s significant to stretch beforehand exercising and wear appropriate clothing, especially good running shoes, says Doctor.

If certain activities, stop those that aggravate the discomfort and talk to your doctor. Excess weight can put pressure on your hip joint, so losing pounds can bring relief and help you avoid further problems. Some causes are, such as fractures or hernias, may require surgical repairs. If this persists, talk to your doctor about possible causes and treatments of this hip pain in women.

Diagnosis of hip pain in women

For pain that could be related to a condition like arthritis, your doctor will ask you a variety of questions, including:

  • Does the pain get worse at any time of the day?
  • Does it affect your ability to walk?
  • When did your symptoms first appear?

You may need to walk for your doctor to see the joint in motion. They will measure movement in the normal and abnormal hip and compare the two.

To diagnose arthritis, your physician will perform fluid and imaging tests. Fluid tests involve taking samples of blood, urine, and joint fluid for analysis in a laboratory. Imaging tests may include:

  • X-rays
  • CT scans
  • Magnetic resonances
  • Ultrasound

The imaging tests will give your doctor detailed views of your bones, cartilage, and other tissues.

General Topics

Why Women Get More Arthritis Than Men? | Orthopaedics

Overview of arthritis

But not so many, perhaps, know about the unique challenges women face regarding arthritis. Not only do women get more arthritis than men, but women also often experience worse pain –ache in different joints and are far more vulnerable to rheumatoid arthritis, one of the most debilitating forms of the condition.

These tend to move different joints in women than in men. Men have more in the hip joints, women on their hands and knees. For one thing, women’s tendons move more because they are more elastic and are also more prone to injury. Additionally, women’s wider hips affect knee alignment in a way that leaves them more vulnerable to certain types of injuries, resulting in more arthritis in the future.

Hormones also play a role. Estrogen helps keep inflammation under control, which is why younger women have less arthritis than men, but when levels plummet with menopause, it often follows. Investigators are currently trying to unravel other complicated findings of how hormones shape arthritis risk, with apparent connections between puberty, childbearing, and the use of hormone spare therapy.

Excess weight means more arthritis. Obesity is more in women than in men. Excess weight puts pressure on the knee joints, erodes cartilage, and therefore increases the risk. One pound of body weight translates to three additional pounds of pressure on each knee joint.

Rheumatoid arthritis is increasing among women

According to all, after 40 years of decline, the incidence (frequency of occurrence) and prevalence (total number of cases in a given population) of rheumatoid arthritis among women is increasing. From 1995 to 2005, the occurrence of rheumatoid arthritis among women was 54 per 100,000 compared to 36 per 100,000 during the previous 10 years.

For men, the occurrence was stable at 29 per 100,000. The researchers concluded that an environmental factor could explain the reverse trend for women.

Why is arthritis more common in women?

It is more common in females than in men. Find out why women are more susceptible to arthritic conditions.

Nearly 27 million Americans with osteoarthritis, about 60 per cent of them are women and the risk factors change with age. Up to 55 years, more men are affected, but after 55, the number of women with the condition exceeds the number of men. Gender also determines which joints tend to be pretentious. It is more common for men to experience in the hips. In women, It inclines to affect the hands or knees.

Thumb arthritis is more communal in women and can be very disabling. Women are more susceptible than men for several reasons:

  • Genetics. Osteoarthritis appears to run in families, and researchers have found specific genetic links amongst women for osteoarthritis of the hand and knee.
  • Hormones Research proposes that female hormones have an effect on the shock-absorbing cartilage found between the bones of the joints to allow smooth joint movement. Although the female hormone estrogen defends cartilage from inflammation, women lose that protection after menopause when estrogen levels drop.
  • Joint stability. Women’s joints are looser than men’s the bones move more and are less stable within the joint. When joints are less stable, they are more prone to injury, and injuries can lead to this disease.

When the bones move toward the ends of the joint, they go beyond the point where the joint should move. This damages the cartilage and can trigger the development of this disease.

Some people cope with this pain for years because they don’t realize there are treatments that can help. It is important to talk to your doctor about your level of pain and how often you experience it. It progresses over time, but we have treatments that can make this development less painful for patients.

When to seek treatment

It doesn’t have to spell the end of an active life. If you are experiencing worrisome symptoms or persistent pain, the renowned arthritis specialists at Summit Orthopedics can help. They work with you to confirm a diagnosis and develop an appropriate conservative treatment plan. If nonsurgical treatments fail to support your lifestyle goals, fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons will consult with you and discuss appropriate surgical options. Summit is home to innovative joint replacement options.


What Is A Bone Graft? | Orthopaedics

Overview of bone graft

Bone grafting is a surgical procedure that uses the transplanted bone to repair and rebuild diseased or damaged bones. A bone graft is a choice for repairing bones almost anywhere in your body. Your surgeon might take bone from your hips, legs, or ribs to perform the graft. Sometimes, surgeons also use bone tissue donated from cadavers to perform bone grafting.

Surgeons often perform bone grafts as part of some other medical procedure. For example, if you have a severe femur fracture, your healthcare provider might perform a bone graft as part of other needed repairs to your bone. Your healthcare provider may make an incision in your hip to remove a small part of your hip bone and use it for the graft. In some cases, artificial material is used similarly, but this is not a bone graft in the traditional sense. You will usually be put to sleep under general anaesthesia for the procedure.

Alternative names for bone graft

  • Autograft – bone
  • Allograft – bone
  • Fracture
  • Autologous

Types of bone grafts

The two most communal types of bone grafts are:

  • Allograft, which uses bone from a departed donor or a cadaver that has been gutted and stored in a tissue bank.
  • Autograft, which comes from a bone within your body, such as your ribs, hips, pelvis, or wrist

The type of graft used to be contingent on the type of injury your surgeon is repairing.

Allografts are usually used in hip, knee, or long bone rebuilding. Long bones include arms and legs. The advantage is that no additional surgery is needed to acquire the bone. It also reduces the risk of infection, as no additional incisions or surgery are required.

Allograft bone transplantation involves bone that does not have living cells, so the risk of rejection is minimal compared to organ transplants, in which there are living cells. Since the transplanted bone does not contain living marrow, it is not necessary to compare the blood types between donor and recipient.

Why might you need a bone graft?

You may need a bone graft to promote bone healing and growth for various medical reasons. Some specific conditions may include:

  • An initial fracture that your healthcare provider suspects will not heal without a graft.
  • A fracture that you had not previously treated with graft and that did not heal well.
  • Bone diseases, such as osteonecrosis or cancer.
  • Spinal fusion surgery (which you may need if you have an unstable spine).
  • Dental implant surgery (which you may need if you want to replace missing teeth).
  • Surgically implanted devices, as in total knee replacement, to help promote bone growth around the frame.

These can provide a framework for the growth of new and living bone. The hips, knees, and spine are common sites for a bone graft, but you may need a bone graft for not the same bone in your body.

The procedure of bone grafts

Typically, a person will be under general anaesthesia during a bone graft procedure. A surgeon will cut and then place the bone substitute in the damaged area. They may use additional tools and supports to hold the graft in place, including:

  • Thumbscrew
  • Wires
  • Cables
  • Dishes
  • Legs

The surgeon will close the wound with stitches. Doctors will monitor a person for several hours after the procedure. Before the person is discharged, they will also give instructions on how to help prevent infection.

Before the bone graft procedure

Tell your surgeon what medications you are taking. This includes medicines, supplements, or herbs that you bought without a prescription. Follow the instructions on how to stop taking blood thinners, such as warfarin (Coumadin), dabigatran (Pradaxa), rivaroxaban (Xarelto), or NSAIDs such as aspirin. These can cause increased bleeding during surgery.

On the day of surgery

  • Follow the instructions about not eating or drinking anything before surgery.
  • Take the medicines your provider has ordered with a small sip of water.
  • If you go to the hospital from home, make sure you arrive at the scheduled time.

After the procedure

Recovery time rests on the injury or defect being treated and the size of the bone graft. Your recovery can take from 2 weeks to 3 months. It will take up to 3 months or more to heal. You may be told to evade extreme exercise for up to 6 months. Ask your provider or nurse what you can and cannot do safely. It will essential to keep the area clean and dry. Follow the instructions on how to shower.

Smoking slows or prevents bone healing. If you smoke, the graft is more possible to fail. Be aware that nicotine patches delay healing.

Risks factors

Risks of a bone graft procedure include:

  • Nerve injury
  • Infection
  • Bleeding
  • Decreased mobility
  • Cosmetic defects
  • Chronic pain
  • Failure of the graft to achieve its goal
General Topics

What Are Hearing Problems In Children? | ENT Specialist

Hearing problems in children

Most children with hearing loss are born to parents with normal hearing. That means the entire family may have a lot to learn about living with the condition.

You may find out your child has hearing loss when they’re born, or might be diagnosed later in childhood. Either way, the most important thing to do is to get the right treatment as early as possible. If you understand more about the condition, you can get your child the help they need so they can learn, play, and keep up with other kids their age.

Types of hearing problems in children

Sensorineural hearing loss can occur when the sensitive inner ear (cochlea) has damage or a structural problem, although in rare cases it can be caused by problems with the auditory cortex, the part of the brain accountable for hearing.

Cochlear hearing loss, the most common type, can affect a specific part of the cochlea, such as the inner hair cells, the outer hair cells, or both. It usually exists at birth and can be inherited or come from other medical problems, although the cause is sometimes unknown. This type of hearing loss is usually permanent.

The degree of sensorineural hearing loss can be:

  • Mild (a person cannot hear certain sounds)
  • Moderate (a person cannot hear many sounds)
  • Severe (a person cannot hear most sounds)
  • Deep (a person cannot hear any sound)

Sometimes the loss is progressive (gets worse over time) and sometimes unilateral (only in one ear). Because hearing loss can get worse over time, audiological tests should be repeated later. Although medicine and surgery cannot cure this type of hearing loss, hearing aids can help children hear better. Mixed hearing loss occurs when a being has both conductive and sensorineural hearing loss.

Dominant hearing loss occurs when the cochlea is working properly, but other parts of the brain are not. This odder type of hearing loss is more difficult to treat.

Auditory Dispensation Disorder (APD) is a condition in which the ears and brain cannot fully coordinate. People with APD generally hear well when there is silence, but cannot hear well when there is noise. In most cases, speech and language therapy can help children with APD.

Causes of temporary hearing problems in children

Some of the causes of impermanent deafness in children include:

  • The buildup of wax in the ear canal.
  • A foreign object (such as a bead or the tip of a cotton swab) stuck in the ear canal.
  • Excess mucus in the eustachian tube, caused by a cold.
  • Otitis media (infection of the middle ear).

Causes of permanent hearing problems in children

Hearing problems in children, some of the conditions and events that can cause permanent hearing loss in children include:

  • Inherited conditions that cause the inner ear to develop abnormally.
  • Some genetic disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and trisomy.
  • Exposure of the fetus to diseases: Rubella (German measles) is one of the diseases that can affect the developing ears of the fetus.
  • Loud noises, such as fireworks, rock concerts, or personal stereos.
  • Injuries, such as a concussion or skull fracture.
  • Certain diseases, such as meningitis and mumps.

Signs and symptoms of hearing loss in babies

Hospitals routinely perform newborn hearing exams in the first few days after birth. If a newborn shows signs of infant hearing loss, a second screening is usually scheduled a few weeks later. However, sometimes newborns who pass both hearing tests can show signs of hearing loss as they age. If you think your child is having a hard time hearing you, visit your paediatrician right away.

Babies and infants

From birth to four months, your baby should:

  • Startled by loud sounds.
  • Wakes up or shakes with loud noises.
  • Respond to your voice by smiling or cooing.
  • Calm down with a familiar voice

From four months to nine months, your baby should:

  • Smile when they talk to you
  • Observe the toys that make sounds.
  • Turn your head toward familiar sounds
  • Make babbling noises
  • Understand the movements of the hands as the goodbye greeting

At nine to 15 months, your baby should:

  • Make various babbling sounds
  • Repeat some simple sounds
  • Understand basic requests
  • Use her voice to get your attention
  • Reply to name

At 15 to 24 months, your toddler should:

  • Use a lot of simple words
  • Point to parts of the body when asking
  • Name common objects
  • Listen to songs, rhymes, and stories with interest.
  • Follow the basic commands
  • Signs of hearing loss in tots and school-age children

Older children sometimes develop a hearing loss that was not present before. Here are some things to look for if you think your toddler or preschooler might have hearing loss:

  • Has difficulty understanding what people are saying.
  • Responds inappropriately to questions (misunderstandings).
  • Turn up the volume on the TV incredibly high or sit too close to the TV to listen.
  • You have academic problems, especially if they weren’t present before.
  • You have speech or language delays or trouble articulating things.
  • Observe others imitate their actions, at home or at school.
  • Complaints of earaches, or noise.
  • Cannot understand on the phone or frequently changes ears while talking on the phone.

Diagnosis of hearing problems in children

Hearing screening can tell if a child might have hearing loss. Hearing screening is easy and is not painful. In fact, babies are often asleep while being screened. It takes a very short time usually only a few minutes.


All babies should have a hearing screening no later than 1 month of age. Most babies have their hearing screened while still in the hospital. If a baby does not pass a hearing screening, it’s very important to get a full hearing test as soon as possible, but no later than 3 months of age.


Children should have a hearing test before entering school or at any time there is a concern about the child’s hearing. Children who fail the hearing test should have a full hearing test as soon as possible.

Treatment for hearing problems in children

No single treatment or intervention is the answer for every person or family. Good treatment plans will include close monitoring, follow-ups and any changes needed along the way. There are many different types of communication options for children with hearing loss and for their families. Some of these options include:

  • Learning other ways to communicate, such as sign language.
  • Technology to help with communication, such as hearing aids and cochlear implants.
  • Medicine and surgery to correct some types of hearing loss.

Risk factors of hearing problems in children

Risk factors for hearing loss in children contain:

  • Otitis media (ear contaminations, the most common cause of hearing loss in young children).
  • Craniofacial abnormalities (the head, face, or ears are shaped differently).
  • Family history of hearing loss.
  • Exposure to infections in the uterus.
  • Ototoxic drugs (harmful to the auditory system).
  • Syndromes associated with hearing loss, such as Down syndrome or Usher syndrome.
  • Being in the neonatal intensive care unit for more than 5 days.
  • Certain illnesses, such as syphilis, rubella, and microbial meningitis.
  • Head trauma (injury).

Prevent hearing loss in your child

Hearing problems in children, maintain a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy, including routine prenatal care. Make sure your child receives all regular childhood immunizations.

Keep your child away from loud noises. Noise-induced (acquired) hearing loss is permanent and can always be prevented. It is caused by prolonged or repeated exposure to any loud noise greater than 85 decibels, which is the volume of sound measured in units called decibels (dB). Common sounds that exceed 85 dB include lawnmowers, music concerts, emergency vehicle sirens, planes taking off, fireworks, and lawnmowers.

Create a peaceful home. Here are some recommendations:

  • Set the volume on your TV or video game to the lowest volume, but you can still hear it clearly.
  • If you live in a noisy place, keep doors and windows closed to minimize potentially harmful outside noise.
  • Use soft interior furniture, more curtains, cushions, and rugs that will absorb more sound.

Encourage children to wear earplugs or earmuffs if they are likely to be exposed to potentially harmful sounds.


Overview of Rhinology | ENT Specialist

What is rhinology?

Rhinology is a subdivision of otorhinolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat) that focuses exclusively on disorders of the nose, sinuses, and skull base (the area between the sinuses and the brain).

What are the diagnosis done by rhinology?

We use the latest technological advances in the diagnosis of sinusitis. All initial evaluations through our sinus program are dedicated to providing an accurate diagnosis and making the patient aware of sinus treatment options. After reviewing the patient’s medical history and physically examining the nose, the doctor will often examine the sinuses using the fiber optic range. This procedure, called nasal endoscopy or rhinoscopy, is done in the exam room. To further aid in the diagnosis, a CT scan may be taken.

Treatment of nasal and sinus disorders requires medical and / or surgical intervention. Medical options include topical nasal sprays, antibiotics, and frequent allergy evaluations. The approach to these disorders specializes in multidisciplinary, allergy/immunology, pulmonology, and other subtypes, including maxillofacial surgery.

Sinus surgery options are described in detail, our team is dedicated to bringing technological advancements. Minimally invasive, computer-assisted surgical procedures are available for patients with refractory or complicated diseases of the nose and sinuses. Additionally, as a leading sinus care practice in the region, we have become a referral destination for patients who have previously failed sinus surgery.

Common Sinus Procedures:

  • Computer Image-Guided Breast Surgery
  • Endoscopic sinus surgery
  • Review of endoscopic sinus surgery
  • Septoplasty
  • Turbinate surgery

Treatment of rhinological conditions

Our program treats all types of nasal, and sinus disorders, including:

  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Acute aspirin respiratory disease (AERD)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks
  • Sinusitis
  • Skull base tumors
  • Facial injury
  • Nasal polyps
  • Pituitary tumors
  • Nasal septum
  • Inverted papillomas
  • Head and neck osteoma
  • Juvenile Nasongiofibroma (JNA)
  • Sinus mucosa
  • Paranasal sinus tumors
  • Nasal obstructions: Obstruction of the nasal passage in general, since the mucous membranes of the nose become inflamed due to the inflamed blood vessels.

Nasal valve collapse: A breathing disorder that causes severe nasal congestion, snoring, and breathing through the mouth.

Tear duct obstruction: Tears usually do not flow, leaving you with a watery and irritated eye. This condition is caused by a partial or total blockage of the tear drainage system.

Treatments and procedures of rhinology

In rhinology, our specialists are recognized locally and nationally in the treatment of complex and chronic nasal and sinus disorders. Many patients seeking treatment do not have access to the combination of treatments that we offer that can effectively treat their chronic sinus condition. For example, In more complex cases, both medical treatments combined with surgery may be the best approach to successfully managing and treating chronic sinus conditions.

Leaders in the treatment of surgical rhinology

Rhino specialists have guided major surgical techniques to restore nasal function to previously unsuccessful treatments. They perform high volumes of these minimally invasive procedures using the latest surgical instruments, including image-guided navigation to provide accurate and safe care.

Advanced sinus surgery procedures for chronic rhinosinusitis:

Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS)

The least invasive surgical technique used to open the nostrils and improve drainage. FESS is usually done to correct sinus problems that don’t respond well to other treatments.

Sinus revision surgery

We specialize in complex breast revision surgeries for critically treated cases. Many of our patients seek sinus revision surgery when their previous surgery at another medical facility is unsuccessful. Due to the proximity of the sinuses to complex structures, including the eyes and the brain, these areas of the sinuses often become inactive and diseased. Because we have specialized experience and a leading surgical team, we can safely work on these challenging sinus areas.

Rhinology surgery conditions

Nasal and sinus conditions we treat include acute and chronic sinusitis, nasal polyps, nasal obstructions, and nasal congestion (epistaxis). Starting with your initial visit, we will help you make a complete and accurate diagnosis of your symptoms, medical history, and concerns and develop an accurate treatment plan tailored to your lifestyle.

Rhinology and sinus surgery services

We focus on improving the medical management of difficult-to-treat sinusitis cases when we use surgery as a last resort. One of the novel treatments we offer is the use of soluble steroid (propel) implants in patients with acute chronic sinusitis and polyps disease. Currently, this treatment is available to hospitalized patients as an adjunct to sinus surgery. In contrast to traditional therapies such as steroid irrigation, the benefits are direct delivery of steroid therapy to the sinus cavity, while reducing the level of systemic steroid absorption.

For cases that require surgery, we use less invasive techniques to effectively treat sinus disease while reducing recovery time. In patients with severe frontal sinusitis where multiple preoperative surgeries have failed, for example, we use a minimally invasive method called the DRAF III frontal sinus procedure, which uses endoscopic techniques to increase the opening of the frontal sinuses and their communication with the nasal cavity. This allows the frontal sinus to provide effective topical irrigation treatment and easy office access. It is a successful option for patients who have failed open frontal sinus surgery.