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Procedures

Information About Bone Lesion Biopsy | Orthopaedics

What is a bone lesion biopsy?

A bone lesion biopsy is a surgical procedure in which a doctor removes a sample of bone tissue and sends it to a laboratory for analysis. The test generally distinguishes between cancerous and non-cancerous bone tumors and diagnoses other bone abnormalities.

The procedure involves making a small incision, piercing the bone, and removing a tissue sample from the lesion within the bone. An injury is an abnormality in the structure of the bone, which may or may not affect bone growth. Not all lesions are cancerous.

Purpose of bone lesion biopsy

Your physician may order a bone lesion biopsy if there are signs of irregularities in your bones. These may demonstration up on imaging scans, such as X-rays or CT scans. A biopsy helps doctors determine if your bone lesions are the consequence of cancer, infection, or another condition.

Conditions associated with bone tumors or lesions include:

  • Coccidiomycosis (fungal infection)
  • Ewing’s sarcoma (a cancerous bone tumor that disturbs children)
  • Fibroma (benign tumor)
  • Histoplasmosis (fungal infection)
  • Multiple myeloma (cancer of the bone marrow that distresses plasma cells)
  • Mycobacterial infection (tuberculosis)
  • Osteoblastoma (kind of bone tumor)
  • Osteoid osteoma (benign bone tumor)
  • Osteomalacia (unstiffening of the bones due to lack of vitamin D)
  • Osteomyelitis (bone infection)
  • Osteosarcoma (cancerous bone tumor that usually appears during adolescence)
  • Osteitis fibrosa (softening of the bones due to hyperparathyroidism)
  • Rickets (weakening of the bones due to deficiency of calcium, vitamin D, or phosphate)

Bone lesion biopsies can also deliver surgeons a classified view of your bones. This is useful when inspecting the status of infections or diseases that could be candidates for amputation, such as osteomyelitis. In some belongings, the biopsy can help prevent the need for an amputation.

How is the test performed?

The test is carried out as follows:

  • An X-ray, CT scan, or MRI will likely be used to guide the exact location of the biopsy instrument
  • The doctor applies an anesthetic (local anesthetic) to the area
  • Then a small cut is made in the skin
  • A special piercing needle is often used. This needle is moderately inserted through the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone.
  • Once the taster is obtained, the needle is twisted
  • The pressure is useful to the site. Once the bleeding stops, stitches are applied and covered with a bandage.
  • The taster is sent to a laboratory for examination

The bone lesion biopsy can also be done under general anesthesia to remove a larger sample. Then, surgery to remove the bone may be done if the biopsy exam shows that there is an abnormal growth or cancer.

How to prepare for the test

Follow your provider’s instructions on how to prepare. This may include not eating or drinking for several hours before the procedure.

What are some of the common uses of the procedure?

Bone biopsies are done to:

  • Confirm the diagnosis of a bone disorder
  • Investigate an abnormal area, or injury, seen on X-ray, bone scan, CT scan, or MRI
  • Distinguish the bone tumor from other conditions, such as an infection
  • Differentiate whether a tumor is benign or cancerous
  • Regulate the cause of an infection or inflammation
  • Identify the cause of bone pain.

What are the benefits and risks of bone lesion biopsy?

Benefits

Needle biopsy is a reliable method of obtaining tissue samples that can help diagnose whether a lesion is benign (not cancerous) or malignant.

A closed needle biopsy is less invasive than surgical biopsy and can be performed under local anesthesia and moderate (conscious) sedation, whereas surgical biopsy involves a larger incision in the skin and generally requires general anesthesia.

Generally, the procedure is not painful, and the results are as accurate as when a bone sample is surgically removed.

Recovery time is short.

Risks

Any procedure where the skin is entered carries a risk of infection. The chance of infection requiring antibiotic treatment seems to be less than one in 1,000.

Complications after a bone biopsy are rare. However, there is a small chance that the biopsy needle will break the bone or injure a nearby nerve, blood vessel, or organ. There is a very small chance that the bone will become infected or weak and not heal properly.

What happens during a bone lesion biopsy?

A bone lesion biopsy can be done on an outpatient basis or as part of your stay in a hospital. Procedures may vary, contingent on your condition and the dose of your healthcare provider.

Also, some biopsies can be done under local anesthesia to numb the area. Others can be done under general or spinal anesthesia. If spinal anesthesia is used, you will not feel from the waist down. Your healthcare provider will deliberate this with you in advance.

Generally, a bone lesion biopsy follows this process:

  • You will be asked to eliminate your clothing and will be given a gown to wear.
  • An intravenous (IV) line may be placed in your arm or hand.
  • It will be positioned so that your healthcare provider can easily reach the bone to be removed. A belt or strap can be used to keep it in the correct position.
  • The skin over the biopsy site will be cleaned with an antiseptic solution.
  • If a native anesthetic is used, you will feel a needle stick when the anesthetic is injected. This can cause a brief stinging sensation. If general anesthesia is used, you will be put to sleep with an IV medicine.
  • If local anesthesia is used to numb the area, you will need to remain still during the procedure.
  • The supplier will make a small cut (incision) over the biopsy site. He will insert the biopsy needle into your bone.
  • If you are awake, you may feel discomfort or heaviness when your healthcare provider takes the bone sample.
  • The biopsy needle will be removed and firm pressure will be applied to the biopsy site for a few minutes, until the bleeding stops.
  • Your healthcare provider will close the opening in your skin with stitches or skin sticky strips, if needed.
  • A sterile bandage or dressing will be applied.
  • The bone sample will be sent to the laboratory for examination.

What happens after a bone lesion biopsy?

Your recovery process will vary, depending on the type of anesthesia you are given. You will be taken to the regaining room for observation. Once your blood pressure, pulse, and breathing are established and you are alert, you will be taken to your hospital room or released home.

Once you are home, it is significant to keep the biopsy area clean and dry. Your healthcare provider will give you specific instructions for bathing. If tacks are used, they will be detached during a follow-up office visit. If adhesive strips are used, they should be kept dry and will generally fall off in a few days.

The biopsy site may be loving or sore for several days after the bone biopsy. Take a pain reliever as optional by your healthcare provider. Aspirin or other pain relievers can increase the chance of bleeding. Be sure to take only recommended medications.

Tell your healthcare provider if you have:

  • Fever or chills
  • Redness, swelling, bleeding, or other discharge from the biopsy site
  • Increased pain around the biopsy site.

You can return to your usual diet and activities unless your healthcare provider tells you otherwise. Your supplier may ask you to avoid strenuous physical activity for a few days.

Your healthcare provider may give you additional or alternative instructions after the procedure, depending on your particular case.

Possible complications of bone lesion biopsy

Side effects of a needle biopsy include:

  • Bleeding from the biopsy site
  • Infection
  • Damage to nerves or blood vessels
  • Bone fracture

Call your doctor if you have blood or fluid leaking from the biopsy site, warmth or swelling of the area, fever, or pain.

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General Topics

Most Common Ear, Nose and Throat Infections | ENT Specialist

Most common ear, nose, and throat infections

Your ear, nose, and throat, like other parts of your body, suffer from a wide variety of problems. From trouble sleeping to swallowing, these problems are bad for your health. You may not always recognize some problems, so it is very important that the ENT doctor give you the right look. They will correctly diagnose your health problem and guide you on the road to recovery. Find the most common problems in the ears, nose, and throat.

Tonsillitis

The inflammation of the throat is mainly caused by tonsillitis. The tonsils have two oval shapes and are located at the back of the throat. A bacterial infection causes tonsillitis and is a common disease that affects children. Some of the signs that indicate tonsillitis include the following:

  • Sore throat
  • Inflammation of the tonsils.
  • Swallowing problems
  • White or yellow coating on the tonsils
  • Swelling of the glands in the neck.
  • Bad breath
  • Fever

In some cases, people may need to have their tonsils removed if they have a bacterial infection; This surgery is called a tonsillectomy. Surgery may be necessary if someone often suffers from a sore throat or other symptoms of tonsillitis. If you don’t remove them, it can lead to more serious problems.

Ear infection

Inflammation can also occur in your ears; Colds and flu viruses often cause pain. This is another common problem that can be treated by an otolaryngologist. Some of the symptoms that indicate an ear infection are as follows:

  • Earache
  • Fever
  • Irritation
  • Trouble sleeping

It is important to know the difference between earache caused by an allergy and earache caused by an infection. The ability to identify these symptoms with an otolaryngologist will allow you to treat them accordingly. If the problem is more serious, otolaryngologists may also place a tube in the ear to treat the infection.

Sinus infections

Sinus infection is a common problem for people with a runny nose. In the US only 31 million people suffer from this problem. Sinus infections are similar to the common cold and have similar symptoms, but bacteria can cause sinus infections. Treatment for sinus infection usually involves antibiotics. Some ways that you can diagnose if you have a sinus infection include the following:

  • Headache
  • Postnasal drip
  • Colored nasal discharge
  • Toothache
  • Cough
  • Fever
  • Congestion
  • Stiffness
  • Bad breath

You can perform some nose and sinus work like rhinoplasty, complex revision rhinoplasty, skull base tumor excision, and complex revision sinus surgery. If needed, there are also some comprehensive management options for nasal congestion, including nasal valve reconstruction, septoplasty, turbinate reduction, functional endoscopic, and balloon sinuplasty.

Allergies

Most people suffer from allergies, and you suffer in many ways. Sources of various allergies include medications, pollen, food, mold, dust, pets, and insects. These roots cause multiple symptoms and can be dangerous. Most allergies can cause chronic problems with the ears, nose, or throat. People with allergies may suffer from the following symptoms:

  • Cough
  • Runny nose or runny nose
  • Sneeze
  • Headache
  • Brevity
  • Fever

An ENT allergist can help diagnose a specific allergy with a test, so if you discover that you are suffering from any of the above symptoms, you should check it out. If you are diagnosed with an allergy, you may need to take medication to treat it.

Sleep apnea

Getting a good night’s sleep is an important part of your health and can also help with the quality of your sleep. Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder that can be very dangerous if you don’t take action. Sleep apnea occurs when airflow into the lungs is limited. It can be fatal because the obstruction of the airways causes you to stop breathing while you sleep. Some of the ways you can diagnose sleep apnea include:

  • Snoring
  • Sounds like ok Piri
  • Insomnia
  • Morning headache
  • Memory loss
  • Pause in breathing
  • Overweight
  • Hearing loss

Another problem that you may experience in your ears is hearing loss. You only get one ear in life, so it is very difficult for you to properly care for your ears. Loud noises and age usually cause hearing loss above all else. With the help of an otolaryngologist, they can treat your hearing loss and provide you with the necessary tools, such as hearing aids, to treat the problem.

Vertigo

Vertigo Your body environment feels like it is moving or spinning. Vertigo actually arises from acute labyrinthine diseases, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and Meniere’s disease. If you have vertigo, you may also experience ringing in the ears, nausea, or vomiting.

Acid reflux

Acid reflux is a common problem that people seek ENT treatment for. This problem, which is mainly associated with heartburn, can cause chest pain. The acid reflex affects the throat when acid from the stomach enters the esophagus. The main contributor to acid reflux is associated with diet.

Cancer

In severe cases, ear, nose, and throat problems can lead to cancer. The cause of ear cancer is currently unknown. Although not common, tumors can be found in the ear canal, the middle and inner ear. In the case of nose cancer, exposure to chemicals or dust can cause it. Some types include squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, sarcoma, inverted papilloma (benign tumors), and midline granulomas. You can also get cancer of the larynx or pharynx in the throat and there are other types that can affect the esophagus or mouth. A common cause of cancer in these areas is usually smoking.

Different ear, nose, and throat infections:

The common cold and flu viruses affect all three areas, although they are more likely to affect the nose or throat.

Infections in other parts of your body (such as your chest or airways) can sometimes spread to your ears, including serious infections like measles.

Both mononucleosis and tonsillitis affect the throat and, in some cases, spread to the ears.

Strep throat is an infection caused by a specific type of bacteria called strep.

Any part of the ears, nose, and throat can be affected by the same viruses and bacteria. However, some types of infections are more likely to occur in different areas, and symptoms may vary slightly depending on where the infection is.

Viral vs bacterial infection

The germs that cause ear, nose and throat infections can be viruses or bacteria. Knowing if your infection is viral or bacterial is important because it affects your symptoms and treatment options:

Viral infections are more common due to the common cold and flu, both of which can cause ear, nose, and throat infections.

Bacterial infections do not occur often, but they are more serious. However, if the ear, nose, or throat infection is caused by bacteria, it can be treated with antibiotics. Antibiotics only work against bacteria, so they do not help with viral infections.

The symptoms are very similar, so you can’t tell what type of infection you have, but they can diagnose a specific infection if you visit an ENT doctor. It is helpful to know if the infection is bacterial, as it means that it can be treated with antibiotics.

Symptoms of ear, nose, and throat infections

Ear, nose, and throat infections are often caused by the same types of bacteria and viruses. However, symptoms vary depending on the site of infection:

An ear infection can lead to ear problems, wax or discharge, hearing loss, and balance problems.

Nasal infections can cause a runny or runny nose and sneezing. Infections that reach areas like the sinuses can also cause other symptoms such as headaches.

A throat infection can cause a sore or scratchy throat and pain or difficulty swallowing. You may also experience swollen glands in your neck.

All three types of infections also cause common symptoms of infection, such as fever, and it is common for infections to spread between these areas. For example, an infection that begins with a sore throat can cause other symptoms, such as ear infections, as it spreads from the throat to the ear.

Managing your symptoms

Symptoms of ear, nose, and throat infections are usually mild and should begin to improve within a few days. It may take a few weeks for the infection to clear up completely, but you should gradually start to feel better.

Usually, you will be able to manage the functions at home. Taking an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, can ease any pain. It also reduces the inflammation that causes many of your symptoms and can help reduce a fever if you have one. Here are some other common remedies you can try to treat the symptoms of ear, nose, and throat infections:

  • Holding a warm compress against your ear can help relieve earache
  • Nasal sprays and decongestants can help with a runny or blocked nose
  • A warm drink with honey soothes a sore throat.
  • Wearing a hat and scarf can also help if you need to go outside in cold weather when you have an infection; cover your ears or nose if they are affected or tie your throat to keep warm.
Categories
Disease

Overview of Cough issues | ENT Specialist

What is cough issues?

Cough issues: Coughing is a common reflex action that clears the throat of foreign mucus or irritants. While everyone coughs to clear their throat from time to time, a number of conditions can cause a more frequent cough.

A cough that lasts less than three weeks is a sharp cough. Most coughing episodes will go away or at least improve significantly within two weeks.

If your cough lasts between three and eight weeks, improving at the end of that period, it is considered a subacute cough. A tenacious cough that lasts more than eight weeks is a chronic cough.

You should see a physician if you cough up blood or have a “barking” cough. You should also contact them if your cough has not improved in a few weeks, as this could indicate something more serious.

Causes of cough issues

Coughing occurs when the airways are irritated. The probable causes of a cough depend on whether the cough has lasted less than 3 weeks (acute) or 3 weeks or more (chronic).

Common causes of cough issues

For acute cough, the most common causes are:

  • An upper respiratory infection (URI), with acute bronchitis
  • Postnasal drip (drainage of secretions from the nose into the throat or pharynx)
  • An epidemic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Pneumonia

For chronic cough, the most common causes are:

  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Postnasal drip
  • Irritation of the airways that remains after a respiratory infection resolves (also known as post-infectious cough)
  • Gastroesophageal reflux
  • Reactive airway disease/asthma
  • Less common causes

For acute cough, less common causes include:

  • A blood clot in the lungs (pulmonary embolism)
  • Heart failure
  • A foreign object (such as a piece of food) that has been inhaled (sucked in)

Though, people who accidentally inhale something usually know why they are coughing and tell their doctor, if they have dementia, stroke, or another disorder that causes difficulties with memory, cognition, or communication.

For chronic cough, less common causes include:

  • Use of blood pressure medications called angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (see Antihypertensive Medications)
  • Lung cancer
  • Tuberculosis
  • Fungal infections of the lungs

People with dementia or strokes often have trouble swallowing. As a result, they may aspirate small amounts of food and drink, saliva, or stomach contents into the trachea (windpipe). These people may repeatedly breathe in small amounts of these materials without their doctor’s knowledge and then develop a chronic cough.

Asthma can cause coughing. In rare cases, the main symptom of asthma is coughing rather than wheezing. This type of asthma is baptized cough variant asthma.

Risk factors for cough issues

Being a smoker or ex-smoker is one of the main risk factors for chronic cough. Frequent exposure to secondhand smoke can also cause coughing and lung damage.

Symptoms of cough issues

Coughing is a very common symptom, with multiple causes, that most people have experienced at some point in their life. Common causes of coughs include viral upper respiratory infections, lung diseases, heart failure, reflux, pungent on food or other foreign bodies in the throat, side effects of certain medications, exposure to respiratory irritants such as smoke from tobacco, pollutants or perfumes, and habit. Less common causes include more serious problems like pneumonia, cancer, and rare lung conditions. However, most coughs are self-limited and rarely last more than 1 to 2 weeks.

Chronic cough syndrome refers to a cough that persists for a longer period of time, generally defined as 6 weeks or more. Often times, more than one cause can be present in people with a chronic cough.

Chronic cough syndrome may be associated with other symptoms, liable on the cause (s) of the cough. These include heartburn or indigestion, wheezing (“wheezing” when you breathe), or shortness of breath (including difficulty breathing in or out deeply). Some patients describe “chest congestion”. In addition, coughing may be associated with a “drip” or drainage down the spinal of the throat, as well as nasal congestion (“stuffy nose”), nasal drainage (“runny nose”), and sneezing.

Consulting with your allergist/immunologist is an important first step in discovering the cause or causes of your chronic cough. Your allergist will take a carefully detailed history to determine if any symptoms associated with your cough are occurring. It is significant to discuss and bring all the medications you are taking to your allergist/immunologist, including remedies, over-the-counter, vitamins, supplements, herbal therapies, and homeopathic therapies. The physical exam can also be helpful. These initial steps will help determine what tests, if any, to find the cause (s) of the cough.

Diagnosis of cough issues

To make a diagnosis, a doctor will start by asking the person when their symptom first appeared, what improves symptoms, and what makes them worse. They will ask about the person’s medical history and lifestyle habits, such as if they smoke. A doctor will likely also listen to the person’s lungs with a stethoscope.

Sometimes a doctor will require more tests to help with the diagnosis. The tests may include:

  • Take a sputum sample and test for blood or cancer cells
  • Imaging scans, such as x-rays or CT scans to check for signs of lung disease or inflammation
  • A bronchoscopy, where a doctor looks at the lungs for signs of irritation or disease
  • Each of these tests, as well as a variety of other tests, can help your doctor identify the underlying causes of your chronic cough.

Treatment for cough issues

Treatment of chronic cough is absorbed in the cause. Symptoms can be relieved with over-the-counter (OTC) cough medications that contain guaifenesin and/or dextromethorphan (these can be found as cough syrups in tablet form).

The following are treatments for chronic coughs caused by medications, conditions, or diseases.

Asthma: Inhaled bronchodilators and gasped steroids are given to decrease inflammation of the airways and reduce wheezing. In some cases, short-term oral steroids are prearranged to relieve chronic cough.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): Treatment for chronic cough of GERD includes avoiding foods that increase reflux, avoiding meals before bed, lifting your head while sleeping, and taking medications such as famotidine (Pepcid), cimetidine (Tagamet) , ranitidine (Zantac)) omeprazole (Prilosec, Prilosec OTC), lansoprazole (Prevacid, Prevacid 24 hours), rabeprazole (Aciphex), pantoprazole (Protonix), esomeprazole (Nexium) to decrease stomach acid.

Sinus glitches and postnasal drip: Using decongestants such as pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) or antihistamines such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) can improve symptoms of postnasal drip or runny nose, which can lead to a persistent and bothersome cough. Inhaled nasal steroids are very effective in treating allergic rhinitis (hay fever), a common cause of coughing. Also, other nasal inhalers such as ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) can relieve postnasal drip. Antibiotics may be prescribed if the cause is resolute to be sinusitis.

In severe cases of chronic cough, a healthcare professional may prescribe codeine or other similar narcotic medications, which are effective as cough suppressants.

Complications of cough issues

Having a persistent cough can be exhausting. Coughing can cause a variety of problems, including:

  • Sleep disruption
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Vomiting
  • Excessive sweating
  • Loss of bladder control (urinary incontinence)
  • Fractured ribs
  • Fainting (syncope)

Prevention of cough issues

It is not always possible to prevent coughing. However, tips that can help include:

  • Avoid tobacco smoke
  • Drinking a lot of water
  • Using a humidifier to moisten the air
  • Allergy-proof in the bedroom to reduce irritants
Categories
Tests

Overview of Radionuclide Bone Scan | Orthopaedics

What is a radionuclide bone scan?

A radionuclide bone scan is a nuclear imaging technique that uses a very small amount of radioactive material that is inserted into the patient’s bloodstream to be detected by a scanner. This test shows bone-to-bone blood flow and cell activity and can help evaluate any degenerative or arthritic changes in the joints. This test can also be used to diagnose bone diseases and tumors and to determine the cause of bone pain or inflammation. This test can rule out any infection or cracks.

A bone scan is an imaging test that helps identify problems with your bones. You safely use a very small amount of the so-called radiopharmaceutical drug. It is also known as “color”, but it does not stain the fabric.

Specifically, the bone is scanned to reveal problems with bone metabolism. Bone metabolism refers to the process by which bones break down and rebuild. New bone formation when bones are injured or broken is part of the healing process. A bone scan is a good way to see and document abnormal metabolic processes in the bones.

A radionuclide bone scan can also be used to find out if cancer has spread to another area of ​​the body, such as the prostate or breast.

During a radionuclide bone scan, radioactive material is injected into a vein that takes your bones. Then it will be monitored for many hours. A very small amount of radiation is used in the substance and is released from your body in about two to three days.

Purpose of radionuclide bone scan

Bone scans are used primarily to detect the spread of metastatic cancer. As cancer cells multiply rapidly, they appear as a hotspot on the bone scan. This is due to increased bone metabolism and bone repair in the area of ​​cancer cells. Bone scans can also be used to diagnose cancer before and after treatment to assess the effectiveness of treatment.

Your doctor may order a bone scan if he thinks you have a problem with your bones. A bone scan can also help find the cause of the unexplained bone pain you are experiencing.

Bone scans reveal bone problems associated with the following conditions:

  • Evaluation of bone lesions in situations where routine radiographs reveal no lesions
  • Identify hard-to-locate cracks
  • To determine the age of the fracture
  • To diagnose and / or diagnose bone infections (osteomyelitis)
  • To assess unexplained bone pain

Arthritis, benign bone tumors, Paget’s disease (a bone disorder that usually occurs in people over the age of 50, in which the bones become stiff and soft and have long, curved bones), and avascular necrosis (bone loss due to bone loss) blood supply to bones)

There may be other reasons for your doctor to recommend a bone scan.

What are the risks of a radionuclide bone scan?

The amount of radionuclide bone scan that is injected into the vein for this procedure is very small and no precautions against radioactive exposure are required. The injection of the marker causes some discomfort. Allergic reactions to the marker are very rare, but can occur.

Patients who are allergic or sensitive to medications, contrast dyes or latex should inform their doctor.

If you are pregnant or suspect that you are pregnant, you should inform your healthcare provider, as there is a risk of injury to the fetus from the bone scan. If you are breastfeeding or breastfeeding, you should notify your healthcare provider as there is a risk of contaminating breast milk with a marker.

There may be other risks depending on your specific medical condition. Be sure to discuss any problems with your doctor before the procedure.

How do I prepare for a radionuclide bone scan?

Remedies: If you are pregnant or think you are pregnant, consult your doctor before scheduling a test. We will discuss other options with you and your doctor.

Lactation: If you are breastfeeding, you should inform your doctor, as there is a risk of contaminating breast milk with a marker.

Clothing: You may be asked to change into a patient gown. A gown will be provided. Lockers are provided to store your personal belongings. Remove all stitches and keep all jewelry and valuables in the house.

Eating / Drinking: Generally, no prior preparation such as fasting or anesthesia is required before a bone scan.

Allergies: Tell a radiologist or technologist if you are allergic to medications, contrast dyes, or iodine. Injection of the radiotracer causes some discomfort. Allergic reactions to radiotracer are very rare but can occur.

Generally, no prior preparation, such as fasting or sedation, is required before a bone scan.

Tell a radiologist or technologist if you are allergic or sensitive to medications, contrast dyes, or iodine.

If you are pregnant or suspect that you are pregnant, you should notify your healthcare provider.

Depending on your medical condition, your doctor may order other specific preparations.

How is a radionuclide bone scan done?

The process begins with the injection of radioactive material into a vein. This substance is allowed to work for the next two to four hours through your body. Depending on the cause of the bone scan, your doctor may start taking images right away.

As the substance spreads throughout the body, bone cells are naturally drawn to areas that need repair. Radioactive tracers in the material follow these cells and pick them up at the site of bone damage. It is taken in areas with high blood flow.

After enough time has passed, your doctor will use a special camera to scan the bones. Damaged areas, where the material has settled, appear as dark spots on the film.

Your doctor may repeat the injection and imaging procedure if the first round is not definitive. They can also order single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This is similar to a bone scan, except that the imaging process creates three-dimensional images of your bones. Your doctor needs SPECT to see your bones more deeply. They can also use it if the original images are not clear in some areas.

What happens during a radionuclide bone scan?

A radionuclide bone scan may be done on a patient basis or as part of your hospital stay. Procedures may vary depending on your condition and your doctor’s practices.

Generally, a bone scan follows this procedure:

You may be asked to remove clothing, jewelry, or other items that may interfere with the procedure.

If you are asked to remove your clothing, you will be given a gown to wear.

The intravenous (IV) line is opened by hand or by hand to inject the tracer.

The marker is injected into a vein. The marker is allowed to focus on the bone tissue for one to three hours. During this time, you may be allowed to walk or leave the facility. It will not be dangerous to other people, as the marker emits less radiation than a standard X-ray.

During the waiting period, you should drink several glasses (four to six glasses) of water to remove any tracer not concentrated in the bone tissue.

If your bone is scanned for a bone infection, a series of scans may be done immediately after the marker is injected. Another set of scans is done after allowing the marker to focus on the bone tissue.

When the marker allows you to focus on the bone tissue for a reasonable period of time, you will be asked to empty your bladder before the scan begins. A full bladder can distort the pelvic bones and make it uncomfortable during the scan, which can take up to an hour to complete.

Since any movement affects the quality of the scan, you will be asked to lie down on the scan table.

The scanner slowly moves over you several times as it detects the gamma rays emitted by the marker in the bone tissue.

You may be ossified again during the scan to obtain specific views of the bones.

When the scan is complete, the IV is removed.

While a radionuclide bone scan may not cause any pain, staying still throughout the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, especially in the case of an aggressive procedure, such as a recent injury or surgery. The technician will use all possible comfort measures and complete the procedure as soon as possible to minimize any discomfort or pain.

What happens after the radionuclide bone scan?

You should move slowly when getting up from the scanner table to avoid dizziness or a mild headache without lying down during the procedure.

It is recommended that you drink plenty of fluids and empty your bladder frequently for 24 to 48 hours after the procedure to help remove the remaining marker from your body.

The IV site is checked for any signs of redness or swelling. If you notice any pain, redness, and / or swelling at the IV site after returning home from your procedure, you should inform your doctor, as this may indicate an infection or other type of reaction.

You should not have any other radionuclide bone scan procedures for 24 to 48 hours after your bone scan.

You can resume your normal diet and activities unless your doctor tells you otherwise.

Your doctor may give you additional or alternative instructions after the procedure, depending on your specific situation.

Results

A doctor (radiologist) who specializes in reading images will look for evidence of abnormal bone metabolism on scans. These areas appear as dark “hot spots” and lighter “cold spots” where markers are present or have not accumulated.

The test results are considered normal when the radioactive substance is distributed evenly throughout the body. This means that you may not have a major bone problem.

Results are considered abnormal when the scan shows dark “hot spots” or light “cold spots” on the bones. Critical points describe areas where radioactive material is highly concentrated. Cold spots, on the other hand, are areas where you don’t collect at all. Abnormal results may indicate that you have a bone disorder such as cancer or arthritis or an infection in the bone.

Although a bone scan is very sensitive to abnormalities in bone metabolism, it is less helpful in identifying the exact cause of the abnormality. If you have a bone scan that shows hot spots, more tests are needed to determine the cause.

Categories
Disease

Overview of Nosebleeds in Children | ENT Specialist

What are nosebleeds in children?

Nosebleeds in children, when your child suddenly has blood coming out of her nose, it can be surprising. Aside from the urge to hold your blood, you might be wondering how in the world the nosebleed began.

Fortunately, although nosebleeds in children can seem dramatic, they are not usually serious. Here are the most common causes of nosebleeds in children, the best ways to treat them, and what you can do to help prevent them from happening again.

Types of nosebleeds in children

The most common type of nosebleed is an anterior nosebleed, which comes from the front of the nose. Capillaries, or very small blood vessels, inside the nose can rupture and bleed, causing this type of nosebleed.

A posterior nosebleed comes from the sincere part of the nose. Blood flows depressed the back of the throat even if the being is sitting or standing. Children rarely have posterior nosebleeds. They are most common in older adults, people with high blood pressure, and people who have had injuries to the nose or face.

Symptoms of nosebleeds in children

The main symptom of a nosebleed is dripping or leaking blood from the nose. Bleeding from the mucous membranes in the front of the nose comes from a single nostril. Bleeding higher up the nasal cavity can come from both nostrils. It can be painless. Or your child may have pain caused by an injury or an area of ​​sore tissue inside the nose.

The symptoms of a nosebleed may resemble other conditions. Make unquestionable your child understands their healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

Causes of nosebleeds in children

Most previous nosebleeds are due to dry air. A dry climate or hot indoor air irritates and dries the nasal membranes. This causes scabs that can itch and then bleed when scratched or itched. Common colds can also irritate the lining of the nose, with bleeding after repeatedly blowing the nose. Consuming a cold through dry winter weather is the perfect formula for nosebleeds.

Allergies can also cause problems, as doctors may prescribe medications (such as antihistamines or decongestants) to control itchy, runny, or stuffy nose. The medicine can dry out the nasal membranes and cause nosebleeds.

An injury or setback to the nose can cause bleeding, but the greatest is not a serious problem. But if your child has a facial injury that has a nosebleed and you cannot stop the bleeding after 10 minutes or have other concerns about the injury, seek medical attention immediately.

While nosebleeds are rarely serious, there can be a problem if they occur frequently. If your child has a nosebleed more than once a week, call your doctor. Frequent nosebleeds are usually easily treated. Sometimes the tiny blood vessels inside the nose develop irritated and do not heal, which is more common in children with continuing allergies or who have many colds. A doctor could help in these cases.

For hemorrhage that is not due to a sinus infection, allergies, or cross blood vessels, a physician may order tests to find the cause. In rare cases, a bleeding disorder or abnormally formed blood vessels could be a possibility.

Diagnosis of nosebleeds in children

The physician will ask about your child’s symptoms and medicinal history. You can also ask about recent accidents or injuries. Your child will have a physical exam.

Treatment for nosebleeds in children

Children with severe nosebleeds should see a healthcare professional, who will try to stop the bleeding.

Treatment options for nosebleeds include:

  • Apply silver nitrate to blood vessels to seal them
  • Cauterize or burn blood vessels to seal them
  • Plug the nose with medicated gauze to constrict the blood vessels

After the bleeding stops, a doctor will examine the child to determine the cause. In some cases, the child may require surgery to fix a problem with the blood vessels in the nose.

First aid for nosebleeds: Nosebleeds are painless; however, your child may feel very distressed and upset seeing and tasting blood during a nosebleed. Try to calm and reassure your child, because crying will make the bleeding worse, then follow these first aid instructions:

  • Sit your child upright in a comfortable position and lean slightly forward.
  • Pinch the lower, soft part of the nose, pressing the nostrils with your fingers (your child can do this if she is older). Keep squeezing for 10 minutes.
  • Don’t keep pulling your fingers out to see if the bleeding has stopped. Blood needs to clot and this takes time. Reading a book can be a good distraction for your child. Have a watch handy to be sure 10 minutes have passed.
  • After 10 minutes, let go of your nose and check to see if the bleeding has stopped. If the nosebleed continues, pinch your nostrils for another 10 minutes.

In addition to pinching the nostrils, try the following:

  • If your child can tolerate it, place a cold towel or covered ice pack on the back of her neck as she sits on your lap.
  • Offer your child popsicle sticks or a cold drink to cool him down and get rid of the taste of blood.
  • Encourage your child to spit up blood that has dripped from his nose into his mouth. Swallowing blood can make your child vomit, which can make the nosebleed continue or get worse.

Home care:

  • Rest your child for the next two hours if the nosebleed was not severe (you were able to stop it yourself with first aid). Rest for 12 to 24 hours if it was a severe nosebleed that required medical assistance. Silent activities such as drawing or reading a book are recommended.
  • Avoid giving your child hot foods or drinks, or hot baths or showers for at least 24 hours.
  • Tell your child not to pick or blow her nose for 24 hours (and for a week if her nose has been cauterized).
  • If your child’s nose has been plugged in, the gauze will need to stay in place for 24 to 48 hours. You will need to take your child to the general physician for a checkup and to have the gauze removed. Do not try to remove the packaging yourself. If it falls off on its own and the bleeding does not return, there is no need to go back to the emergency department or general physician.

To help prevent nosebleeds in the future:

  • If your child’s nose is dry and cracked, apply a petroleum-based gel or ointment (for example, petroleum jelly) to the nostrils, usually twice a day for a week. This can be done using a cotton tip or finger and gently rubbing it on the inside of the nose. Do not use this method on children under the age of four as they are unlikely to cooperate or stay still and will injure their nose.
  • If your child is constipated, increase her fluid intake and the amount of fiber in her diet, or ask your doctor or pharmacist for a stool softener to prevent straining. See our fact sheet Constipation.

Prevention of nosebleeds

You can use a small amount of this petroleum jelly and put it twice a day on the central wall of the inside of your nose, called the septum. Use a cotton swab instead of a finger to do this. That often helps heal dryness on the inside of the nose. It also helps to increase the humidity in the room your child sleeps in by using a humidifier.

You should use nasal saline to hydrate noise and remove irritants and pollen, and do it every day. If your child has nasal allergies, treating those allergies with antihistamines will also help break the cycle of itching and bleeding. And never allow anyone to smoke around your child.

So when should you be concerned about your child’s nosebleeds? Mainly, you should be concerned if the bleeding does not stop after 30 minutes of direct pressure on the nose, occurs more than four times a week but despite taking preventive measures or losing so much blood they feel dizzy. Remember, nosebleeds can be scary, but often the cause is not.

How to stop nose bleeds in children?

Here are some things you can do to stop nosebleeds in children. If these don’t stop your child’s nosebleed, call your doctor for advice.

  • Your child should sit up and slightly tilt her head forward. Do not allow the child to lie down or lie down.
  • Try to be calm and collected and keep your child calm. Talking, laughing, or crying can cause more bleeding.
  • Have your child hold the nostrils tightly closed with the thumb and forefinger on the soft part of the nose just below the nasal bone and breathe through the mouth.
  • You or your child should keep your nostrils closed for 5 minutes. Measure this with a watch or a watch. If the bleeding has not stopped after a full 5 minutes, keep the nostrils closed again for an additional 5 minutes.
  • If the bleeding does not stop after 5 minutes of pinching the nostrils, call your child’s doctor.
  • Dampen a cloth or hand towel with cold water. Squeeze it out and press firmly against the nose and cheeks.
  • Don’t blow your nose or remove scabs for several hours. If your child needs to blow her nose, remind her to do it very gently. Blowing or cleaning your nose can cause rebleeding.
  • If blood collects in your child’s mouth, ask her to spit it out. Swallowing a large amount of blood can cause your child to vomit blood or blood clots.
  • Sometimes, if bleeding is frequent, your child’s doctor may recommend nasal cautery. This is when the vessel is closed with silver nitrate, electric present, or laser to stop the bleeding. This can be done in the doctor’s office or the operating room.