General Topics

What Is Snoring? | ENT Specialist

Overview of snoring

Snoring occurs when you cannot move air freely through your nose and throat during sleep. This vibrates the nearby tissues, causing the familiar snoring. People who snore often have too much nasal and throat tissue or “flabby” tissue that is more prone to vibrating. The position of the tongue can also delay smooth breathing.

If you snore regularly at night, it can disrupt the quality of your sleep, leading to daytime fatigue, irritability, and increased health problems. And if your snoring is keeping your partner awake, it can also create significant relationship problems. Sleeping in separate rooms is not the only remedy for snoring.

Types of snoring

Nose based snoring

Blocked nostrils as a result of a deviated septum or some physical obstruction in the nose can lead to blocked airways, resulting in nasal snoring.

Other causes include allergies to pets and dust, a stiff nose, a cold, or if you are using certain types of medications.

This kind of snoring can be treated in several ways depending on what causes it:

  • Deviated septums may require you to undergo surgery.
  • If snoring is caused as a result of dust allergy, keeping your home neat and tidy will cure it.
  • Similarly, quitting smoking, or using nasal dilator strips, or a nasal rinse is effective against snoring caused due to cold or stiffness.

Mouth based snoring

When a person breathes through their mouth rather than their nose while sleeping, it results in mouth snoring.

Blocked nasal passages, enlarged tonsils or weak palatal tissue can be the causes of this type of snoring. If you are unable to breathe through your nose at night due to a blockage, this causes you to breathe through your mouth, which produces a vibration of the tissues, hence the snoring sound.

Essentially, a nasal snorer has a small chance of turning into a mouth snorer if his nasal passages become severely blocked. Although breathing is done through the mouth, this can lead to infections, as the nose does not filter the air that passes through.

To prevent this type of snoring, you can use devices such as adhesive tape specially designed for this purpose, or mouth guards that can help you keep your mouth closed.

Tongue-based snoring

This type of snoring occurs because the tongue gets too relaxed, particularly when we lie down on our back, thus blocking the airflow into the lungs. As a result, it becomes difficult to breathe, thereby causing snoring.

Tongue-based snoring may occur in people who love to drink alcohol or use sleep medication. Excessive fat around the neck may also be a cause of tongue-based snoring.

Anti-snoring pillows and backpacks are useful ways of preventing this kind of snoring. They keep you on your side, preventing you from turning on your back, thus avoiding difficulty in breathing.

Snoring mouthpieces or mandibular advancement devices are specially designed to be used as a remedy for tongue snorers. It helps move your jaws forward, thus preventing the tongue from blocking the back of your throat, and ensure uninterrupted breathing.

What causes snoring?

Obesity, pregnancy and genetic factors

People who are over heavy, obese or pregnant often have extra bulky throat tissue. Genetic factors that can cause snoring contain extra throat tissue as well as enlarged tonsils, large adenoids, long soft palate or long uvula.

Allergies, congestion and certain nasal structures

Anything that stops you from breathing through your nose can cause you to snore. This can include congestion from a cold or flu, allergies or malformations of the nose such as a deviated septum.

Alcohol, smoking, ageing, and drugs

You may snore when your throat or tongue muscles are tranquil. Materials that can relax these muscles may cause you to snore. This includes alcohol, muscle relaxants and other medications. Normal ageing and the prolonged belongings of smoking can also relax your throat and tongue muscles.

Symptoms of snoring

The primary symptom is unique – the often loud, harsh or hoarse noises that you make while you are asleep. Other symptoms may comprise waking up with a sore throat or dry mouth.

If you have any of the next symptoms you may have sleep apnea:

  • Excessive daytime sleepiness
  • Choking or gasping while you sleep
  • Pauses in breathing
  • Morning headaches
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Moodiness, irritability or depression
  • Frequent need to urinate during the night


During the exam, the doctor will ask about your symptoms and use a light to check the back of your throat for redness, swelling, and white patches. The doctor may also feel the sides of your neck to see if you have swollen glands.

If your doctor suspects that you have strep throat, they will do a throat culture to diagnose it. The doctor will swab the back of your throat and collect a sample to test for strep bacteria. With a rapid strep test, your doctor will get results in minutes.

To confirm the diagnosis, the sample will be sent to a laboratory for analysis. A lab test takes one to two days, but it can definitely show that you have strep throat.

Snoring treatment

The goals for the treatment may be difficult to determine. Successful treatment should also include the goal of achieving a successful night’s sleep for the bed partner or roommate. This makes the treatment of snoring a challenge. For example, someone may have a successful treatment if his or her snoring decreases from a jackhammer level to that of a passing truck. If their bed partner is happy, then the snoring problem is “cured.” However, another person whose snoring decreases from a mild sound to the level of heavy breathing may still have an unhappy bed partner.

Most procedures to treat snoring focus on reducing flapping or movement of the soft palate (roof of the mouth). This addresses snoring from palatal flapping. If it originates behind the tongue or on the sidewalls of the throat, palatal procedures will be less effective.

It is advisable to look critically at the “success” reports of various treatments. However, the bed partner (or snorer) still has to leave the room one night a week. It is important to know what the expectations of a “cure” are before considering any treatment.


You can take medicine to relieve a sore throat or to treat the underlying cause.

Over-the-counter medications that relieve a sore throat include:

  • Acetaminophen (tylenol)
  • Ibuprofen (advil, motrin)
  • Aspirin

Don’t give aspirin to children and teenagers, as it’s been linked to a rare but serious condition called Reye’s syndrome.

You can also use one or more of these treatments, which work directly on the pain of a sore throat:

  • Sore throat spray that contains a numbing antiseptic like phenol, or a cooling ingredient like menthol or eucalyptus
  • Throat lozenges
  • Cough syrup

Snoring risk factors

Although anyone can get a sore throat, a few factors make you more susceptible, including:

  • Age. Children and teens are most likely to develop sore throats. Children ages 3 to 15 are also more likely to have strep throat, the most common bacterial infection associated with a sore throat.
  • Exposure to tobacco smoke. Smoking and secondhand smoke can irritate the throat. The use of tobacco products also increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, throat and voice box.
  • Exposure to chemical irritants. Airborne particles from burning fossil fuels and common household chemicals can cause a sore throat.
  • Chronic or frequent sinus infections. Drainage from the nose can irritate the throat or spread an infection.
  • Weakened immunity. You’re more susceptible to infections in general if your resistance is low. Common causes of lowered immunity include HIV, diabetes, treatment with steroids or chemotherapy drugs, stress, fatigue, and poor diet.


The best way to prevent sore throats is to avoid the germs that cause them and practice good hygiene. Follow these tips and teach your child to do the same:

  • Wash your hands thoroughly and frequently, especially after using the toilet, before eating, and after sneezing or coughing.
  • Avoid sharing food, drinking glasses or utensils.
  • Cough or sneeze into a tissue and throw it away. When necessary, sneeze into your elbow.
  • Use alcohol-based hand sanitisers as an alternative to washing hands when soap and water aren’t available.
  • Avoid touching public phones or drinking fountains with your mouth.
  • Regularly clean telephones, TV remotes and computer keyboards with sanitizing cleanser. When you travel, clean phones and remotes in your hotel room.
  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick.

What Is Throat Cancer? | ENT Specialist

Overview of throat cancer

Throat cancer refers to cancer of the larynx, vocal cords, and other parts of the throat, such as the tonsils and oropharynx. Throat cancer is frequently grouped into two categories:

  • Pharyngeal cancer
  • Laryngeal cancer

Cancer is a class of diseases in which abnormal cells increase and divide uncontrollably in the body. These abnormal cells form malignant growths called tumours.

Throat cancer is relatively rare compared to other cancers. The National Cancer Organization estimates that of adults in the United States:

  • About 1.2 per cent will be diagnosed with pharyngeal and oral cavity cancer in their lifetime.
  • About 0.3 per cent will be diagnosed with laryngeal cancer in their lifetime.

Types of throat cancer

It is a general term for cancer that develops in the throat (pharyngeal cancer) or the larynx (laryngeal cancer). The throat and larynx are carefully connected, with the larynx located just below the throat.

Though most throat cancers involve the same types of cells, specific terms are used to differentiate the part of the throat where cancer started.

  • Nasopharyngeal cancer begins in the nasopharynx, the share of the throat just behind the nose.
  • Oropharyngeal cancer starts in the oropharynx, the part of the throat just behind the mouth that includes the tonsils.
  • Hypopharyngeal cancer (laryngopharyngeal cancer) begins in the hypopharynx (laryngopharynx), the lower part of the throat, just above the esophagus and trachea.
  • Glottic cancer begins in the vocal cords.
  • Supraglottic cancer begins in the upper part of the larynx and includes cancer that affects the epiglottis, which is a piece of cartilage that prevents food from entering the trachea.

Symptoms of throat cancer

Signs and symptoms of throat cancer may include:

  • Voice changes such as hoarseness or cracking
  • Difficulty swallowing or breathing
  • A sore throat, cough, or earache that doesn’t go away
  • Headache
  • Lump in the neck
  • Unexplained weight loss

Causes of throat cancer

Experts don’t know exactly what causes throat cancer, but some factors seem to increase the risk.

They include:

  • Alcohol: Consuming more than one drink a day can increase your risk.
  • Tobacco use: This includes smoking or chewing tobacco and inhaling snuff.
  • Poor nutrition: vitamin deficiencies can play a role.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): acid from the stomach leaks into the esophagus.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
  • HPV infection: increases the risk of several types of cancer.
  • Exposure to some chemicals – Substances used in the petroleum and metallurgy industries can contribute.
  • Sex: These cancers traditionally affect about four times more men than women.
  • Age: more than 50% of diagnoses occur after 65 years.
  • Race and Ethnicity: It is more common among Black Americans and White Americans than Asians or Hispanic Americans.
  • Science has not long-established that all of these factors cause or even increase the risk of throat cancer, but there is evidence that they can.

However, they have found a strong link between smoking and heavy alcohol use.

Throat cancer diagnosis

At your appointment, your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. If you’ve been experiencing symptoms such as a sore throat, hoarseness, and persistent cough with no improvement and no other explanation, they may suspect throat cancer.

To check for throat cancer, your doctor will perform a direct or an indirect laryngoscopy or will refer you to a specialist for the procedure.

A laryngoscopy gives your doctor a closer view of your throat. If this test reveals abnormalities, your doctor may take a tissue sample (called a biopsy) from your throat and test the sample for cancer.


Different approaches are used to obtain tissue for a biopsy, depending on the location of the tumour. Contrary to a common misconception, biopsies do not increase the chance that cancer will spread.

  • Conventional incisional biopsy – This is the most commonly used traditional type of biopsy. The doctor surgically removes some of the tissue where cancer is suspected.
  • Excisional biopsy: A type of biopsy that removes most or all of the tissue suspected of having cancer. This is often done with tonsillectomy in the operating room.
  • Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy: This type of biopsy may be used if you have a lump in your neck that you can feel. A fine needle is inserted into the area, and then the cells are removed and examined under a microscope. This is often combined with an ultrasound to verify the location of the needle.

Imaging tests, which may include:

  • CT or CAT scans (computerized axial tomography)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans
  • Chest and dental x-rays

Throat cancer treatment options

Throat cancer treatment can depend on many factors, including the specific type of cancer, its location, and its stage. Treatment options include:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Targeted therapy

Treatment for metastatic throat cancer may be contingent on where cancer has spread and may include chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Some treatments for metastatic cancer can be considered palliative and are intended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Risk factors

Factors that can increase your risk of throat cancer include:

  • Tobacco use, including smoking and chewing tobacco
  • Excessive alcohol use
  • Viral infections, including human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus
  • A diet lacking in fruits and vegetables
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Exposure to toxic substances at work


There is no established way to prevent it. But to lower your risk of this disease, you can:

  • Stop or don’t start smoking. If you smoke, stop it. If you don’t smoke, don’t start. Quitting smoking can be very difficult, so get help. Your doctor can discuss the benefits and risks of the many strategies to quit smoking, such as medications, nicotine replacement products, and counselling.
  • Drink alcohol only in moderation. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women of all ages and men 65 and older, and up to two drinks a day for men 65 and younger.
  • Choose a fit diet full of fruits and vegetables. The vitamins and antioxidants in fruits and vegetables can reduce your risk of throat cancer. Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables.
  • Protect yourself from HPV. Some throat cancers are believed to be caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection. You can reduce your risk of getting HPV by limiting the number of sexual partners and using a condom every time you have sex. Also consider the HPV vaccine, which is available to boys, girls, and young women and men.
General Topics

What Are The Possible Causes of Bone Pain? | Orthopaedics

8 causes of bone pain

Bone pain isn’t as common as joint pain or muscle pain, but it can be a sign of a serious injury or condition. Bone pain can be aching or quite intense, depending on the cause. Many people with acute bone pain, often from a fracture, become nauseated because of the intensity of the pain. But whether you are experiencing bone tenderness or acute pain, see a doctor investigate the underlying cause.

Most common causes of bone pain and when the pain may be an emergency.

Fractures (Breaks)

Bone fracture or broken bone is the most obvious cause of bone pain. A fracture can be the result of an accident or a fall, or it can be as sudden as a stress fracture. People with osteoporosis are at risk of breaking bones because the bones are more fragile. If you suspect you have a broken bone, go to the emergency department as soon as possible. An untreated fracture can cause serious problems and may not heal properly.

Osteomyelitis (bone infection)

Osteomyelitis is not common, but it affects 2 out of 10,000 people in the United States. It affects adults, who usually develop an infection in the vertebrae or pelvis, and children, who most commonly get the infection at the ends of the bones in the arms or legs. After a bone fracture, it is infected by bacteria in the bloodstream, or by an open wound, and progresses to the bone. Symptoms include bone tenderness or pain, fever, nausea, and swelling or redness around the area.

Sickle cell anaemia

Blood diseases, such as sickle cell anaemia, can block blood flow in the blood vessels. These blockages can cause bone pain. People with sickle cell anaemia may have a few or more episodes. The bone pain is very severe. This is called a crisis. Those who experience a pain crisis often need to be hospitalized to stabilize the pain. Doctors use strong pain relievers such as opioids and other treatments such as blood transfusions. Bone pain lasts only a few hours or takes weeks to resolve.

Bone cancer

Researchers estimate that each year, about 3,500 U.S. adults and children are diagnosed with bone cancer. There are several types of bone cancer, including chondrosarcoma, chordoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. Bone cancer symptoms can include bone pain, but it’s not unusual for bone cancer to be detected after someone has broken a bone. Bone cancer weakens your bones and makes them susceptible to fractures. When an X-ray is done for the fracture, the radiologist may detect abnormalities that could be related to bone cancer.

Blood cancer

Some types of cancer, such as leukaemia, lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndromes, and myeloma, cause pain in the bones, most often in the arms, legs, and ribs. The pain is caused by the accumulation of cancer cells in the bone marrow. For some, bone pain is the first noticeable symptom of the disease. When you are treated for cancer, your bone pain decreases or goes away completely. Leukaemia can weaken bones and lead to osteoporosis and brittle bones.

Cancer treatment

Cancer treatments often include strong medications that can have several, sometimes severe, side effects or complications. Bone pain is one such side effect for some people who are treated with chemotherapy, such as nab-paclitaxel, docetaxel, or methotrexate, hormonal therapy like raloxifene and tamoxifen, and targeted therapies, like trastuzumab, and olaparib. Bisphosphonates, given to people with osteoporosis also can cause bone pain. If you are receiving such treatments, tell your healthcare provider about any unusual symptoms you experience.

Post-chemotherapy treatment

Chemotherapy for cancer treatment weakens your immune system by depleting your white blood cells. These are the cells that help you fight infection. A weakened immune system can make it easier for you to develop infections and related problems. Oncologists may prescribe filgrastim to patients after treatment to stimulate the growth of white blood cells. The medication is administered by injection or intravenously (IV). One of the side effects of filgrastim, which affects more than 30% of patients, is bone pain, which is very painful due to discomfort.

Tailbone pain

Tailbone pain, also called coccydynia or coccygodynia, is a common pain with many possible causes, from falling on your backside to sitting too long on a hard seat. Even vaginal childbirth can cause tailbone pain. In most cases, the pain isn’t serious and will go away on its own. If taking over-the-counter pain killers, applying ice to the tailbone area, and sitting on soft cushions doesn’t help, contact your doctor. You may need an X-ray, physical therapy, and stronger pain-relieving options until the area heals.

Diagnosing the cause of bone pain

Your doctor will want to know your complete medical history, previously diagnosed conditions, and details of your bone pain. These may include:

  • The location of your pain
  • When your pain began
  • The level of pain and whether or not it is increasing
  • If your pain changes with your activities
  • Any other symptoms you may have

Depending on the specifics of your pain, as well as a thorough physical examination, additional testing may include:

  • X-rays of the bone that hurts (to identify breaks, fractures, and abnormalities).
  • CT scan, MRI, or bone scan of the affected area or your entire body (to identify tumours or other abnormalities).
  • Blood studies.
  • Urine studies.
  • Hormone level studies.
  • Pituitary and adrenal gland function studies.

Treatment for bone pain

Your doctor will determine your treatment based on your diagnosis. If you have a bone fracture, they need to be repaired. If you have an underlying condition, such as osteoporosis or cancer, you need a special long-term treatment plan to diagnose it.

Prescription medications can include:

  • Drugs to relieve inflammation
  • Antibiotics, if you have an infection
  • Hormones, if you have a hormone imbalance
  • Pain relievers

Some exercises that might help alleviate bone pain from specific causes include:

Low back pain

Stretching, walking, swimming, bicycling, and light strength training can ease lower back pain.


Osteoporosis causes your bones to lose density and become weak and brittle, increasing your chances of bone fractures. Exercising several times a week can help build strength.

Walking, treadmill, climbing stairs, dancing, swimming, and bicycling are recommended. Working with light weights can also help build strength.


If you have arthritis, it may be tempting to avoid exercise. But that is unwise. Exercise helps to keep your joints flexible and can reduce pain in the long run. A balanced exercise regimen of stretching, walking, swimming, and bicycling can help.

Avoid exercises that put stress on your joints, such as running, competitive sports, and aerobics.

When to see a doctor

Serious conditions often cause bone pain. Mild bone pain can also indicate an emergency. If you experience bone pain that does not improve in a few days, see your doctor.

You should also see a doctor if you have bone pain, weight loss, loss of appetite, or general fatigue.

Bone pain caused by injury also requires a visit to the doctor. Direct injury fractures to the bone require medical treatment. Without proper treatment, the bones will heal and prevent movement in the wrong places. Lesions can also infect you.

General Topics

Common Orthopedic Conditions in Men

What are the orthopedic problems in men?

Orthopedic problems are not specific to gender, age, or the like. If you have bones and muscles, you are prone to injury. However, not everyone faces the same threat. Soft tissue injuries, Achilles tears are some of the common orthopedic conditions in men. When it comes to orthopedic problems, men and women travel very differently than they do. It is not always clear why, but it always is.

Women are more likely to deal with bone problems – osteoporosis and sprained ankles are more common in women. Men definitely don’t come out of Scott-Free. While women need to worry about brittle bones, men need to worry about torn muscles. It is not always clear if it is a question of biology or functionality: perhaps it is a combination of the two because the gap keeps closing, but it never closes. Here are some things that men, in particular, need to be careful of.

Types of orthopedic conditions

Soft tissue injuries: Muscle, tendon, or ligament problems can be part of a soft tissue injury. Playing contact sports, a lack of stretching, or not giving you enough recovery time between workouts, or injuries can lead to sprains or strains. Men are more prone to these injuries due to contact sports and regular exercise routines. They can be used not only due to sudden and serious injuries, but also due to excessive use or repetition of physical activity.

Soft tissue injuries are common among men who work physical jobs, where moving and lifting heavy objects are an important part of their daily routine. At Motion, our experienced team provides proper care for work-related injuries. In general, slips and falls are the main culprits for workplace injuries.

Cracks in the fingers: It is a common orthopedic condition in men. Finger fractures can be caused by several factors, such as the use of power tools, sports, or physical conflicts. Besides, the most common finger fracture, also known as a boxer’s fracture, occurs with a clenched fist when suffering a pinprick or blow effect on the fifth metacarpal of the hand. If you regularly participate in martial arts such as boxing or mixed martial arts, work with your coach to properly wrap your arms around your opponent before facing him.

Achilles tears:  While women are at higher risk for ACL tears, which is one of the common orthopedic conditions in men. With sudden stress or an increase in sports activity, a tear puts pressure on the Achilles tendon and can often be caused by activities or sports such as jumping. A major orthopedic injury that affects more men than women is always the painful Achilles tendon. The Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscle to the heel bone, is the largest ligament in your body and is used for all of your normal daily movements. According to Dr. Timothy Miller, assistant professor of clinical orthopedics at Ohio State University, women are three times more likely to have this orthopedic injury than men. Be aware of Achilles tendon injuries when participating in sports such as track and field, soccer, and basketball.

Remember age matters:  While gender influences your risks, as you get older when you reach 40, the more likely you are to injure yourself. Some common injuries that affect both men and women are:

  • Pressure cracks
  • Sports injuries like tennis elbow
  • Lower back problems
  • Arthritis

The best way to prevent these problems from persisting and regain your quality of life is through orthopedic care. KMC Orthopedics specializes in bone and joint treatments so you can easily recover.

Symptoms of orthopedic conditions in men

Symptoms of common orthopedic conditions in men vary depending on the specific condition and part of the body.


  • Deformities or abnormal shape of the joint
  • Fatigue combined with joint pain or swelling
  • Joint stiffness and limited mobility
  • Muscle pains
  • Numbness, tingling, or weakness
  • The pain can be mild, moderate, or severe and sharp, dull, itchy, numb, stabbing, or burning
  • Swelling of the injured or diseased area
  • Heat and redness in case of infection or inflammation

Symptoms such as pain, muscle aches, cramps, swelling, and stiffness depend on the specific condition and your level of activity. Activity may be limited if pain and other symptoms of orthopedic conditions worsen with movement.

Symptoms that indicate a serious condition

Orthopedic injuries such as bone fractures and joint dislocations can lead to complications and require immediate medical attention. Seek medical attention immediately if you or someone with you has any of the following symptoms:

  • Deformity of the joint or bone
  • Difficulty moving the joint or limb
  • Hear popping, grinding, or clicking during an injury
  • An open wound or bone graft through the skin
  • Severe pain or swelling

Causes of orthopedic conditions

 Serious or chronic injuries are a common cause for many of them. An acute injury is a sudden injury. A chronic injury is the result of repetitive movements or forces on a joint or joint structure such as a tendon. These injuries occur regularly for weeks, months, or even years.

Degenerative changes are another common cause of orthopedic conditions. Joints and joint structures can wear out over time. It can cause changes that can lead to conditions like osteoarthritis and spinal problems.

Risk factors for orthopedic conditions

Each specific orthopedic problem has its own risk factors. In general, risk factors can include:

  • Aging
  • Being overweight or balanced, which puts extra pressure on bones, joints, and joint structures.
  • Have a chronic disease such as diabetes.
  • Playing sports or participating in recreational activities
  • Smoking.
  • Inappropriate lifting techniques and the use of body mechanics
  • Working in a profession with the same tasks every day, which increases the stress on your body.

Reduce the risk of orthopedic conditions

You can reduce your risk of orthopedic disease by changing the risk factors you can control:

  • Balancing strength training with stretching exercises
  • Follow your treatment plan closely for medical conditions
  • Cross-training with a variety of activities
  • Learn correct posture, body mechanics, and ways to lift heavy objects
  • Keep a healthy weight
  • Avoid smoking
  • Activities with weights and lots of calcium and vitamin D will strengthen your bones
  • Wear protective gear during sports and recreational activities
  • It is important to see your doctor daily if you develop an orthopedic condition. Early treatment often works well and can help prevent problems later.

Treatment for orthopedic Conditions in men

Orthopedic conditions can be treated by your doctor or other medical professionals and health care providers. Many doctors from different medical disciplines can participate in treatment at the same time. This approach is very important in managing the symptoms of an orthopedic condition, especially since many symptoms are chronic and change over time. Other general practitioners involved in the treatment of orthopedic conditions may include:

Primary attention doctor: A primary care physician has specialized education and training in general internal medicine, family medicine, or another premier area of ​​care. Primary care physicians provide patients with any or all of the following:

  • General medical care (including annual physicals and immunizations)
  • Treatment for acute medical conditions
  • Early care for more serious or chronic changing conditions in nature
  • While your primary care physician can treat and diagnose your illness, they can refer you to a specialist for more specific treatment of certain aspects of an illness.

Orthopedic surgeon: This doctor specializes in orthopedic surgery. He is also known as an orthopedist. Orthopedists know how the musculoskeletal system works. They can diagnose bone, muscle, joint, ligament, or tendon conditions, treat injuries, rehabilitate, and advise on how to prevent further damage to the diseased area.

The orthopedist may have completed formal education up to age 14. After obtaining a license to practice medicine, an orthopedic surgeon can earn a board certificate by passing an oral and written test given by the American Board of Orthopedic Surgery. Most orthopedic surgeons choose to practice general orthopedics. Others specialize in certain areas of the body, such as the foot, arm, shoulder, spine, hip, or knee.

Others specialize in orthopedic care, such as sports medicine or trauma medicine. Some orthopedists may specialize in many fields and collaborate with other specialists such as neurosurgeons or rheumatologists in caring for patients.

Primary care sports medicine: He is a primary care physician who has an additional training fellowship on musculoskeletal injuries and other issues affecting athletes. This type of doctor can handle many orthopedic problems, but can also identify which cases require surgery.

Rheumatologist: A rheumatologist specializes in the treatment of arthritis and other rheumatic diseases that affect the joints, muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues. They treat the common orthopedic conditions in men. Many rheumatologists have a background in internal medicine or pediatrics and have received additional training in the field of rheumatology. Rheumatologists are specially trained to diagnose a wide variety of rheumatic diseases in their early stages.

These include arthritis, a variety of autoimmune diseases, musculoskeletal pain, and disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In addition to the 4 years of medical school and the 3 years of specialized training in internal medicine or pediatrics, the rheumatologist has an additional 2 or 3 years of specialized training in the field of rheumatology. A rheumatologist may be certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine.

Physiotherapist: Physical therapy is a health profession that focuses on the nervous, muscular, and cardiopulmonary systems of the human body because these systems are related to human movement, health, and function.

Physical therapists or physical therapists are very important members of the health care team. They evaluate and treat those who suffer injuries, illnesses, or health problems caused by the overuse of muscles, tendons, or ligaments. Pitts has a bachelor’s degree in physical therapy and most have a master’s or doctorate.

All graduates must be licensed by their state by passing a national certification exam before practicing. Physical exercises can be practiced in a variety of settings, including:

  • Hospitals
  • Rehabilitation centers
  • Home health organizations
  • Schools
  • Sports facilities
  • Community health centers
  • Private practice
  • Physical therapists provide comprehensive training on orthopedic conditions
  • Functional mobility
  • Balance and gait retraining
  • Soft tissue mobilization
  • Body mechanics education
  • Wheelchair safety and maintenance
  • Neuromuscular reeducation
  • Programming exercise
  • Family education and training
  • Helps with pain relief and management
  • Tip for safe walking
  • Before surgery and rehabilitation

Information About Hip Dysplasia in Babies | Orthopaedics

What is hip dysplasia in babies?

Hip dysplasia in babies is the medical term for the socket of the hip that does not completely cover the spherical portion of the upper femur. This allows the hip joint to be partially or completely displaced. Many people with hip dysplasia are born with this condition.

Developmental hip dysplasia is a health problem of the hip joint. This happens when the joint does not form normally, so it does not work. The DDH is present at birth. It is more common in girls than in boys.

In a normal hip joint, the femur (bone) fits snugly into the upper socket (head) of the hip. In children with DDH, the hip socket is shallow. As a result, the head of the thigh can slide in and out. You can scroll. It moves partially or completely from the hip socket.

Doctors check your baby for signs of hip dysplasia right after birth and well during baby visits. If hip dysplasia is diagnosed in childhood, a mushy weed can usually correct the problem.

Mild cases of hip dysplasia may not begin to cause symptoms until a person reaches puberty or adolescence. Hip dysplasia damages the lining cartilage of the joint and also the soft cartilage (labrum) that lines the socket portion of the hip joint. This is called a hip lobe tear.

Symptoms of hip dysplasia in babies

The development of hip dysplasia does not cause pain in babies, so it is difficult to observe. Doctors thoroughly check the hips of all newborns and babies during infant exams for signs of CDD.

Parents may notice:

  • Baby’s hips can hear, feel, or click
  • The baby’s legs are not the same length
  • One hip or leg does not move to the other side
  • The skin folds under the buttocks or on the thighs do not line up
  • Children limp when they start to walk

Children with any of these symptoms should see a doctor to have their hips checked. Early detection and treatment of CDD mean that the baby’s hips are often more likely to develop normally.

Causes of hip dysplasia in babies

The exact cause is unknown, but doctors believe that several factors increase the risk of hip dysplasia in children:

  • Family history of hip Dysplasia in parents or other close relatives
  • Gender: Girls are two to four times more likely to have this condition
  • Babies born first are harder to fit in the womb than later babies
  • Break position during pregnancy
  • Legs stretched and wrapped tightly

Break position: Babies under the head often expand with one or both legs in a partially upright position without contracting in place of the fetus while the mother is pregnant. Unfortunately, this position can prevent the developing baby’s hip socket from developing properly.

Tight swaddling: Wrapping the baby’s legs in an upright position interferes with healthy joint development. If you move your baby, you can wrap her arms and torso comfortably, but leave room to prevent her legs from bending and moving.

Risk factors of hip dysplasia

Firstborn babies are at higher risk because the uterus is small and the baby has limited space to move. It affects the development of the hip. Other risk factors:

  • Family history of DDH or very simple tendons
  • The position of the baby in the womb, especially the breech position
  • Other orthopedic problems like clubfoot
  • Female gender HRD is more common in girls than in boys

Diagnosis of hip dysplasia

Screening for coronary heart disease is done at birth and during your baby’s first year of life. The most common detection method is the physical exam. Your pediatrician will gently pat your child’s hips and legs for clicking or ticking sounds that indicate removal. This test consists of two tests:

  • During the Ortolani test, your pediatrician uses an upward force while keeping your baby’s hips away from the body. The movement away from the body is called abduction.
  • During the barbell test, your pediatrician will apply a downward force while moving your child’s hips throughout the body. The movement towards the body is called addiction.
  • These tests are perfect before your baby is 3 months old. In older children and infants, findings that indicate CHD include lameness, limited abduction, and a difference in leg length if only one hip is affected.
  • Imaging tests can confirm the diagnosis of coronary heart disease. Doctors examine ultrasound scans of babies younger than 6 months. They use X-rays to evaluate older children and babies.

Treatment for hip dysplasia

Treatment options for hip dysplasia in babies in babies include

  • Soft herb used to treat hip dysplasia in babies
  • Pavlik saddle infant in the open spica cast pop-up dialog
  • Spica cast popup dialog box periacetabular osteotomy
  • Open the periacetabular osteotomy pop-up dialog

Treatment for hip dysplasia in babies depends on the age of the affected person and the extent of damage to the hip. Babies are usually treated with a soft herb, such as a Pavlik saddle, which keeps the joint patella in its socket for several months. This helps shape the lace into a ball shape.

Bracing: Treatment for babies under 6 months is usually a weed. The most commonly used herb is the Pavlik chair. It has a shoulder chair that attaches to the foot straps. This holds the baby’s legs in a position to guide the ball of the hip joint into the socket.

Treatment with the Pavlik gene usually lasts 6 to 12 weeks. When wearing a saddle, the baby will have a checkup every 1 to 3 weeks with ultrasounds and hip tests. During the visit, the medical team can adjust the saddle if necessary.

Fruits (weeds) generally work well to hold fruits in position. Most babies do not need other treatments. In rare cases, the saddle may keep the hip ball in the socket. So doctors can also:

  • Closed reduction (manually moving the ball in the socket) and launch
  • Open reduction (surgery) and transmission

Closure and transmission reduction: Children may need a closed deduction if:

  • The saddle failed to keep the hip ball in the socket
  • A baby begins to receive care after 6 months of age

For closed reduction, the baby receives medicine (general anesthesia) to sleep during the procedure and does not feel pain. Surgeon:

  • Inject the contrast into the joint to see the cartilaginous part of the ball
  • The baby’s femur moves so that the kneecap of the joint falls back into the socket
  • The tip of the hip is placed over the cast to keep the hip in place. The baby wears the cast for 2-4 months
  • Sometimes the orthopedic surgeon will also loosen the tight groin muscle during a closed contraction

Open reduction (surgery) and cast: If your child may need surgery (open reduction):

  • The closed reduction failed to keep the ball of the hip in the socket
  • The child was over 18 months old at the time of initiating treatment
  • During an open reduction, the child falls asleep under anesthesia. Surgeon
  • Cuts through the skin
  • The muscle comes out to directly view the hip joint.
  • Put the ball back in its place
  • Close the surgical cut with stitches placed under the skin. It is not necessary to remove them
  • The hip spike is placed over the cast to keep the hip in place. The child wears the cast for 6 to 12 weeks
  • Sometimes an orthopedic surgeon will perform surgery to deepen a very shallow hip socket in the pelvis, especially in children older than 18 months

Complications of hip dysplasia

Complications of hip dysplasia in babies are:

  • Children treated with Spica Casting may slow down. However, when the cast is removed, gait development generally continues.
  • The Pavlic saddle and other positioning devices can cause skin irritation around the straps and can vary in leg length. Growth disturbances of the upper part of the femur are very rare but can occur due to an interruption in the blood supply to the growth area of ​​the femur.
  • Even after proper treatment, the shallow socket in the hip may persist and surgery may be necessary for childhood to restore the normal anatomy of the hip joint.


 In most children with DDH, casts and/or braces are needed to hold the hip bone in place during healing. Casting may take 2 to 3 months. At this point, your doctor can change the cast.

X-rays and other regular follow-up visits are required after DDH treatment until the child’s growth is complete.