What Do Otolaryngologists Do? | ENT Specialist

Overview of otolaryngologist

Otolaryngologist uses medical and surgical care to treat conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT), as well as related conditions of the head and neck. Surgeons in this medical field have many titles: otolaryngologists, head and neck surgeons, ENT physicians, ENT surgeons, and ENT surgeons.

Common conditions that these specialists treat are sleep apnea, gastric reflux, and hearing loss. Otolaryngologists often treat nasal obstructions with cochlear implant surgery, as well as tonsillectomy, rhinoplasty, and biopsy.

The term, despite its extension, is actually an abbreviation for otorhinolaryngology.

  • Ears: The treatment of hearing loss is exclusive to ENT specialists.
  • Nose: Chronic sinusitis is one of the most common medical complaints in the United States, with 35 million adults being diagnosed with the disease each year. Managing the nasal cavity also involves treating allergy and odour problems.
  • Throat: ENT specialists are responsible for diagnosing and treating diseases of the larynx and upper oesophagus, including vocal problems and swallowing problems.
  • Head and neck: ENT specialists can also treat diseases and disorders that affect the face, head, and neck, including infectious diseases, trauma, deformities, and cancers. In this area, otorhinolaryngology can be crossed with other specialities such as dermatology and oral surgery.

What are the conditions treated by otolaryngologists?

Otolaryngologists provide care for a variety of conditions using medical and surgical skills to treat their patients.

They have a solid understanding of the medical sciences of the head and neck, the upper respiratory and digestive systems, communication systems, and the chemical senses.

The following is a list of common conditions that fall under the category of otolaryngologists.

Airway problems

Breathing difficulties can range from mild to severe, such as stridor and severe airway obstruction. A variety of underlying conditions can cause these problems.

Chronic sinusitis

This condition is characterized by chronic inflammation and swelling of the nasal passages, with difficulty breathing through the mucous membranes and the nose. Infection, increased polyps inside the nose, or an abnormal septum can contribute to chronic sinusitis.

Cleft lip and palate

It is a cleft in the mouth in which the lip, palate, or both do not fully develop as the fetus grows. Ruptures can range in size from those that cause minor problems to severe interference with food, speech, and breathing.

Nasal septum

The nasal septum is the wall that divides the nasal cavity. A deviated septum is severely altered from the midline, which usually causes shortness of breath and chronic sinusitis.

Dropping the eyelids

Excessive sagging of the upper eyelid can be part of the natural ageing process, but it can also be caused by several underlying conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, stroke, and tumours that affect nerve or muscle reactions. Dropping the eyelids can sometimes interfere with vision.

Hearing loss

Hearing loss occurs in people of all ages and can have a variety of causes. Ageing, exposure to loud noises, viruses, heart conditions, head injuries, strokes, and tumours can gradually lead to hearing loss.

Infection of tonsils or adenoids

The tonsils and adenoids of the throat are part of the immune system. Its job is to take samples of bacteria and viruses that enter the body through the nose and mouth but are susceptible to recurring infections that can lead to surgery.

Voice disorders

Many conditions can lead to voice disorders, including vocal cord trauma, viruses, cancer, and recurrent chronic acid reflux. Diseases include numbness, low vocal tone, vocal fatigue, and total loss of voice.

What are the procedures done by otolaryngologist?

Otolaryngologists should be able to perform a wide range of procedures to address a large number of medical problems in their speciality.

These procedures involve the entire neck, from complex microvascular reconstruction to surgery. The following list of policies reveals a wide range of work.


Sagging eyelid repair is the removal of excess skin, muscle, or fat that can damage eyesight. This procedure often occurs for cosmetic reasons and rarely requires a hospital stay.

Endoscopic sinus surgery

This is often done by an otolaryngologist to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases of the sinuses, such as chronic sinusitis or the growth of polyps. Otolaryngologists insert a device called an endoscope into the nose, which allows the sinuses to be seen.

They can be inserted and used with surgical instruments, including lasers, to remove material blocking the sinuses. This procedure is done under local or general anaesthesia.

Excision and biopsy

The surgeon performs a biopsy to identify suspicious lesions and tumours. These can develop anywhere on the body and require recognition to define an effective course of treatment.

They often perform the removal of small wounds and superficial skin cancers under local anaesthesia in the context of a patient.

Facial plastic surgery

This type of surgery can be reconstructive or cosmetic. Otolaryngologists can correct congenital anomalies such as a cleft palate, or accidents, conditions such as previous surgeries or skin cancer.

They also improve the appearance of facial structures, including correcting wrinkles.

Neck dissection

The main form of surgery, which involves removing cancerous lymph nodes in the neck, is performed under general anaesthesia. The extent of the surgery depends on the spread of cancer.

Radical neck dissection requires the removal of all tissues in this area, including muscles, nerves, salivary glands, and major blood vessels, from the jaw bone to the clavicle.

When to contact an otolaryngologist

Otolaryngologists are the most suitable physicians to treat any structural disorder related to the ears, nose, throat, and head and neck.

Because they specialize in both medicine and surgery, they generally do not need to refer patients to other doctors for further treatment.

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