What Do Otolaryngologists Do? | ENT Specialist

Overview of otolaryngologist

Otolaryngologist uses medical and surgical care to treat conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT), as well as related conditions of the head and neck. Surgeons in this medical field have many titles: otolaryngologists, head and neck surgeons, ENT physicians, ENT surgeons, and ENT surgeons.

Common conditions that these specialists treat are sleep apnea, gastric reflux, and hearing loss. Otolaryngologists often treat nasal obstructions with cochlear implant surgery, as well as tonsillectomy, rhinoplasty, and biopsy.

The term, despite its extension, is actually an abbreviation for otorhinolaryngology.

  • Ears: The treatment of hearing loss is exclusive to ENT specialists.
  • Nose: Chronic sinusitis is one of the most common medical complaints in the United States, with 35 million adults being diagnosed with the disease each year. Managing the nasal cavity also involves treating allergy and odour problems.
  • Throat: ENT specialists are responsible for diagnosing and treating diseases of the larynx and upper oesophagus, including vocal problems and swallowing problems.
  • Head and neck: ENT specialists can also treat diseases and disorders that affect the face, head, and neck, including infectious diseases, trauma, deformities, and cancers. In this area, otorhinolaryngology can be crossed with other specialities such as dermatology and oral surgery.

What are the conditions treated by otolaryngologists?

Otolaryngologists provide care for a variety of conditions using medical and surgical skills to treat their patients.

They have a solid understanding of the medical sciences of the head and neck, the upper respiratory and digestive systems, communication systems, and the chemical senses.

The following is a list of common conditions that fall under the category of otolaryngologists.

Airway problems

Breathing difficulties can range from mild to severe, such as stridor and severe airway obstruction. A variety of underlying conditions can cause these problems.

Chronic sinusitis

This condition is characterized by chronic inflammation and swelling of the nasal passages, with difficulty breathing through the mucous membranes and the nose. Infection, increased polyps inside the nose, or an abnormal septum can contribute to chronic sinusitis.

Cleft lip and palate

It is a cleft in the mouth in which the lip, palate, or both do not fully develop as the fetus grows. Ruptures can range in size from those that cause minor problems to severe interference with food, speech, and breathing.

Nasal septum

The nasal septum is the wall that divides the nasal cavity. A deviated septum is severely altered from the midline, which usually causes shortness of breath and chronic sinusitis.

Dropping the eyelids

Excessive sagging of the upper eyelid can be part of the natural ageing process, but it can also be caused by several underlying conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, stroke, and tumours that affect nerve or muscle reactions. Dropping the eyelids can sometimes interfere with vision.

Hearing loss

Hearing loss occurs in people of all ages and can have a variety of causes. Ageing, exposure to loud noises, viruses, heart conditions, head injuries, strokes, and tumours can gradually lead to hearing loss.

Infection of tonsils or adenoids

The tonsils and adenoids of the throat are part of the immune system. Its job is to take samples of bacteria and viruses that enter the body through the nose and mouth but are susceptible to recurring infections that can lead to surgery.

Voice disorders

Many conditions can lead to voice disorders, including vocal cord trauma, viruses, cancer, and recurrent chronic acid reflux. Diseases include numbness, low vocal tone, vocal fatigue, and total loss of voice.

What are the procedures done by otolaryngologist?

Otolaryngologists should be able to perform a wide range of procedures to address a large number of medical problems in their speciality.

These procedures involve the entire neck, from complex microvascular reconstruction to surgery. The following list of policies reveals a wide range of work.


Sagging eyelid repair is the removal of excess skin, muscle, or fat that can damage eyesight. This procedure often occurs for cosmetic reasons and rarely requires a hospital stay.

Endoscopic sinus surgery

This is often done by an otolaryngologist to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases of the sinuses, such as chronic sinusitis or the growth of polyps. Otolaryngologists insert a device called an endoscope into the nose, which allows the sinuses to be seen.

They can be inserted and used with surgical instruments, including lasers, to remove material blocking the sinuses. This procedure is done under local or general anaesthesia.

Excision and biopsy

The surgeon performs a biopsy to identify suspicious lesions and tumours. These can develop anywhere on the body and require recognition to define an effective course of treatment.

They often perform the removal of small wounds and superficial skin cancers under local anaesthesia in the context of a patient.

Facial plastic surgery

This type of surgery can be reconstructive or cosmetic. Otolaryngologists can correct congenital anomalies such as a cleft palate, or accidents, conditions such as previous surgeries or skin cancer.

They also improve the appearance of facial structures, including correcting wrinkles.

Neck dissection

The main form of surgery, which involves removing cancerous lymph nodes in the neck, is performed under general anaesthesia. The extent of the surgery depends on the spread of cancer.

Radical neck dissection requires the removal of all tissues in this area, including muscles, nerves, salivary glands, and major blood vessels, from the jaw bone to the clavicle.

When to contact an otolaryngologist

Otolaryngologists are the most suitable physicians to treat any structural disorder related to the ears, nose, throat, and head and neck.

Because they specialize in both medicine and surgery, they generally do not need to refer patients to other doctors for further treatment.

General Topics

Effect Of Early Menopause Due To Osteoporosis | Orthopaedics

Osteoporosis and menopause

Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bones, increasing the risk of sudden and unexpected fractures. Literally meaning “porous bone,” osteoporosis results in an increased loss of bone mass and strength. The disease often progresses without any symptoms or pain.

Osteoporosis is often not discovered until the weakened bones cause painful fractures, usually in the back or hips. Unfortunately, once you have a broken bone due to osteoporosis, you are at high risk for another. And these fractures can be debilitating. Fortunately, there are steps you can take to help prevent osteoporosis from occurring. And treatments can reduce the rate of bone loss if you already have osteoporosis.

How is osteoporosis related to menopause?

There is a direct relationship between the lack of estrogens during perimenopause and menopause and the development of osteoporosis. Early menopause (before age 45) and any long period in which hormone levels are low and menstrual periods are absent or infrequent can cause bone loss.

Diagnosis of osteoporosis in young women

Diagnosing osteoporosis in premenopausal women is not easy and can be quite difficult. First of all, bone density tests are not routinely recommended for young women. Here are some reasons why:

  • Most premenopausal women with low bone density are not at increased risk of breaking a bone shortly. Therefore, having information about your bone density can only cause unnecessary worry and expense.
  • Some premenopausal women have low bone density because their genetic factor (family history) caused them to have low peak bone mass. Nothing can and should be done to change this.
  • DXA tests can underestimate bone density in small, thin women. So, a DXA test may indicate that a small person has low bone density, but the bone density is really normal for the person’s body size.
  • Medications for osteoporosis are not approved or recommended for most premenopausal women. Jawbone density tests are used to help leader decisions about treatment.

Diagnosing in young women generally involves several steps. While these stepladders may differ for each person, they may include:

  • Medical history
  • Physical exam
  • Bone mineral density test (bone density)
  • Lab tests
  • X-rays

One to two years after an initial bone density test, a second bone density can be done and will determine if you have a low peak bone mass that remains the same or if you are losing bone. If your bone density drops significantly between the first and second test, you may be losing bone and need further evaluation by a healthcare provider.


Treatments for established osteoporosis include:

  • Medications such as alendronate (Binosto, Fosamax), ibandronate (Boniva), raloxifene (Evista), risedronate (Actonel, Atevia), and zoledronic acid (Reclast, Zometa)
  • Calcium and vitamin D supplements.
  • Weight-bearing exercises.
  • Injectable abaloparatide (Tymlos), teriparatide (Forteo) or PTH to rebuild bone.
  • Injectable denosumab (Prolia, Xgeva) for women at high risk of fracture when other drugs don’t work.

Understand the risks

The following are additional risk factors:


Smoking has been shown to increase your risk. It also appears to cause an earlier onset of menopause, which means there is less time that the bones are protected by estrogen. People who smoke also have a more difficult time healing after a fracture compared to non-smokers.

Body composition

Women who are small or thin have a higher risk of developing osteoporosis compared to women who are heavier or have a larger body. This is because slimmer women have less bone mass overall compared to larger women. The same is true of men.

Existing bone density

When you reach menopause, the higher your bone density, the lower your chance of developing osteoporosis.

Think of your body as a bank. You spend your young life building or “saving” bone mass. The more bone mass you have at the beginning of menopause, the less quickly it will “wear out.”

This is why you should encourage your children to actively develop bone density in their younger years.

Family history

If your parents or grandparents had this or a hip fracture as a result of a minor fall, you may have a higher risk of developing osteoporosis.


Women are up to four times more likely to develop osteoporosis than men. This is because women tend to be smaller and weigh less than men. Women over the age of 50 are at the highest risk of developing bone disease.

General Topics

Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction (SPD) in Pregnancy | Orthopaedics

What is symphysis pubis dysfunction (SPD) in pregnancy?

Symphysis pubis dysfunction (SPD) is a group of symptoms that cause uneasiness in the pelvic region. It usually occurs during pregnancy, when the pelvic joints developed stiff or move unevenly. It can occur in both the front and back of the pelvis. Symphysis pubis dysfunction (SPD) is also sometimes known as pelvic girdle pain.

The symphysis pubis dysfunction condition is not harmful to your baby, but it can be extremely painful for you. In some, the pain can be so severe that it affects mobility.

What are the signs and symptoms of SPD?

The most common symptoms of this symphysis pubis dysfunction are difficulty walking and tearing pain (as if the pelvis is tearing). The pain is usually concentrated in the pubic area, but in some women, it radiates to the upper thighs and perineum.

Pain can be worse when you walk and perform weight-bearing activities, particularly those that involve lifting one leg such as climbing stairs, getting dressed, getting in and out of a car, or even rolling over in bed.

What causes symphysis pubis dysfunction?

“We have connective tissue that attaches the two sides of the pubic bone. The connective tissue is called the symphysis pubis,” says Heba Shaheed, a physical therapist specifying in women’s and pelvic fitness who founded The Pelvic Expert in Sydney, Australia. In other words, the symphysis pubis is a cartilaginous joint located between the right and left sides of the pubic bone.

The hormone relaxin increases during pregnancy to increase your body’s range of motion during delivery. This hormonal change causes the ligaments around the pubic symphysis to become elastic, soft and relaxed. In turn, the symphysis pubis can become unstable and cause pain in some women. “People often feel that two sides of the pubic bone are sliding up and down against each other,” Shaheed explains. “It can be incapacitating if you don’t address the problem right away.”

She is aware that in its most severe form, SPD can cause a real separation of the pubic bone. Pelvic and hip pain can be tremendously painful in this situation. But the doctor says that parting of the pubic bone is rare, happening in less than 1 per cent of pregnancies.

Side effects and complications of symphysis pubis dysfunction

Pelvic pain and instability can affect other parts of the body as well. For example, pelvic pain can change the way a person walks and moves, which, in turn, could put stress on different parts of the body, such as the hips or back.

Research indicates that pelvic girdle pain is simple in about 20% of cases. Severe pain can delay mobility and normal daily activities. Walking can be painful and unsteady.

Emotional problems can also develop as a result of pain related to SPD. In one study, women reported feeling irritable, guilty, upset, and unfulfilled due to SPD. When pain touches mobility, it can also lead to social isolation and there is a risk of pain medicine abuse.

Treatment and remedies for symphysis pubis dysfunction

Both medical treatment and home remedies can help treat symphysis pubis dysfunction (SPD). The harshness of the pain will determine the treatment options. During pregnancy, not all treatments are suitable. For example, medication may not be advisable.

Treatment may include the following:

  • Soft tissue therapy: Soft tissue therapy generally includes chiropractic care, which may involve spinal manipulation and massage to improve the stability and position of the pelvic joint.
  • Wearing a pregnancy support belt: A pregnancy belt supports the pelvic bones and helps maintain proper alignment. The belt can relieve pain in the short term. A study involving 46 pregnant women with pelvic girdle pain found that wearing a pregnancy support belt successfully reduced pain, but only when the women used it regularly for short periods.
  • Extension: Since SPD affects everyone differently, stretches that work for one person may not work for another. It’s best to check with a doctor which stretches are safe, especially during pregnancy.

An example of a stretch that can relieve pain is the pelvic tilt. People can achieve this exercise by following these steps:

  • Lie on your backbone with your knees bent and your feet flat on the floor.
  • Pull your stomach muscles inward and squeeze your gluteal muscles to flatten your back and tilt your pelvis.
  • Hold the place for 5 to 10 seconds and then relax.
  • If this movement alleviates the discomfort, a person can do 10 to 20 repetitions.

Remedies of symphysis pubis dysfunction

These home remedies can also reduce SPD-related discomfort:

  • Insertion a pillow between your legs when sleeping
  • Avoiding sitting for a long time
  • Smear an ice pack to the pelvic area
  • Staying active but avoiding any activity that causes you pain
  • Incorporating breaks every day
  • Wearing supportive shoes
  • Keep your knees organized when getting in and out of the car
  • Perform Kegel exercises to reinforce your pelvic floor muscles.
  • Analgesic

Over-the-counter and prescription pain relievers can also help relieve the symptoms of SPD. However, not all pain relievers are safe during pregnancy. A healthcare professional can offer advice on the appropriate options.

Diagnosis of symphysis pubis dysfunction

Potential symptoms from the differential diagnosis of SPD should be firmly excepted thorough medical history, physical inspection, and appropriate investigations, to ensure the diagnosis of pubic symphysis dysfunction.

Symptoms that can lead to the diagnosis of SPD are nerve compression (injury to the intervertebral disc), symptomatic low back pain (lumbago and sciatica), pubic osteolysis, osteitis pubis, bone infection (osteomyelitis, tuberculosis, syphilis), urinary tract infection., rotund ligament pain, femoral vein thrombosis, and obstetric complications.

Diagnostic procedures of symphysis pubis dysfunction

As with all dysfunctions, an early diagnosis is important to minimize the possibility of a long-term problem. However, not all doctors recognize this problem.

Leadbetter et al. described, in accordance with their findings, a scoring system for diagnosing symphysis pubis dysfunction based on pain during four activities and a previous injury, which could be important in determining symphysis pubis dysfunction.

  1. Pain in the pubic bone when walking
  2. Standing on one leg
  3. Climb stairs
  4. Roll over in bed
  5. Previous damage to the lumbosacral spine or pelvis

Often the diagnosis is made symptomatically, eg. Eg after pregnancy, but imaging is the only way to confirm diastasis of the symphysis pubis. Radiography, such as an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), X-ray, computed tomography (CT) scan, or ultrasound [1, level 1A], has been used to confirm separation of the symphysis pubis. Although it is not considered as the method of choice due to the danger of exposing the fetus to ionizing radiation. A better technique with superior spatial resolution and avoiding ionizing radiation is magnetic resonance imaging.

Other techniques that can aid in the diagnosis and follow-up of the treatment of pelvic symphysis dysfunction are transvaginal or transperineal ultrasound, which uses high-resolution transducers.  Ultrasound is a useful diagnostic aid that can measure interpubic distance. This may be a consequence of the diastasis of the pubic symphysis after delivery. Interpubic distance is usually measured with electronic callipers. It is also important to know that ultrasound provides a simple means of measuring the interpubic gap, without exposure to ionizing radiation.

Prevention of SPD

It is very little you can do to avoid getting SPD during pregnancy. However, it is more common if you have had a preceding pelvic injury, so it is always important to take all possible steps to protect this vital part of your body.

General Topics

Why Women Get More Arthritis Than Men? | Orthopaedics

Overview of arthritis

But not so many, perhaps, know about the unique challenges women face regarding arthritis. Not only do women get more arthritis than men, but women also often experience worse pain –ache in different joints and are far more vulnerable to rheumatoid arthritis, one of the most debilitating forms of the condition.

These tend to move different joints in women than in men. Men have more in the hip joints, women on their hands and knees. For one thing, women’s tendons move more because they are more elastic and are also more prone to injury. Additionally, women’s wider hips affect knee alignment in a way that leaves them more vulnerable to certain types of injuries, resulting in more arthritis in the future.

Hormones also play a role. Estrogen helps keep inflammation under control, which is why younger women have less arthritis than men, but when levels plummet with menopause, it often follows. Investigators are currently trying to unravel other complicated findings of how hormones shape arthritis risk, with apparent connections between puberty, childbearing, and the use of hormone spare therapy.

Excess weight means more arthritis. Obesity is more in women than in men. Excess weight puts pressure on the knee joints, erodes cartilage, and therefore increases the risk. One pound of body weight translates to three additional pounds of pressure on each knee joint.

Rheumatoid arthritis is increasing among women

According to all, after 40 years of decline, the incidence (frequency of occurrence) and prevalence (total number of cases in a given population) of rheumatoid arthritis among women is increasing. From 1995 to 2005, the occurrence of rheumatoid arthritis among women was 54 per 100,000 compared to 36 per 100,000 during the previous 10 years.

For men, the occurrence was stable at 29 per 100,000. The researchers concluded that an environmental factor could explain the reverse trend for women.

Why is arthritis more common in women?

It is more common in females than in men. Find out why women are more susceptible to arthritic conditions.

Nearly 27 million Americans with osteoarthritis, about 60 per cent of them are women and the risk factors change with age. Up to 55 years, more men are affected, but after 55, the number of women with the condition exceeds the number of men. Gender also determines which joints tend to be pretentious. It is more common for men to experience in the hips. In women, It inclines to affect the hands or knees.

Thumb arthritis is more communal in women and can be very disabling. Women are more susceptible than men for several reasons:

  • Genetics. Osteoarthritis appears to run in families, and researchers have found specific genetic links amongst women for osteoarthritis of the hand and knee.
  • Hormones Research proposes that female hormones have an effect on the shock-absorbing cartilage found between the bones of the joints to allow smooth joint movement. Although the female hormone estrogen defends cartilage from inflammation, women lose that protection after menopause when estrogen levels drop.
  • Joint stability. Women’s joints are looser than men’s the bones move more and are less stable within the joint. When joints are less stable, they are more prone to injury, and injuries can lead to this disease.

When the bones move toward the ends of the joint, they go beyond the point where the joint should move. This damages the cartilage and can trigger the development of this disease.

Some people cope with this pain for years because they don’t realize there are treatments that can help. It is important to talk to your doctor about your level of pain and how often you experience it. It progresses over time, but we have treatments that can make this development less painful for patients.

When to seek treatment

It doesn’t have to spell the end of an active life. If you are experiencing worrisome symptoms or persistent pain, the renowned arthritis specialists at Summit Orthopedics can help. They work with you to confirm a diagnosis and develop an appropriate conservative treatment plan. If nonsurgical treatments fail to support your lifestyle goals, fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons will consult with you and discuss appropriate surgical options. Summit is home to innovative joint replacement options.


Overview of Rhinology | ENT Specialist

What is rhinology?

Rhinology is a subdivision of otorhinolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat) that focuses exclusively on disorders of the nose, sinuses, and skull base (the area between the sinuses and the brain).

What are the diagnosis done by rhinology?

We use the latest technological advances in the diagnosis of sinusitis. All initial evaluations through our sinus program are dedicated to providing an accurate diagnosis and making the patient aware of sinus treatment options. After reviewing the patient’s medical history and physically examining the nose, the doctor will often examine the sinuses using the fiber optic range. This procedure, called nasal endoscopy or rhinoscopy, is done in the exam room. To further aid in the diagnosis, a CT scan may be taken.

Treatment of nasal and sinus disorders requires medical and / or surgical intervention. Medical options include topical nasal sprays, antibiotics, and frequent allergy evaluations. The approach to these disorders specializes in multidisciplinary, allergy/immunology, pulmonology, and other subtypes, including maxillofacial surgery.

Sinus surgery options are described in detail, our team is dedicated to bringing technological advancements. Minimally invasive, computer-assisted surgical procedures are available for patients with refractory or complicated diseases of the nose and sinuses. Additionally, as a leading sinus care practice in the region, we have become a referral destination for patients who have previously failed sinus surgery.

Common Sinus Procedures:

  • Computer Image-Guided Breast Surgery
  • Endoscopic sinus surgery
  • Review of endoscopic sinus surgery
  • Septoplasty
  • Turbinate surgery

Treatment of rhinological conditions

Our program treats all types of nasal, and sinus disorders, including:

  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Acute aspirin respiratory disease (AERD)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks
  • Sinusitis
  • Skull base tumors
  • Facial injury
  • Nasal polyps
  • Pituitary tumors
  • Nasal septum
  • Inverted papillomas
  • Head and neck osteoma
  • Juvenile Nasongiofibroma (JNA)
  • Sinus mucosa
  • Paranasal sinus tumors
  • Nasal obstructions: Obstruction of the nasal passage in general, since the mucous membranes of the nose become inflamed due to the inflamed blood vessels.

Nasal valve collapse: A breathing disorder that causes severe nasal congestion, snoring, and breathing through the mouth.

Tear duct obstruction: Tears usually do not flow, leaving you with a watery and irritated eye. This condition is caused by a partial or total blockage of the tear drainage system.

Treatments and procedures of rhinology

In rhinology, our specialists are recognized locally and nationally in the treatment of complex and chronic nasal and sinus disorders. Many patients seeking treatment do not have access to the combination of treatments that we offer that can effectively treat their chronic sinus condition. For example, In more complex cases, both medical treatments combined with surgery may be the best approach to successfully managing and treating chronic sinus conditions.

Leaders in the treatment of surgical rhinology

Rhino specialists have guided major surgical techniques to restore nasal function to previously unsuccessful treatments. They perform high volumes of these minimally invasive procedures using the latest surgical instruments, including image-guided navigation to provide accurate and safe care.

Advanced sinus surgery procedures for chronic rhinosinusitis:

Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS)

The least invasive surgical technique used to open the nostrils and improve drainage. FESS is usually done to correct sinus problems that don’t respond well to other treatments.

Sinus revision surgery

We specialize in complex breast revision surgeries for critically treated cases. Many of our patients seek sinus revision surgery when their previous surgery at another medical facility is unsuccessful. Due to the proximity of the sinuses to complex structures, including the eyes and the brain, these areas of the sinuses often become inactive and diseased. Because we have specialized experience and a leading surgical team, we can safely work on these challenging sinus areas.

Rhinology surgery conditions

Nasal and sinus conditions we treat include acute and chronic sinusitis, nasal polyps, nasal obstructions, and nasal congestion (epistaxis). Starting with your initial visit, we will help you make a complete and accurate diagnosis of your symptoms, medical history, and concerns and develop an accurate treatment plan tailored to your lifestyle.

Rhinology and sinus surgery services

We focus on improving the medical management of difficult-to-treat sinusitis cases when we use surgery as a last resort. One of the novel treatments we offer is the use of soluble steroid (propel) implants in patients with acute chronic sinusitis and polyps disease. Currently, this treatment is available to hospitalized patients as an adjunct to sinus surgery. In contrast to traditional therapies such as steroid irrigation, the benefits are direct delivery of steroid therapy to the sinus cavity, while reducing the level of systemic steroid absorption.

For cases that require surgery, we use less invasive techniques to effectively treat sinus disease while reducing recovery time. In patients with severe frontal sinusitis where multiple preoperative surgeries have failed, for example, we use a minimally invasive method called the DRAF III frontal sinus procedure, which uses endoscopic techniques to increase the opening of the frontal sinuses and their communication with the nasal cavity. This allows the frontal sinus to provide effective topical irrigation treatment and easy office access. It is a successful option for patients who have failed open frontal sinus surgery.


What Is Throat Cancer? | ENT Specialist

Overview of throat cancer

Throat cancer refers to cancer of the larynx, vocal cords, and other parts of the throat, such as the tonsils and oropharynx. Throat cancer is frequently grouped into two categories:

  • Pharyngeal cancer
  • Laryngeal cancer

Cancer is a class of diseases in which abnormal cells increase and divide uncontrollably in the body. These abnormal cells form malignant growths called tumours.

Throat cancer is relatively rare compared to other cancers. The National Cancer Organization estimates that of adults in the United States:

  • About 1.2 per cent will be diagnosed with pharyngeal and oral cavity cancer in their lifetime.
  • About 0.3 per cent will be diagnosed with laryngeal cancer in their lifetime.

Types of throat cancer

It is a general term for cancer that develops in the throat (pharyngeal cancer) or the larynx (laryngeal cancer). The throat and larynx are carefully connected, with the larynx located just below the throat.

Though most throat cancers involve the same types of cells, specific terms are used to differentiate the part of the throat where cancer started.

  • Nasopharyngeal cancer begins in the nasopharynx, the share of the throat just behind the nose.
  • Oropharyngeal cancer starts in the oropharynx, the part of the throat just behind the mouth that includes the tonsils.
  • Hypopharyngeal cancer (laryngopharyngeal cancer) begins in the hypopharynx (laryngopharynx), the lower part of the throat, just above the esophagus and trachea.
  • Glottic cancer begins in the vocal cords.
  • Supraglottic cancer begins in the upper part of the larynx and includes cancer that affects the epiglottis, which is a piece of cartilage that prevents food from entering the trachea.

Symptoms of throat cancer

Signs and symptoms of throat cancer may include:

  • Voice changes such as hoarseness or cracking
  • Difficulty swallowing or breathing
  • A sore throat, cough, or earache that doesn’t go away
  • Headache
  • Lump in the neck
  • Unexplained weight loss

Causes of throat cancer

Experts don’t know exactly what causes throat cancer, but some factors seem to increase the risk.

They include:

  • Alcohol: Consuming more than one drink a day can increase your risk.
  • Tobacco use: This includes smoking or chewing tobacco and inhaling snuff.
  • Poor nutrition: vitamin deficiencies can play a role.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): acid from the stomach leaks into the esophagus.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
  • HPV infection: increases the risk of several types of cancer.
  • Exposure to some chemicals – Substances used in the petroleum and metallurgy industries can contribute.
  • Sex: These cancers traditionally affect about four times more men than women.
  • Age: more than 50% of diagnoses occur after 65 years.
  • Race and Ethnicity: It is more common among Black Americans and White Americans than Asians or Hispanic Americans.
  • Science has not long-established that all of these factors cause or even increase the risk of throat cancer, but there is evidence that they can.

However, they have found a strong link between smoking and heavy alcohol use.

Throat cancer diagnosis

At your appointment, your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. If you’ve been experiencing symptoms such as a sore throat, hoarseness, and persistent cough with no improvement and no other explanation, they may suspect throat cancer.

To check for throat cancer, your doctor will perform a direct or an indirect laryngoscopy or will refer you to a specialist for the procedure.

A laryngoscopy gives your doctor a closer view of your throat. If this test reveals abnormalities, your doctor may take a tissue sample (called a biopsy) from your throat and test the sample for cancer.


Different approaches are used to obtain tissue for a biopsy, depending on the location of the tumour. Contrary to a common misconception, biopsies do not increase the chance that cancer will spread.

  • Conventional incisional biopsy – This is the most commonly used traditional type of biopsy. The doctor surgically removes some of the tissue where cancer is suspected.
  • Excisional biopsy: A type of biopsy that removes most or all of the tissue suspected of having cancer. This is often done with tonsillectomy in the operating room.
  • Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy: This type of biopsy may be used if you have a lump in your neck that you can feel. A fine needle is inserted into the area, and then the cells are removed and examined under a microscope. This is often combined with an ultrasound to verify the location of the needle.

Imaging tests, which may include:

  • CT or CAT scans (computerized axial tomography)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans
  • Chest and dental x-rays

Throat cancer treatment options

Throat cancer treatment can depend on many factors, including the specific type of cancer, its location, and its stage. Treatment options include:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Targeted therapy

Treatment for metastatic throat cancer may be contingent on where cancer has spread and may include chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Some treatments for metastatic cancer can be considered palliative and are intended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Risk factors

Factors that can increase your risk of throat cancer include:

  • Tobacco use, including smoking and chewing tobacco
  • Excessive alcohol use
  • Viral infections, including human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus
  • A diet lacking in fruits and vegetables
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Exposure to toxic substances at work


There is no established way to prevent it. But to lower your risk of this disease, you can:

  • Stop or don’t start smoking. If you smoke, stop it. If you don’t smoke, don’t start. Quitting smoking can be very difficult, so get help. Your doctor can discuss the benefits and risks of the many strategies to quit smoking, such as medications, nicotine replacement products, and counselling.
  • Drink alcohol only in moderation. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women of all ages and men 65 and older, and up to two drinks a day for men 65 and younger.
  • Choose a fit diet full of fruits and vegetables. The vitamins and antioxidants in fruits and vegetables can reduce your risk of throat cancer. Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables.
  • Protect yourself from HPV. Some throat cancers are believed to be caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection. You can reduce your risk of getting HPV by limiting the number of sexual partners and using a condom every time you have sex. Also consider the HPV vaccine, which is available to boys, girls, and young women and men.

Information About Hip Dysplasia in Babies | Orthopaedics

What is hip dysplasia in babies?

Hip dysplasia in babies is the medical term for the socket of the hip that does not completely cover the spherical portion of the upper femur. This allows the hip joint to be partially or completely displaced. Many people with hip dysplasia are born with this condition.

Developmental hip dysplasia is a health problem of the hip joint. This happens when the joint does not form normally, so it does not work. The DDH is present at birth. It is more common in girls than in boys.

In a normal hip joint, the femur (bone) fits snugly into the upper socket (head) of the hip. In children with DDH, the hip socket is shallow. As a result, the head of the thigh can slide in and out. You can scroll. It moves partially or completely from the hip socket.

Doctors check your baby for signs of hip dysplasia right after birth and well during baby visits. If hip dysplasia is diagnosed in childhood, a mushy weed can usually correct the problem.

Mild cases of hip dysplasia may not begin to cause symptoms until a person reaches puberty or adolescence. Hip dysplasia damages the lining cartilage of the joint and also the soft cartilage (labrum) that lines the socket portion of the hip joint. This is called a hip lobe tear.

Symptoms of hip dysplasia in babies

The development of hip dysplasia does not cause pain in babies, so it is difficult to observe. Doctors thoroughly check the hips of all newborns and babies during infant exams for signs of CDD.

Parents may notice:

  • Baby’s hips can hear, feel, or click
  • The baby’s legs are not the same length
  • One hip or leg does not move to the other side
  • The skin folds under the buttocks or on the thighs do not line up
  • Children limp when they start to walk

Children with any of these symptoms should see a doctor to have their hips checked. Early detection and treatment of CDD mean that the baby’s hips are often more likely to develop normally.

Causes of hip dysplasia in babies

The exact cause is unknown, but doctors believe that several factors increase the risk of hip dysplasia in children:

  • Family history of hip Dysplasia in parents or other close relatives
  • Gender: Girls are two to four times more likely to have this condition
  • Babies born first are harder to fit in the womb than later babies
  • Break position during pregnancy
  • Legs stretched and wrapped tightly

Break position: Babies under the head often expand with one or both legs in a partially upright position without contracting in place of the fetus while the mother is pregnant. Unfortunately, this position can prevent the developing baby’s hip socket from developing properly.

Tight swaddling: Wrapping the baby’s legs in an upright position interferes with healthy joint development. If you move your baby, you can wrap her arms and torso comfortably, but leave room to prevent her legs from bending and moving.

Risk factors of hip dysplasia

Firstborn babies are at higher risk because the uterus is small and the baby has limited space to move. It affects the development of the hip. Other risk factors:

  • Family history of DDH or very simple tendons
  • The position of the baby in the womb, especially the breech position
  • Other orthopedic problems like clubfoot
  • Female gender HRD is more common in girls than in boys

Diagnosis of hip dysplasia

Screening for coronary heart disease is done at birth and during your baby’s first year of life. The most common detection method is the physical exam. Your pediatrician will gently pat your child’s hips and legs for clicking or ticking sounds that indicate removal. This test consists of two tests:

  • During the Ortolani test, your pediatrician uses an upward force while keeping your baby’s hips away from the body. The movement away from the body is called abduction.
  • During the barbell test, your pediatrician will apply a downward force while moving your child’s hips throughout the body. The movement towards the body is called addiction.
  • These tests are perfect before your baby is 3 months old. In older children and infants, findings that indicate CHD include lameness, limited abduction, and a difference in leg length if only one hip is affected.
  • Imaging tests can confirm the diagnosis of coronary heart disease. Doctors examine ultrasound scans of babies younger than 6 months. They use X-rays to evaluate older children and babies.

Treatment for hip dysplasia

Treatment options for hip dysplasia in babies in babies include

  • Soft herb used to treat hip dysplasia in babies
  • Pavlik saddle infant in the open spica cast pop-up dialog
  • Spica cast popup dialog box periacetabular osteotomy
  • Open the periacetabular osteotomy pop-up dialog

Treatment for hip dysplasia in babies depends on the age of the affected person and the extent of damage to the hip. Babies are usually treated with a soft herb, such as a Pavlik saddle, which keeps the joint patella in its socket for several months. This helps shape the lace into a ball shape.

Bracing: Treatment for babies under 6 months is usually a weed. The most commonly used herb is the Pavlik chair. It has a shoulder chair that attaches to the foot straps. This holds the baby’s legs in a position to guide the ball of the hip joint into the socket.

Treatment with the Pavlik gene usually lasts 6 to 12 weeks. When wearing a saddle, the baby will have a checkup every 1 to 3 weeks with ultrasounds and hip tests. During the visit, the medical team can adjust the saddle if necessary.

Fruits (weeds) generally work well to hold fruits in position. Most babies do not need other treatments. In rare cases, the saddle may keep the hip ball in the socket. So doctors can also:

  • Closed reduction (manually moving the ball in the socket) and launch
  • Open reduction (surgery) and transmission

Closure and transmission reduction: Children may need a closed deduction if:

  • The saddle failed to keep the hip ball in the socket
  • A baby begins to receive care after 6 months of age

For closed reduction, the baby receives medicine (general anesthesia) to sleep during the procedure and does not feel pain. Surgeon:

  • Inject the contrast into the joint to see the cartilaginous part of the ball
  • The baby’s femur moves so that the kneecap of the joint falls back into the socket
  • The tip of the hip is placed over the cast to keep the hip in place. The baby wears the cast for 2-4 months
  • Sometimes the orthopedic surgeon will also loosen the tight groin muscle during a closed contraction

Open reduction (surgery) and cast: If your child may need surgery (open reduction):

  • The closed reduction failed to keep the ball of the hip in the socket
  • The child was over 18 months old at the time of initiating treatment
  • During an open reduction, the child falls asleep under anesthesia. Surgeon
  • Cuts through the skin
  • The muscle comes out to directly view the hip joint.
  • Put the ball back in its place
  • Close the surgical cut with stitches placed under the skin. It is not necessary to remove them
  • The hip spike is placed over the cast to keep the hip in place. The child wears the cast for 6 to 12 weeks
  • Sometimes an orthopedic surgeon will perform surgery to deepen a very shallow hip socket in the pelvis, especially in children older than 18 months

Complications of hip dysplasia

Complications of hip dysplasia in babies are:

  • Children treated with Spica Casting may slow down. However, when the cast is removed, gait development generally continues.
  • The Pavlic saddle and other positioning devices can cause skin irritation around the straps and can vary in leg length. Growth disturbances of the upper part of the femur are very rare but can occur due to an interruption in the blood supply to the growth area of ​​the femur.
  • Even after proper treatment, the shallow socket in the hip may persist and surgery may be necessary for childhood to restore the normal anatomy of the hip joint.


 In most children with DDH, casts and/or braces are needed to hold the hip bone in place during healing. Casting may take 2 to 3 months. At this point, your doctor can change the cast.

X-rays and other regular follow-up visits are required after DDH treatment until the child’s growth is complete.


What Are Nose Injuries And Disorders? | ENT Specialist

About nose injuries and disorders

Your nose is important to your health. It filters the air you breathe, removing dust, germs, and irritants. It warms and moistens the air to keep your lungs and tubes that lead to them from drying out. Your nose also contains the nerve cells that help your sense of smell. When there is a problem with your nose, your whole body can suffer. For example, the stuffy nose of the common cold can make it hard for you to breathe, sleep, or get comfortable.

Many problems besides the common cold can affect the nose. Include:

  • Deviated septum: A displacement of the wall that divides the nasal cavity into halves.
  • Nasal polyps: Soft growths that progress on the lining of the nose or sinuses.
  • Nosebleeds
  • Rhinitis: Irritation of the nose and sinuses sometimes caused by allergies. The main symptom is a runny nose.
  • Nasal fractures, also recognized as broken nose.

Types of nose injuries

Nose fractures

Commonly known as a “broken nose,” nasal fractures are the most common type of nasal injury. An open fracture is one in which the skin breaks and the bone is damaged. A closed fracture is one in which the bone is damaged but the skin does not break. When a fracture occurs, the nose should be evaluated for signs of blood pooling (septum hematoma).

Most common among the elderly, nose fractures or nose injuries are often caused by falls or sports injuries in children. Surgery is rarely necessary to correct a broken nose, although realignment may be necessary. Symptoms can include:

  • Bruises around the nose or eyes
  • A “grinding” sensation or sound when the nose is moved.
  • Nosebleeds or excessive nasal discharge.


The blood vessels of the nose are fragile and can bleed from a strong impact or when irritated, such as excessive scratching. Nosebleeds can be treated by applying ice to the nose to constrict the blood vessels and squeezing the nose for several minutes to allow clotting to occur.

Medical attention should be sought for nosebleeds that continue for more than 10 minutes. Possible causes include blowing your nose frequently, drying your nasal membranes, or having a foreign object stuck in your nose. Rare causes include some forms of cancer, high blood pressure, and blood thinners.

Deviated septum

If the wall of bone or cartilage that separates the nose (nasal septum) moves to one side or the other, it is called a deviated septum. It can be caused by sudden trauma or it can be a deformity that was present at birth. Treatment often includes a surgical procedure to restore alignment (septoplasty). Possible symptoms include:

  • Difficulty breathing through the nose
  • Frequent nosebleeds
  • Headaches and trouble sleeping
  • Postnasal drip
  • Loud snoring or breathing

Nose injuries can be minor or major, depending on the trauma or the specific cause. While you are more likely to pay attention to a broken or bruised nose, any bleeding that doesn’t stop or recur regularly shouldn’t be ignored. Because the nose is not protected, it is seldom possible to prevent all injuries. However, seeking immediate care can help minimize your chances of permanent damage.

Treatment for nose injuries

Treatment of a simple fracture, while the bone is still in place, usually includes pain relievers and nasal decongestants. You may or may not essential a nasal splint.

If your nose is broken and out of place, you may need to reposition it. Most doctors like to wait for the swelling to subside before fixing a broken nose. Most of the swelling goes down after 2-3 days, but it can take up to 7-14 days. Once the nose is in place, a nasal packing can be inserted and a splint can be placed. You may be given antibiotics to help prevent infection if a packet is used. Your doctor may want to recheck your nose and remove the plugin for 2 to 3 days.

Nose injuries prevention

While not all nose injuries can be prevented, you can take steps to help reduce the risk of nose injuries.

  • Wear a helmet and face shield to protect your head, face, and mouth during sports activities where facial injuries can occur.
  • Always use safety seats and seat belts to prevent or reduce injuries to the nose and face during a car accident.
  • Wear a face shield when occupied with power tools or when doing an activity that can cause an object to fly into your face.

Everything You Need To Know About Hay Fever | ENT Specialist

What is hay fever?

Hay fever, or allergic rhinitis, is a common condition with symptoms similar to those of a cold. There may be sneezing, congestion, runny nose, and sinus pressure.

Allergic rhinitis develops when the body’s immune system recognizes and overreacts to something in the environment that normally doesn’t cause problems for most people.

Symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis can happen in spring, summer, and early fall. They are usually caused by an allergic sensitivity to airborne mildew spores or pollen from trees, grasses, and weeds.

Symptoms of hay fever

Symptoms of hay fever usually begin immediately after exposure to the allergen. Allergens can be indoors or outdoors seasonally or throughout the year.

Common allergens include:

  • Pollen
  • Pet hair
  • Dust mites
  • Cigarette smoke
  • Fragrance

These allergens will activate your immune system, which mistakenly identifies the substance as harmful. In response to this, your immune system crops antibodies to defend your body. Antibodies tell your blood vessels to widen and your body to make inflammatory chemicals, like histamine.

Genetic factors

The chance of developing allergies also increases if someone in your family has allergies. This study found that if parents have allergy-related illnesses, the probabilities of their children developing hay fever increase. Asthma and eczema that are not related to allergies do not affect your risk factor for hay fever.

Causes of hay fever

Hay fever occurs when the immune system mistakes a normally harmless airborne substance for a threat.

The body produces an antibody called immunoglobulin E (IgE) to attack the threat, and it releases the chemical histamine. Histamine causes symptoms.

Triggers for seasonal hay fever include pollen and spores that only cause symptoms at certain times of the year.

Examples of hay fever triggers include:

  • Tree pollen in spring
  • Grass pollen in late spring and summer
  • Weed pollen, especially during the fall.
  • Fungi and mold spores, more common in hot climates.

Other triggers comprise pet hair or dander, dust mites, mold, and cockroach dust. Irritants that can cause symptoms of hay fever include cigarette smoke, perfumes, and diesel exhaust.

Treatment of hay fever

Avoiding identified allergens is the most helpful factor in managing allergy symptoms. However, avoiding allergies is often not easy. A thorough discussion with your doctor is needed and daily monitoring measures may be required.

If it cannot be avoided or does not relieve symptoms, further treatment is needed. Many patients respond to medications that fight the effects of histamine, known as antihistamines. Antihistamines do not stop histamine formation, nor do they stop the conflict between IgE and antigen. Therefore, antihistamines do not stop the allergic reaction, but rather protect the tissues from the effects of the allergic response.

Newer antihistamines are also available, called “non-sedating” or second-generation ones. These include loratadine (Claritin), fexofenadine (Allegra), cetirizine (Zyrtec), and azelastine (Astelin Nasal Spray). In general, this group of antihistamines is slightly more expensive, has a slower onset of action, and induces less drowsiness. Many of these medications are available without a prescription.

Talk to a doctor about other side effects of antihistamines that occur occasionally (for example, urine retention in men, rapid heart rate, and others). Always discuss the possible side effects of any medication with a doctor and/or pharmacist.

Cromolyn is also an anti-inflammatory drug available without a prescription. Although cromoglycate is not as potent as cortisone, it is very safe. Cromolyn must be used well in advance of anticipated allergy symptoms to be helpful. Ipratropium nasal spray (Atrovent) is available to dry up a wet nasal discharge. It will not prevent allergic reactions. This is a derivative of atropine and while it is generally very safe, a person sensitive to atropine should exercise caution when taking this drug.


An allergist/immunologist has particular training and experience to diagnose specific allergens that trigger your illness or to determine if your symptoms are not allergic. Your allergist will take a complete medical history followed by allergy testing. Skin tests or blood tests are the most common methods for determining triggers for allergic rhinitis.

Risk factors

Some factors increase the risk of hay fever.

  • Have other allergies or asthma.
  • Having atopic dermatitis (eczema)
  • Having a blood relative (such as a parent or sibling) with allergies or asthma.
  • Living or occupied in an environment that constantly exposes you to allergens, such as animal dander or dust mites.


Problems that can be associated with hay fever include:

  • Reduced quality of life. Hay fever can interfere with your enjoyment of activities and make you less productive. For many people, hay fever symptoms lead to nonappearances from work or school.
  • Sleep bad. The symptoms of hay fever can keep you awake or make it difficult to sleep, which can lead to fatigue and a general feeling of being sick (sick).
  • Worsening of asthma. Hay fever can make asthma signs and symptoms worse, such as coughing and wheezing.
  • Prolonged sinus congestion due to hay fever can increase your susceptibility to sinusitis, an infection or inflammation of the lining of the sinuses.
  • Ear infection in kids, hay fever is often a factor in central ear infection (otitis media).


There is no way to avoid hay fever. If you have hay fever, the best thing to do is to reduce your exposure to the allergens that cause your symptoms. Take allergy medications before being exposed to allergens, as directed by your doctor.

General Topics

What Are Facial Injuries And Disorders? | ENT Specialist

Facial injuries and disorders

Facial injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect your appearance. In severe cases, they can affect your vision, speech, breathing, and your ability to swallow. Fractures (broken bones), especially in the bones of the nose, cheekbones, and jaw, are common facial injuries.

Some diseases also cause facial disorders. For example, nerve diseases such as trigeminal neuralgia or Bell’s palsy. Birth defects can also affect the face. They can cause underdeveloped or strangely prominent facial features or a lack of facial expression. Cleft lip and palate are a collective facial birth defect.

Alternative names

  • Maxillofacial injury
  • Midface trauma
  • Facial injury
  • LeFort injuries

Types of injuries

Facial injuries can be caused by a direct blow, a penetrating wound, or a fall. The pain can be sudden and severe. Bruising and swelling may appear shortly after the injury. Acute injuries include:

  • A cut or puncture on the face or inside the mouth. This often occurs even with a minor injury. But a cut or puncture is likely to happen when a jaw or facial bone is broken. The bone can go through the skin or into the mouth.
  • Bruising from tearing or breaking of small blood vessels under the skin.
  • Broken bones, like a broken cheekbone.
  • A dislocated jaw, which can occur when the lower jaw bone separates from one or both of the joints that connect it to the base of the skull at the temporomandibular (TM) joints. This can cause problems even if the jaw returns to its place.

Causes of facial injuries

Facial injuries occur most often during:

  • Sports or frivolous activities, such as ice hockey, basketball, rugby, soccer, or martial arts.
  • Motor vehicle crashes.
  • Falls

In children, most facial injuries happen during sports. Minor facial injuries in young children tend to be less serious than similar facial injuries that occur in children or adults.

Symptoms of facial injuries

Symptoms can include:

  • Changes in sensation on the face.
  • Deformed or uneven face or facial bones
  • Trouble breathing through the nose due to swelling and bleeding.
  • Double vision
  • Missing teeth
  • Swelling or bruising around the eyes can cause vision problems.

Diagnosis of facial injuries

The physician will perform a physical exam, which may show:

  • Bleeding from the nose, eyes, or mouth.
  • Nasal obstruction
  • Breaks in the skin
  • Bruising around the eyes or widening of the distance between the eyes, which can mean injury to the bones between the eye sockets.
  • Changes in vision or eye movement.
  • Upper and lower teeth misaligned

The following may suggest bone fractures:

  • Abnormal sensations in the cheek.
  • Irregularities of the face that can be felt when touching.
  • Undertaking of the upper jaw when the head is still.

Facial injuries treatment

Your healthcare provider may prescribe medications to relieve pain and oral steroids to relieve swelling. They will also prescribe antibiotics if there is a high risk of infection.

In general, fractures can be treated by performing a closed reduction (restoration of broken bone or bones without surgery) or an open reduction (surgery that requires an incision to reposition the broken bones). For a multifaceted fracture with multiple broken bones, you will need reconstructive surgery.

The type of treatment will depend on the location and extent of the injury. The goal of treating facial fractures is to restore the normal appearance and function of the injured areas.

Life-threatening conditions, such as blocked airways, cardiovascular problems, or brain or nervous system injuries, should be treated immediately.