What Is A Pediatric Otolaryngologist? | ENT Specialist

Overview of a pediatric otolaryngologist

If your child needs surgical or complex medical treatment for illnesses or problems affecting the ear, nose, or throat, a pediatric otolaryngologist has the experience and qualifications to treat your child. Many general otolaryngologists provide surgical care for children. However, in many areas of the country, more specialized otolaryngology care is available for children.

What type of training do pediatric otolaryngologists have?

Pediatric otolaryngologists are doctors who have had

  • At least 4 years of medical school.
  • One year of surgical practice.
  • Often 1 additional year of general surgery residency training.
  • At smallest 3 to 4 additional years of placement training in otolaryngology and head and neck surgery.
  • Pediatric otolaryngologists often complete additional training in fellowship programs at a medical centre for older children.

Pediatric otolaryngologists treat children from the neonatal period through adolescence. They choose to make pediatric care the centre of their medical practice, and the unique nature of children’s medical and surgical care is learned from advanced training and hands-on experience.

Procedures and treatments do a pediatric otolaryngologist performs

Pediatric otolaryngologists are qualified in both medical and surgical treatments. Common procedures and treatments include:

  • Airway procedures including bronchoscopy and tracheostomy
  • Allergy treatments, including medications and immunotherapy (allergy shots)
  • Cancer treatments counting chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery.
  • Cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, including rhinoplasty (“nose surgery”), otoplasty (pinning the ears back), and cleft lip and palate repair (palatoplasty)
  • Ear surgery including cochlear implants, a myringotomy (small incisions in the eardrum to relieve pressure), and tympanoplasty (reconstruction of the eardrum and middle ear).
  • Endocrine surgery, including surgery of the thyroid gland and parathyroid glands.
  • Treatments for GERD including medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery
  • Laryngeal (laryngeal) procedures including voice therapy, phono surgery (surgery to correct the production of voice or sound), and laryngectomy (removal of the larynx)
  • Nasal treatments counting medicine, balloon sinuplasty, and septoplasty (straightening of the nasal septum).
  • Tongue and throat treatments, including medications, tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, and surgery to correct sleep apnea and snoring.

Tests can pediatric otolaryngologist perform or order

A pediatric otolaryngologist can instructor perform an extensive variety of diagnostic and screening tests, including:

  • Biopsies, including removal of tissue from the thyroid or other areas of the head and neck.
  • General health tests including a physical examination of the ears, nose, throat, head, and neck, blood test, bacterial cultures including group A Streptococcus, and skin tests with allergy patches.
  • GERD tests including pH probe, barium swallow or upper GI series, gastric emptying study with technetium, and endoscopy with biopsy
  • Imaging tests including X-rays and computed tomography (CT) scans.
  • Scoping tests including endoscopy, otoscopy (of the ear), bronchoscopy (of the airways and lungs), and laryngoscopy (of the back of the throat and larynx).

What types of treatments do provide?

Pediatric otolaryngologists are primarily concerned with the medical and surgical treatment of diseases of the ear, nose, and throat in children. Pediatric otolaryngologists generally provide the following services:

  • Diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, and throat illnesses and head and neck diseases.
  • Head and neck surgery, including care before and after surgery
  • Consult with other doctors when ear, nose, or throat diseases are detected.
  • Assistance in identifying communication disorders in children.

What conditions can a pediatric otolaryngologist treat?

A pediatric otolaryngologist treats conditions and diseases including:

  • Ear conditions including ear infections, hearing loss, balance disorders, ruptured eardrum, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), cholesteatoma (abnormal skin growth in the ear), benign (noncancerous) growths, and congenital disorders and deformities of the outer and inner ear
  • Head and neck conditions including tumours of the parotid, thyroid and parathyroid glands, sleep apnea, head or neck masses, hemangiomas (benign blood vessel tumours) and vascular malformations; and facial irregularities, deformities or injuries
  • Nose conditions including sinusitis, deviated septum, chronic or recurring nosebleeds, nasal polyps, nasal obstructions, and loss of smell
General Topics

What Is Bone Mass Risk In Older Women? | Orthopaedics

Overview of bone mass risk in older women

Older women with low bone mineral density (BMD) have a decreased incidence of breast cancer. It is not known whether this association is confined to early-stage, slow-growing tumours.

Prospectively studied 8905 women who were 65 years of age or older during the period from 1986 through 1988 and had no history of breast cancer. At study entry, we used single-photon absorptiometry to measure each woman’s BMD at three skeletal sites: the wrist, forearm, and heel. The women were followed for a mean of 6.5 years for the occurrence of breast cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided.

There are several reasons why women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men, including:

  • Women tend to have lesser and solvent bones than men.
  • Estrogen, a women’s hormone that protects bones, drops dramatically when women reach menopause, which can cause bone loss. That is why the accidental of developing osteoporosis increases as women spread menopause.

Risk factors

Although several risk factors affect the risk of fragility fractures, low bone density, mass, and strength contribute to an increased risk of fracture in the event of a fall. In the prevention of fractures, it is essential to improve both bone health and physical performance.

Bone mineral density among men and women aged 35 to 50 years

  • Context: Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and is believed to be only a major health problem for postmenopausal women. However, osteoporosis and its risk factors have been poorly studied in the male and middle-aged populations.
  • Objective: To assess the probability of low BMD and its association with related risk factors in early middle-aged men and women (defined in this study as 35-50 years).
  • Methods: Men and women completed a questionnaire assessing calcium intake, hours per week of exercise, and other related risk factors associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia. The primary outcome variable, BMD, was obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans taken at the femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric ridge, total femur, and lumbar spine.

Osteoporosis: not just for older women

Women who have been through menopause indeed have a higher risk of osteoporosis, which is a decrease in bone density. But everyone’s bones naturally weaken with age.

Our bodies constantly substitute old bone tissue with new bone tissue. As we age, this rebuilding process takes longer. In fact, your bone density peaks around age 30. After that, you start to lose bone mass. Anything that promotes bone loss or prevents new bone formation can increase the risk of osteoporosis.

In addition to age and gender, family history and having a small, slim body are major risk factors. Also, unhealthy habits can play a role. If you smoke or drink a lot, are sedentary, or if your diet lacks calcium and vitamin D, your risk of osteoporosis will be higher. Some medical conditions and medications can also affect bone health. Among the most common are:

  • Prednisone and other corticosteroids. They are often prescribed for people with asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, or other conditions because they fight inflammation. But taking them for a long period increases the risk of bone loss.
  • Anti-seizure drugs. People with epilepsy may be at higher risk because commonly used anti-seizure medications have been shown to alter the way vitamin D is used in the body, affecting the strength of bones. Also, a seizure itself can result in a fall or other accident that could cause a fracture.
  • Low levels of testosterone and estrogen. Anything that reduces estrogen (in women) or testosterone (in men) has an effect on the bones. This may be due to long-term use of strong pain relievers, cancer treatment, surgery or trauma to the testicles in men or the ovaries in women, elevated levels of sports activity, or genetic factors such as early menopause in women.
  • Other chronic diseases or conditions. Circumstances such as diabetes, untreated hyperthyroidism, extreme levels of the stress hormone cortisol, and kidney or liver disease can affect nutrient and vitamin D levels, and increase bone loss or decrease bone formation.

The loss of bone density related to any of these conditions makes you more vulnerable to bone fractures, especially as you age. If you are at higher risk, it’s important to talk to your doctor about your bone health. The sooner you take steps to protect your bones, the better your chances of avoiding a fracture.

General Topics

Common Causes of Hip Pain in Women | Orthopaedics

What is hip pain?

Before getting the details about hip pain in women first of all know about the hip pain.

Hip pain is a common grievance that can be caused by a wide variety of problems. The precise location of your hip pain can provide valuable clues to the underlying cause. Problems within the hip joint tend to lead to pain inside the hip or groin. Hip pain on the outside of the hip, upper thigh, or outside of the buttock is usually caused by problems with the muscles, ligaments, tendons, and other soft tissues that surround the hip joint. This can occasionally be caused by diseases and circumstances in other areas of your body, such as your lower back. This type of pain is called referred pain.

Causes of Hip pain in women

Amongst the most common causes of hip pain in women are:

  • Arthritis: The most common cause of chronic hip pain in women is arthritis, mainly osteoarthritis, the wear-and-tear kind that touches many people as they age. “The ball-and-socket joint flinches to wear out,” Siegrist says. Arthritis pain is often touched in the front of your thigh or the groin, due to stiffness or swelling in the joint.
  • Hip fractures: Hip fractures are communal in older women, especially those with osteoporosis (reduced bone density). Symptoms of a hip fracture contain pain when you straighten, lift, or stand on your leg. Also, the toes on your injured lateral will appear to turn out, a sign that can aid your doctor’s preliminary diagnosis.
  • Tendinitis and bursitis: Many tendons around the hip attach the muscles to the joint. These tendons can easily become inflamed if you’re over employment them or participate in strenuous activities. One of the most common causes of tendinitis at the hip joint, especially in runners, is iliotibial band syndrome — the iliotibial group is the thick distance of tissue that runs from the outer rim of your pelvis to the outdoor of your knee.

An additional common cause of hip pain in women is bursitis, says an orthopaedic doctor. Fluid-filled sacs called bursae to pad the bony part of the hip that is close to the surface. Like the tendons, these sacs can become reddened from irritation or overuse and cause pain whenever you move the hip joint.

  • Hernia: In the groin area, femoral and inguinal hernias — occasionally referred to as sports hernias — can cause anterior (frontal) hip pain in women. Pregnant women can be vulnerable to inguinal hernias because of the additional pressure on the wall of their abdomen.
  • Gynaecological and back issues: “In females can have gynaecological causes,” Siegrist says. “It’s important not to just shoulder that the pain is caused by arthritis, bursitis or tendinitis. Depending on your age and other fitness issues, the pain in your hip could be pending from some other system.”

Endometriosis (when the uterus lining grows somewhere else) can cause pelvic tenderness, which some women label as hip pain. Pain from the back and spine also can be mentioned and felt around the buttocks and hip, Siegrist says. Sciatica, a haggard nerve, can cause pain in the back of the hip, the pain from sciatica can start in your lower back and portable down to your buttocks and legs.

Symptoms of hip pain in women

Depending on the condition that is causing your hip pain, you may feel discomfort in your:

  • Thigh
  • Inside the hip joint
  • Groin
  • Outside the hip joint
  • Buttocks

From time to time pain in other areas of the body, such as the back or groin (from a hernia), can radiate to the hip. You may notice that your pain worsens with activity, especially if it is caused by arthritis. Along with the pain, you may have an abridged range of motion. Some people progress a limp from tenacious hip pain.

Hip pain in women relief

It is caused by a muscle or tendon strain, osteoarthritis, or tendonitis, you can usually relieve it with an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as acetaminophen, or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, such as ibuprofen or naproxen. Treatments for rheumatoid arthritis also include prescription anti-inflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) such as methotrexate and sulfasalazine, and biologics, which target the immune system.

Another way to relieve hip pain is to ice the area for about 15 minutes several times a day. Try to rest the pretentious joint as much as likely until you feel better. You can also try warming the area. A warm bath or shower can help prepare the muscle for stretching exercises that can relieve pain.

Home remedies

Home remedies contain rest, non-weight manner, cold application, and anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen (Motrin and Advil), naproxen (Aleve), and pain relievers such as acetaminophen (Tylenol).

Is it possible to prevent hip pain in women?

This can be prevented by circumventing injury to the hip joint. This includes sports injuries. Sometimes proper conditioning before a sporting event can prevent injuries.

Treatment options for hip pain in women

Treatment can be contingent on the diagnosis, but the hip pain in women caused by overuse or sports injuries is often treated with heat, rest, and over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medicines. To prevent injury, it’s significant to stretch beforehand exercising and wear appropriate clothing, especially good running shoes, says Doctor.

If certain activities, stop those that aggravate the discomfort and talk to your doctor. Excess weight can put pressure on your hip joint, so losing pounds can bring relief and help you avoid further problems. Some causes are, such as fractures or hernias, may require surgical repairs. If this persists, talk to your doctor about possible causes and treatments of this hip pain in women.

Diagnosis of hip pain in women

For pain that could be related to a condition like arthritis, your doctor will ask you a variety of questions, including:

  • Does the pain get worse at any time of the day?
  • Does it affect your ability to walk?
  • When did your symptoms first appear?

You may need to walk for your doctor to see the joint in motion. They will measure movement in the normal and abnormal hip and compare the two.

To diagnose arthritis, your physician will perform fluid and imaging tests. Fluid tests involve taking samples of blood, urine, and joint fluid for analysis in a laboratory. Imaging tests may include:

  • X-rays
  • CT scans
  • Magnetic resonances
  • Ultrasound

The imaging tests will give your doctor detailed views of your bones, cartilage, and other tissues.


What Is A Bone Graft? | Orthopaedics

Overview of bone graft

Bone grafting is a surgical procedure that uses the transplanted bone to repair and rebuild diseased or damaged bones. A bone graft is a choice for repairing bones almost anywhere in your body. Your surgeon might take bone from your hips, legs, or ribs to perform the graft. Sometimes, surgeons also use bone tissue donated from cadavers to perform bone grafting.

Surgeons often perform bone grafts as part of some other medical procedure. For example, if you have a severe femur fracture, your healthcare provider might perform a bone graft as part of other needed repairs to your bone. Your healthcare provider may make an incision in your hip to remove a small part of your hip bone and use it for the graft. In some cases, artificial material is used similarly, but this is not a bone graft in the traditional sense. You will usually be put to sleep under general anaesthesia for the procedure.

Alternative names for bone graft

  • Autograft – bone
  • Allograft – bone
  • Fracture
  • Autologous

Types of bone grafts

The two most communal types of bone grafts are:

  • Allograft, which uses bone from a departed donor or a cadaver that has been gutted and stored in a tissue bank.
  • Autograft, which comes from a bone within your body, such as your ribs, hips, pelvis, or wrist

The type of graft used to be contingent on the type of injury your surgeon is repairing.

Allografts are usually used in hip, knee, or long bone rebuilding. Long bones include arms and legs. The advantage is that no additional surgery is needed to acquire the bone. It also reduces the risk of infection, as no additional incisions or surgery are required.

Allograft bone transplantation involves bone that does not have living cells, so the risk of rejection is minimal compared to organ transplants, in which there are living cells. Since the transplanted bone does not contain living marrow, it is not necessary to compare the blood types between donor and recipient.

Why might you need a bone graft?

You may need a bone graft to promote bone healing and growth for various medical reasons. Some specific conditions may include:

  • An initial fracture that your healthcare provider suspects will not heal without a graft.
  • A fracture that you had not previously treated with graft and that did not heal well.
  • Bone diseases, such as osteonecrosis or cancer.
  • Spinal fusion surgery (which you may need if you have an unstable spine).
  • Dental implant surgery (which you may need if you want to replace missing teeth).
  • Surgically implanted devices, as in total knee replacement, to help promote bone growth around the frame.

These can provide a framework for the growth of new and living bone. The hips, knees, and spine are common sites for a bone graft, but you may need a bone graft for not the same bone in your body.

The procedure of bone grafts

Typically, a person will be under general anaesthesia during a bone graft procedure. A surgeon will cut and then place the bone substitute in the damaged area. They may use additional tools and supports to hold the graft in place, including:

  • Thumbscrew
  • Wires
  • Cables
  • Dishes
  • Legs

The surgeon will close the wound with stitches. Doctors will monitor a person for several hours after the procedure. Before the person is discharged, they will also give instructions on how to help prevent infection.

Before the bone graft procedure

Tell your surgeon what medications you are taking. This includes medicines, supplements, or herbs that you bought without a prescription. Follow the instructions on how to stop taking blood thinners, such as warfarin (Coumadin), dabigatran (Pradaxa), rivaroxaban (Xarelto), or NSAIDs such as aspirin. These can cause increased bleeding during surgery.

On the day of surgery

  • Follow the instructions about not eating or drinking anything before surgery.
  • Take the medicines your provider has ordered with a small sip of water.
  • If you go to the hospital from home, make sure you arrive at the scheduled time.

After the procedure

Recovery time rests on the injury or defect being treated and the size of the bone graft. Your recovery can take from 2 weeks to 3 months. It will take up to 3 months or more to heal. You may be told to evade extreme exercise for up to 6 months. Ask your provider or nurse what you can and cannot do safely. It will essential to keep the area clean and dry. Follow the instructions on how to shower.

Smoking slows or prevents bone healing. If you smoke, the graft is more possible to fail. Be aware that nicotine patches delay healing.

Risks factors

Risks of a bone graft procedure include:

  • Nerve injury
  • Infection
  • Bleeding
  • Decreased mobility
  • Cosmetic defects
  • Chronic pain
  • Failure of the graft to achieve its goal
General Topics

What Are Hearing Problems In Children? | ENT Specialist

Hearing problems in children

Most children with hearing loss are born to parents with normal hearing. That means the entire family may have a lot to learn about living with the condition.

You may find out your child has hearing loss when they’re born, or might be diagnosed later in childhood. Either way, the most important thing to do is to get the right treatment as early as possible. If you understand more about the condition, you can get your child the help they need so they can learn, play, and keep up with other kids their age.

Types of hearing problems in children

Sensorineural hearing loss can occur when the sensitive inner ear (cochlea) has damage or a structural problem, although in rare cases it can be caused by problems with the auditory cortex, the part of the brain accountable for hearing.

Cochlear hearing loss, the most common type, can affect a specific part of the cochlea, such as the inner hair cells, the outer hair cells, or both. It usually exists at birth and can be inherited or come from other medical problems, although the cause is sometimes unknown. This type of hearing loss is usually permanent.

The degree of sensorineural hearing loss can be:

  • Mild (a person cannot hear certain sounds)
  • Moderate (a person cannot hear many sounds)
  • Severe (a person cannot hear most sounds)
  • Deep (a person cannot hear any sound)

Sometimes the loss is progressive (gets worse over time) and sometimes unilateral (only in one ear). Because hearing loss can get worse over time, audiological tests should be repeated later. Although medicine and surgery cannot cure this type of hearing loss, hearing aids can help children hear better. Mixed hearing loss occurs when a being has both conductive and sensorineural hearing loss.

Dominant hearing loss occurs when the cochlea is working properly, but other parts of the brain are not. This odder type of hearing loss is more difficult to treat.

Auditory Dispensation Disorder (APD) is a condition in which the ears and brain cannot fully coordinate. People with APD generally hear well when there is silence, but cannot hear well when there is noise. In most cases, speech and language therapy can help children with APD.

Causes of temporary hearing problems in children

Some of the causes of impermanent deafness in children include:

  • The buildup of wax in the ear canal.
  • A foreign object (such as a bead or the tip of a cotton swab) stuck in the ear canal.
  • Excess mucus in the eustachian tube, caused by a cold.
  • Otitis media (infection of the middle ear).

Causes of permanent hearing problems in children

Hearing problems in children, some of the conditions and events that can cause permanent hearing loss in children include:

  • Inherited conditions that cause the inner ear to develop abnormally.
  • Some genetic disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and trisomy.
  • Exposure of the fetus to diseases: Rubella (German measles) is one of the diseases that can affect the developing ears of the fetus.
  • Loud noises, such as fireworks, rock concerts, or personal stereos.
  • Injuries, such as a concussion or skull fracture.
  • Certain diseases, such as meningitis and mumps.

Signs and symptoms of hearing loss in babies

Hospitals routinely perform newborn hearing exams in the first few days after birth. If a newborn shows signs of infant hearing loss, a second screening is usually scheduled a few weeks later. However, sometimes newborns who pass both hearing tests can show signs of hearing loss as they age. If you think your child is having a hard time hearing you, visit your paediatrician right away.

Babies and infants

From birth to four months, your baby should:

  • Startled by loud sounds.
  • Wakes up or shakes with loud noises.
  • Respond to your voice by smiling or cooing.
  • Calm down with a familiar voice

From four months to nine months, your baby should:

  • Smile when they talk to you
  • Observe the toys that make sounds.
  • Turn your head toward familiar sounds
  • Make babbling noises
  • Understand the movements of the hands as the goodbye greeting

At nine to 15 months, your baby should:

  • Make various babbling sounds
  • Repeat some simple sounds
  • Understand basic requests
  • Use her voice to get your attention
  • Reply to name

At 15 to 24 months, your toddler should:

  • Use a lot of simple words
  • Point to parts of the body when asking
  • Name common objects
  • Listen to songs, rhymes, and stories with interest.
  • Follow the basic commands
  • Signs of hearing loss in tots and school-age children

Older children sometimes develop a hearing loss that was not present before. Here are some things to look for if you think your toddler or preschooler might have hearing loss:

  • Has difficulty understanding what people are saying.
  • Responds inappropriately to questions (misunderstandings).
  • Turn up the volume on the TV incredibly high or sit too close to the TV to listen.
  • You have academic problems, especially if they weren’t present before.
  • You have speech or language delays or trouble articulating things.
  • Observe others imitate their actions, at home or at school.
  • Complaints of earaches, or noise.
  • Cannot understand on the phone or frequently changes ears while talking on the phone.

Diagnosis of hearing problems in children

Hearing screening can tell if a child might have hearing loss. Hearing screening is easy and is not painful. In fact, babies are often asleep while being screened. It takes a very short time usually only a few minutes.


All babies should have a hearing screening no later than 1 month of age. Most babies have their hearing screened while still in the hospital. If a baby does not pass a hearing screening, it’s very important to get a full hearing test as soon as possible, but no later than 3 months of age.


Children should have a hearing test before entering school or at any time there is a concern about the child’s hearing. Children who fail the hearing test should have a full hearing test as soon as possible.

Treatment for hearing problems in children

No single treatment or intervention is the answer for every person or family. Good treatment plans will include close monitoring, follow-ups and any changes needed along the way. There are many different types of communication options for children with hearing loss and for their families. Some of these options include:

  • Learning other ways to communicate, such as sign language.
  • Technology to help with communication, such as hearing aids and cochlear implants.
  • Medicine and surgery to correct some types of hearing loss.

Risk factors of hearing problems in children

Risk factors for hearing loss in children contain:

  • Otitis media (ear contaminations, the most common cause of hearing loss in young children).
  • Craniofacial abnormalities (the head, face, or ears are shaped differently).
  • Family history of hearing loss.
  • Exposure to infections in the uterus.
  • Ototoxic drugs (harmful to the auditory system).
  • Syndromes associated with hearing loss, such as Down syndrome or Usher syndrome.
  • Being in the neonatal intensive care unit for more than 5 days.
  • Certain illnesses, such as syphilis, rubella, and microbial meningitis.
  • Head trauma (injury).

Prevent hearing loss in your child

Hearing problems in children, maintain a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy, including routine prenatal care. Make sure your child receives all regular childhood immunizations.

Keep your child away from loud noises. Noise-induced (acquired) hearing loss is permanent and can always be prevented. It is caused by prolonged or repeated exposure to any loud noise greater than 85 decibels, which is the volume of sound measured in units called decibels (dB). Common sounds that exceed 85 dB include lawnmowers, music concerts, emergency vehicle sirens, planes taking off, fireworks, and lawnmowers.

Create a peaceful home. Here are some recommendations:

  • Set the volume on your TV or video game to the lowest volume, but you can still hear it clearly.
  • If you live in a noisy place, keep doors and windows closed to minimize potentially harmful outside noise.
  • Use soft interior furniture, more curtains, cushions, and rugs that will absorb more sound.

Encourage children to wear earplugs or earmuffs if they are likely to be exposed to potentially harmful sounds.

General Topics

What Is Snoring? | ENT Specialist

Overview of snoring

Snoring occurs when you cannot move air freely through your nose and throat during sleep. This vibrates the nearby tissues, causing the familiar snoring. People who snore often have too much nasal and throat tissue or “flabby” tissue that is more prone to vibrating. The position of the tongue can also delay smooth breathing.

If you snore regularly at night, it can disrupt the quality of your sleep, leading to daytime fatigue, irritability, and increased health problems. And if your snoring is keeping your partner awake, it can also create significant relationship problems. Sleeping in separate rooms is not the only remedy for snoring.

Types of snoring

Nose based snoring

Blocked nostrils as a result of a deviated septum or some physical obstruction in the nose can lead to blocked airways, resulting in nasal snoring.

Other causes include allergies to pets and dust, a stiff nose, a cold, or if you are using certain types of medications.

This kind of snoring can be treated in several ways depending on what causes it:

  • Deviated septums may require you to undergo surgery.
  • If snoring is caused as a result of dust allergy, keeping your home neat and tidy will cure it.
  • Similarly, quitting smoking, or using nasal dilator strips, or a nasal rinse is effective against snoring caused due to cold or stiffness.

Mouth based snoring

When a person breathes through their mouth rather than their nose while sleeping, it results in mouth snoring.

Blocked nasal passages, enlarged tonsils or weak palatal tissue can be the causes of this type of snoring. If you are unable to breathe through your nose at night due to a blockage, this causes you to breathe through your mouth, which produces a vibration of the tissues, hence the snoring sound.

Essentially, a nasal snorer has a small chance of turning into a mouth snorer if his nasal passages become severely blocked. Although breathing is done through the mouth, this can lead to infections, as the nose does not filter the air that passes through.

To prevent this type of snoring, you can use devices such as adhesive tape specially designed for this purpose, or mouth guards that can help you keep your mouth closed.

Tongue-based snoring

This type of snoring occurs because the tongue gets too relaxed, particularly when we lie down on our back, thus blocking the airflow into the lungs. As a result, it becomes difficult to breathe, thereby causing snoring.

Tongue-based snoring may occur in people who love to drink alcohol or use sleep medication. Excessive fat around the neck may also be a cause of tongue-based snoring.

Anti-snoring pillows and backpacks are useful ways of preventing this kind of snoring. They keep you on your side, preventing you from turning on your back, thus avoiding difficulty in breathing.

Snoring mouthpieces or mandibular advancement devices are specially designed to be used as a remedy for tongue snorers. It helps move your jaws forward, thus preventing the tongue from blocking the back of your throat, and ensure uninterrupted breathing.

What causes snoring?

Obesity, pregnancy and genetic factors

People who are over heavy, obese or pregnant often have extra bulky throat tissue. Genetic factors that can cause snoring contain extra throat tissue as well as enlarged tonsils, large adenoids, long soft palate or long uvula.

Allergies, congestion and certain nasal structures

Anything that stops you from breathing through your nose can cause you to snore. This can include congestion from a cold or flu, allergies or malformations of the nose such as a deviated septum.

Alcohol, smoking, ageing, and drugs

You may snore when your throat or tongue muscles are tranquil. Materials that can relax these muscles may cause you to snore. This includes alcohol, muscle relaxants and other medications. Normal ageing and the prolonged belongings of smoking can also relax your throat and tongue muscles.

Symptoms of snoring

The primary symptom is unique – the often loud, harsh or hoarse noises that you make while you are asleep. Other symptoms may comprise waking up with a sore throat or dry mouth.

If you have any of the next symptoms you may have sleep apnea:

  • Excessive daytime sleepiness
  • Choking or gasping while you sleep
  • Pauses in breathing
  • Morning headaches
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Moodiness, irritability or depression
  • Frequent need to urinate during the night


During the exam, the doctor will ask about your symptoms and use a light to check the back of your throat for redness, swelling, and white patches. The doctor may also feel the sides of your neck to see if you have swollen glands.

If your doctor suspects that you have strep throat, they will do a throat culture to diagnose it. The doctor will swab the back of your throat and collect a sample to test for strep bacteria. With a rapid strep test, your doctor will get results in minutes.

To confirm the diagnosis, the sample will be sent to a laboratory for analysis. A lab test takes one to two days, but it can definitely show that you have strep throat.

Snoring treatment

The goals for the treatment may be difficult to determine. Successful treatment should also include the goal of achieving a successful night’s sleep for the bed partner or roommate. This makes the treatment of snoring a challenge. For example, someone may have a successful treatment if his or her snoring decreases from a jackhammer level to that of a passing truck. If their bed partner is happy, then the snoring problem is “cured.” However, another person whose snoring decreases from a mild sound to the level of heavy breathing may still have an unhappy bed partner.

Most procedures to treat snoring focus on reducing flapping or movement of the soft palate (roof of the mouth). This addresses snoring from palatal flapping. If it originates behind the tongue or on the sidewalls of the throat, palatal procedures will be less effective.

It is advisable to look critically at the “success” reports of various treatments. However, the bed partner (or snorer) still has to leave the room one night a week. It is important to know what the expectations of a “cure” are before considering any treatment.


You can take medicine to relieve a sore throat or to treat the underlying cause.

Over-the-counter medications that relieve a sore throat include:

  • Acetaminophen (tylenol)
  • Ibuprofen (advil, motrin)
  • Aspirin

Don’t give aspirin to children and teenagers, as it’s been linked to a rare but serious condition called Reye’s syndrome.

You can also use one or more of these treatments, which work directly on the pain of a sore throat:

  • Sore throat spray that contains a numbing antiseptic like phenol, or a cooling ingredient like menthol or eucalyptus
  • Throat lozenges
  • Cough syrup

Snoring risk factors

Although anyone can get a sore throat, a few factors make you more susceptible, including:

  • Age. Children and teens are most likely to develop sore throats. Children ages 3 to 15 are also more likely to have strep throat, the most common bacterial infection associated with a sore throat.
  • Exposure to tobacco smoke. Smoking and secondhand smoke can irritate the throat. The use of tobacco products also increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, throat and voice box.
  • Exposure to chemical irritants. Airborne particles from burning fossil fuels and common household chemicals can cause a sore throat.
  • Chronic or frequent sinus infections. Drainage from the nose can irritate the throat or spread an infection.
  • Weakened immunity. You’re more susceptible to infections in general if your resistance is low. Common causes of lowered immunity include HIV, diabetes, treatment with steroids or chemotherapy drugs, stress, fatigue, and poor diet.


The best way to prevent sore throats is to avoid the germs that cause them and practice good hygiene. Follow these tips and teach your child to do the same:

  • Wash your hands thoroughly and frequently, especially after using the toilet, before eating, and after sneezing or coughing.
  • Avoid sharing food, drinking glasses or utensils.
  • Cough or sneeze into a tissue and throw it away. When necessary, sneeze into your elbow.
  • Use alcohol-based hand sanitisers as an alternative to washing hands when soap and water aren’t available.
  • Avoid touching public phones or drinking fountains with your mouth.
  • Regularly clean telephones, TV remotes and computer keyboards with sanitizing cleanser. When you travel, clean phones and remotes in your hotel room.
  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
General Topics

What Are The Possible Causes of Bone Pain? | Orthopaedics

8 causes of bone pain

Bone pain isn’t as common as joint pain or muscle pain, but it can be a sign of a serious injury or condition. Bone pain can be aching or quite intense, depending on the cause. Many people with acute bone pain, often from a fracture, become nauseated because of the intensity of the pain. But whether you are experiencing bone tenderness or acute pain, see a doctor investigate the underlying cause.

Most common causes of bone pain and when the pain may be an emergency.

Fractures (Breaks)

Bone fracture or broken bone is the most obvious cause of bone pain. A fracture can be the result of an accident or a fall, or it can be as sudden as a stress fracture. People with osteoporosis are at risk of breaking bones because the bones are more fragile. If you suspect you have a broken bone, go to the emergency department as soon as possible. An untreated fracture can cause serious problems and may not heal properly.

Osteomyelitis (bone infection)

Osteomyelitis is not common, but it affects 2 out of 10,000 people in the United States. It affects adults, who usually develop an infection in the vertebrae or pelvis, and children, who most commonly get the infection at the ends of the bones in the arms or legs. After a bone fracture, it is infected by bacteria in the bloodstream, or by an open wound, and progresses to the bone. Symptoms include bone tenderness or pain, fever, nausea, and swelling or redness around the area.

Sickle cell anaemia

Blood diseases, such as sickle cell anaemia, can block blood flow in the blood vessels. These blockages can cause bone pain. People with sickle cell anaemia may have a few or more episodes. The bone pain is very severe. This is called a crisis. Those who experience a pain crisis often need to be hospitalized to stabilize the pain. Doctors use strong pain relievers such as opioids and other treatments such as blood transfusions. Bone pain lasts only a few hours or takes weeks to resolve.

Bone cancer

Researchers estimate that each year, about 3,500 U.S. adults and children are diagnosed with bone cancer. There are several types of bone cancer, including chondrosarcoma, chordoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. Bone cancer symptoms can include bone pain, but it’s not unusual for bone cancer to be detected after someone has broken a bone. Bone cancer weakens your bones and makes them susceptible to fractures. When an X-ray is done for the fracture, the radiologist may detect abnormalities that could be related to bone cancer.

Blood cancer

Some types of cancer, such as leukaemia, lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndromes, and myeloma, cause pain in the bones, most often in the arms, legs, and ribs. The pain is caused by the accumulation of cancer cells in the bone marrow. For some, bone pain is the first noticeable symptom of the disease. When you are treated for cancer, your bone pain decreases or goes away completely. Leukaemia can weaken bones and lead to osteoporosis and brittle bones.

Cancer treatment

Cancer treatments often include strong medications that can have several, sometimes severe, side effects or complications. Bone pain is one such side effect for some people who are treated with chemotherapy, such as nab-paclitaxel, docetaxel, or methotrexate, hormonal therapy like raloxifene and tamoxifen, and targeted therapies, like trastuzumab, and olaparib. Bisphosphonates, given to people with osteoporosis also can cause bone pain. If you are receiving such treatments, tell your healthcare provider about any unusual symptoms you experience.

Post-chemotherapy treatment

Chemotherapy for cancer treatment weakens your immune system by depleting your white blood cells. These are the cells that help you fight infection. A weakened immune system can make it easier for you to develop infections and related problems. Oncologists may prescribe filgrastim to patients after treatment to stimulate the growth of white blood cells. The medication is administered by injection or intravenously (IV). One of the side effects of filgrastim, which affects more than 30% of patients, is bone pain, which is very painful due to discomfort.

Tailbone pain

Tailbone pain, also called coccydynia or coccygodynia, is a common pain with many possible causes, from falling on your backside to sitting too long on a hard seat. Even vaginal childbirth can cause tailbone pain. In most cases, the pain isn’t serious and will go away on its own. If taking over-the-counter pain killers, applying ice to the tailbone area, and sitting on soft cushions doesn’t help, contact your doctor. You may need an X-ray, physical therapy, and stronger pain-relieving options until the area heals.

Diagnosing the cause of bone pain

Your doctor will want to know your complete medical history, previously diagnosed conditions, and details of your bone pain. These may include:

  • The location of your pain
  • When your pain began
  • The level of pain and whether or not it is increasing
  • If your pain changes with your activities
  • Any other symptoms you may have

Depending on the specifics of your pain, as well as a thorough physical examination, additional testing may include:

  • X-rays of the bone that hurts (to identify breaks, fractures, and abnormalities).
  • CT scan, MRI, or bone scan of the affected area or your entire body (to identify tumours or other abnormalities).
  • Blood studies.
  • Urine studies.
  • Hormone level studies.
  • Pituitary and adrenal gland function studies.

Treatment for bone pain

Your doctor will determine your treatment based on your diagnosis. If you have a bone fracture, they need to be repaired. If you have an underlying condition, such as osteoporosis or cancer, you need a special long-term treatment plan to diagnose it.

Prescription medications can include:

  • Drugs to relieve inflammation
  • Antibiotics, if you have an infection
  • Hormones, if you have a hormone imbalance
  • Pain relievers

Some exercises that might help alleviate bone pain from specific causes include:

Low back pain

Stretching, walking, swimming, bicycling, and light strength training can ease lower back pain.


Osteoporosis causes your bones to lose density and become weak and brittle, increasing your chances of bone fractures. Exercising several times a week can help build strength.

Walking, treadmill, climbing stairs, dancing, swimming, and bicycling are recommended. Working with light weights can also help build strength.


If you have arthritis, it may be tempting to avoid exercise. But that is unwise. Exercise helps to keep your joints flexible and can reduce pain in the long run. A balanced exercise regimen of stretching, walking, swimming, and bicycling can help.

Avoid exercises that put stress on your joints, such as running, competitive sports, and aerobics.

When to see a doctor

Serious conditions often cause bone pain. Mild bone pain can also indicate an emergency. If you experience bone pain that does not improve in a few days, see your doctor.

You should also see a doctor if you have bone pain, weight loss, loss of appetite, or general fatigue.

Bone pain caused by injury also requires a visit to the doctor. Direct injury fractures to the bone require medical treatment. Without proper treatment, the bones will heal and prevent movement in the wrong places. Lesions can also infect you.

General Topics

Common Orthopedic Conditions in Men

What are the orthopedic problems in men?

Orthopedic problems are not specific to gender, age, or the like. If you have bones and muscles, you are prone to injury. However, not everyone faces the same threat. Soft tissue injuries, Achilles tears are some of the common orthopedic conditions in men. When it comes to orthopedic problems, men and women travel very differently than they do. It is not always clear why, but it always is.

Women are more likely to deal with bone problems – osteoporosis and sprained ankles are more common in women. Men definitely don’t come out of Scott-Free. While women need to worry about brittle bones, men need to worry about torn muscles. It is not always clear if it is a question of biology or functionality: perhaps it is a combination of the two because the gap keeps closing, but it never closes. Here are some things that men, in particular, need to be careful of.

Types of orthopedic conditions

Soft tissue injuries: Muscle, tendon, or ligament problems can be part of a soft tissue injury. Playing contact sports, a lack of stretching, or not giving you enough recovery time between workouts, or injuries can lead to sprains or strains. Men are more prone to these injuries due to contact sports and regular exercise routines. They can be used not only due to sudden and serious injuries, but also due to excessive use or repetition of physical activity.

Soft tissue injuries are common among men who work physical jobs, where moving and lifting heavy objects are an important part of their daily routine. At Motion, our experienced team provides proper care for work-related injuries. In general, slips and falls are the main culprits for workplace injuries.

Cracks in the fingers: It is a common orthopedic condition in men. Finger fractures can be caused by several factors, such as the use of power tools, sports, or physical conflicts. Besides, the most common finger fracture, also known as a boxer’s fracture, occurs with a clenched fist when suffering a pinprick or blow effect on the fifth metacarpal of the hand. If you regularly participate in martial arts such as boxing or mixed martial arts, work with your coach to properly wrap your arms around your opponent before facing him.

Achilles tears:  While women are at higher risk for ACL tears, which is one of the common orthopedic conditions in men. With sudden stress or an increase in sports activity, a tear puts pressure on the Achilles tendon and can often be caused by activities or sports such as jumping. A major orthopedic injury that affects more men than women is always the painful Achilles tendon. The Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscle to the heel bone, is the largest ligament in your body and is used for all of your normal daily movements. According to Dr. Timothy Miller, assistant professor of clinical orthopedics at Ohio State University, women are three times more likely to have this orthopedic injury than men. Be aware of Achilles tendon injuries when participating in sports such as track and field, soccer, and basketball.

Remember age matters:  While gender influences your risks, as you get older when you reach 40, the more likely you are to injure yourself. Some common injuries that affect both men and women are:

  • Pressure cracks
  • Sports injuries like tennis elbow
  • Lower back problems
  • Arthritis

The best way to prevent these problems from persisting and regain your quality of life is through orthopedic care. KMC Orthopedics specializes in bone and joint treatments so you can easily recover.

Symptoms of orthopedic conditions in men

Symptoms of common orthopedic conditions in men vary depending on the specific condition and part of the body.


  • Deformities or abnormal shape of the joint
  • Fatigue combined with joint pain or swelling
  • Joint stiffness and limited mobility
  • Muscle pains
  • Numbness, tingling, or weakness
  • The pain can be mild, moderate, or severe and sharp, dull, itchy, numb, stabbing, or burning
  • Swelling of the injured or diseased area
  • Heat and redness in case of infection or inflammation

Symptoms such as pain, muscle aches, cramps, swelling, and stiffness depend on the specific condition and your level of activity. Activity may be limited if pain and other symptoms of orthopedic conditions worsen with movement.

Symptoms that indicate a serious condition

Orthopedic injuries such as bone fractures and joint dislocations can lead to complications and require immediate medical attention. Seek medical attention immediately if you or someone with you has any of the following symptoms:

  • Deformity of the joint or bone
  • Difficulty moving the joint or limb
  • Hear popping, grinding, or clicking during an injury
  • An open wound or bone graft through the skin
  • Severe pain or swelling

Causes of orthopedic conditions

 Serious or chronic injuries are a common cause for many of them. An acute injury is a sudden injury. A chronic injury is the result of repetitive movements or forces on a joint or joint structure such as a tendon. These injuries occur regularly for weeks, months, or even years.

Degenerative changes are another common cause of orthopedic conditions. Joints and joint structures can wear out over time. It can cause changes that can lead to conditions like osteoarthritis and spinal problems.

Risk factors for orthopedic conditions

Each specific orthopedic problem has its own risk factors. In general, risk factors can include:

  • Aging
  • Being overweight or balanced, which puts extra pressure on bones, joints, and joint structures.
  • Have a chronic disease such as diabetes.
  • Playing sports or participating in recreational activities
  • Smoking.
  • Inappropriate lifting techniques and the use of body mechanics
  • Working in a profession with the same tasks every day, which increases the stress on your body.

Reduce the risk of orthopedic conditions

You can reduce your risk of orthopedic disease by changing the risk factors you can control:

  • Balancing strength training with stretching exercises
  • Follow your treatment plan closely for medical conditions
  • Cross-training with a variety of activities
  • Learn correct posture, body mechanics, and ways to lift heavy objects
  • Keep a healthy weight
  • Avoid smoking
  • Activities with weights and lots of calcium and vitamin D will strengthen your bones
  • Wear protective gear during sports and recreational activities
  • It is important to see your doctor daily if you develop an orthopedic condition. Early treatment often works well and can help prevent problems later.

Treatment for orthopedic Conditions in men

Orthopedic conditions can be treated by your doctor or other medical professionals and health care providers. Many doctors from different medical disciplines can participate in treatment at the same time. This approach is very important in managing the symptoms of an orthopedic condition, especially since many symptoms are chronic and change over time. Other general practitioners involved in the treatment of orthopedic conditions may include:

Primary attention doctor: A primary care physician has specialized education and training in general internal medicine, family medicine, or another premier area of ​​care. Primary care physicians provide patients with any or all of the following:

  • General medical care (including annual physicals and immunizations)
  • Treatment for acute medical conditions
  • Early care for more serious or chronic changing conditions in nature
  • While your primary care physician can treat and diagnose your illness, they can refer you to a specialist for more specific treatment of certain aspects of an illness.

Orthopedic surgeon: This doctor specializes in orthopedic surgery. He is also known as an orthopedist. Orthopedists know how the musculoskeletal system works. They can diagnose bone, muscle, joint, ligament, or tendon conditions, treat injuries, rehabilitate, and advise on how to prevent further damage to the diseased area.

The orthopedist may have completed formal education up to age 14. After obtaining a license to practice medicine, an orthopedic surgeon can earn a board certificate by passing an oral and written test given by the American Board of Orthopedic Surgery. Most orthopedic surgeons choose to practice general orthopedics. Others specialize in certain areas of the body, such as the foot, arm, shoulder, spine, hip, or knee.

Others specialize in orthopedic care, such as sports medicine or trauma medicine. Some orthopedists may specialize in many fields and collaborate with other specialists such as neurosurgeons or rheumatologists in caring for patients.

Primary care sports medicine: He is a primary care physician who has an additional training fellowship on musculoskeletal injuries and other issues affecting athletes. This type of doctor can handle many orthopedic problems, but can also identify which cases require surgery.

Rheumatologist: A rheumatologist specializes in the treatment of arthritis and other rheumatic diseases that affect the joints, muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues. They treat the common orthopedic conditions in men. Many rheumatologists have a background in internal medicine or pediatrics and have received additional training in the field of rheumatology. Rheumatologists are specially trained to diagnose a wide variety of rheumatic diseases in their early stages.

These include arthritis, a variety of autoimmune diseases, musculoskeletal pain, and disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In addition to the 4 years of medical school and the 3 years of specialized training in internal medicine or pediatrics, the rheumatologist has an additional 2 or 3 years of specialized training in the field of rheumatology. A rheumatologist may be certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine.

Physiotherapist: Physical therapy is a health profession that focuses on the nervous, muscular, and cardiopulmonary systems of the human body because these systems are related to human movement, health, and function.

Physical therapists or physical therapists are very important members of the health care team. They evaluate and treat those who suffer injuries, illnesses, or health problems caused by the overuse of muscles, tendons, or ligaments. Pitts has a bachelor’s degree in physical therapy and most have a master’s or doctorate.

All graduates must be licensed by their state by passing a national certification exam before practicing. Physical exercises can be practiced in a variety of settings, including:

  • Hospitals
  • Rehabilitation centers
  • Home health organizations
  • Schools
  • Sports facilities
  • Community health centers
  • Private practice
  • Physical therapists provide comprehensive training on orthopedic conditions
  • Functional mobility
  • Balance and gait retraining
  • Soft tissue mobilization
  • Body mechanics education
  • Wheelchair safety and maintenance
  • Neuromuscular reeducation
  • Programming exercise
  • Family education and training
  • Helps with pain relief and management
  • Tip for safe walking
  • Before surgery and rehabilitation
General Topics

Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions | Orthopaedics

What are the orthopedic problems in children?

Orthopedic problems in children are common. They can be congenital, developing, or acquired, including those of infectious, neuromuscular, nutritional, neoplastic, and psychogenic origin.

As time goes by, you may notice that your child’s growth is not completely straight and narrow. Many young children have flat feet, pointy gaits, pigeon toes, bowed legs, and knees.

As children grow older, some of these conditions correct themselves without treatment. Others don’t or become more serious due to other medical conditions. But many orthopedic (bone) conditions, like dimples or clefts of the chin, are just normal variations of the human anatomy that do not need treatment.

Types of orthopaedic problems in children

As a surgeon, you can find parents who love watching their children run, play, and enjoy life with a healthy body. Every day, babies are born with various orthopedic conditions that can seriously affect their lives if left untreated.

The needs of the child are special. Parents will take care of you to provide personalized child-friendly care and inform their children of the conditions in which they find themselves. And some are the common childhood orthopedic conditions:


It is one of the common childhood orthopedic conditions.

Most babies are born with flat feet and grow arches as they grow. But in some children, the arch is never fully developed. Parents often notice this for the first time because their child has what they describe as “weak ankles” (which seem to bend inward due to the way the feet are planted).

Flat feet do not usually cause problems. Doctors only consider treatment if it becomes painful. They also do not recommend any special footwear, such as high-top shoes, because these do not affect the development of the arch.

Parents are sometimes concerned that flat feet will make their children clumsier than other children, but doctors say that having flat feet is not a cause for concern and should not interfere with playing sports. Occasionally doctors will endorse inserting arch supports into shoes to reduce foot pain.

Toe walking

Toe walking is a common childhood orthopedic condition among young children as they learn to walk, especially during the second year of life. The tendency usually disappears by 3 years, although it persists in some children.

Infrequent toe walking shouldn’t be a cause for anxiety, but children who tiptoe most of the time and continue to do so after age 3 should see a doctor. Persistent toe ambulatory in older children or walking only on one leg may be linked to other conditions, such as cerebral palsy, muscle weakness disorders, autism, or other nervous system problems.

If an otherwise healthy child has persistent toe walking, the doctor might recommend some visits with a physical therapist to learn stretching exercises. Once the child is around 4-5 years old, a cast may need to be placed on the foot and ankle for about 6 weeks to help stretch the calf muscles.

Pigeon toes

Pigeon toes are a common childhood orthopedic condition. Babies can have a natural turn of their legs around 8 to 15 months of age when they begin to stand up. As they get older, parents may notice that their children walk with their feet inward, also called inward toes, or dove-toe walking. Getting off the feet can have a few different causes which are normal variations in the way the legs and feet are aligned.

Children who bump and trip can often have internal tibial torsion, in which the lower leg is turned inward. Children older than 3 or 4 years with a toe cap may have femoral anteversion, in which there is a greater than normal flexion in the upper leg, causing the upper leg to turn inward. In some children, the toes may be related to existing medical problems, such as cerebral palsy.

Doctors rarely have to treat pigeon feet. The special shoes and orthotics that were commonly used in the past were never shown to hasten the slow natural improvement of this condition. Usually, foot-in-to-foot walking does not interfere with walking, running, or playing sports, and ends on its own when children become teenagers and develop better muscle control and coordination.


Bowlegged is a common childhood orthopedic condition. Bowleggedness (also called genu varum) is an exaggerated outward bending of the legs from the knees down that can be inherited. It is common childhood orthopedic conditions and, in many cases, it corrects itself as the child grows.

Bowlegs after age 2 or bowlegs affecting only one leg may be the sign of a larger problem, such as rickets or Blount’s disease:

Rickets, a bone growth problem usually caused by a lack of vitamin D or calcium in the body, causes a strong lean in the legs and can also cause muscle pain and an enlarged spleen and liver. Rickets is much less mutual today than in the past.

Rickets and the resulting bowlegs are almost always corrected by adding vitamin D and calcium to the diet. However, some types of rickets are due to a genetic condition and may require more specialized treatment by an endocrinologist.

Blount’s disease is a disorder that affects the tibia bone in the lower leg. Bowing of the leg due to Blount’s disease is seen when a child is about 2 years old and can come on suddenly and get worse quickly.

The cause of Blount’s disease is unidentified, but it causes an abnormal growth on the top of the tibia next to the knee joint. To correct it, offspring may need braces or surgery when they are between 3 and 4 years old.

You should also take your child to the doctor if the bowed leg is only on one side or progressively worsens.

Knock knees

Most children show a moderate tendency to twisted knees (also called genu valgum) between the ages of 3 and 6, as the body changes natural alignment. It is one of the common childhood orthopedic conditions. Treatment is rarely needed because the legs usually straighten themselves.

Severe knee bumps or more pronounced knee bumps on one side sometimes need treatment. Devices such as braces, splints, and shoe inserts are not helpful and are no longer used. In rare cases where children have symptoms such as pain or trouble running, surgery may be considered after age 10.


What Is An Orthopaedic Surgeon? | Orthopaedics

Orthopaedic surgeon

Orthopaedic surgeons are dedicated to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of bone, joint, ligament, tendon, and muscle disorders.

Some orthopedists are generalists, while others specialize in certain areas of the body, such as:

  • Hip and knee
  • Foot and ankle
  • Shoulder and elbow
  • Hand
  • Spine

People often visit an orthopaedic doctor when they have an injury or a chronic condition such as arthritis or low back pain.

What does an orthopaedic surgeon do?

A wide range of people, from relatively sedentary middle-aged athletes to physically active athletes, seek out orthopaedic surgeons. Orthopaedics is a medical speciality that focuses on aspects of the musculoskeletal system, also known as your bones, joints, tendons, nerves, and ligaments. Therefore, orthopaedic surgeons are trained to diagnose, treat, prevent and rehabilitate both injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system.

What parts of the body are treated by orthopaedic surgeons?

Orthopaedic surgeons can be generalists or specialists in certain areas of the body. At Performance OSM, we offer general orthopaedic care to treat knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, wrist, and elbow pain. Also, each of our doctors has specialized training in orthopaedic surgery.

What parts of the body do orthopaedic surgeons treat?

Orthopaedic surgeons often identify and treat injuries resulting from physical activity or sports. Those who are very physically active can consult an orthopaedic doctor to prevent pain and discomfort caused by the overuse of muscles or joints. However, orthopaedic surgeons must treat people with conditions such as arthritis or osteoporosis.

What conditions do orthopaedic doctors treat?

Orthopaedic doctors treat a wide range of conditions, which are not limited to:

  • Bone fractures
  • Muscle tension
  • Joint or back pain
  • Arthritis
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Tendon or ligament injuries such as ACL sprains, ligaments, and tears
  • Organ abnormalities such as clubfoot and bowling
  • Bone cancer

Non-surgical treatments

These types of treatments are also known as conservative therapies. Orthopaedic physicians often focus on non-surgical treatments before recommending surgery.

Some types of non-surgical treatments:

  • Exercises. Your orthopaedic physician may recommend specific exercises or stretches to maintain or improve your strength, flexibility, and range of motion in a specific area.
  • Stabilization. Sometimes avoiding extra stress on an area can help heal it. Examples of stabilization methods are braces, splints, and casts.

An orthopaedic doctor may prescribe certain medications to relieve symptoms such as pain and swelling. Some examples include over-the-counter medications such as ibuprofen and aspirin. They may also prescribe some prescription drugs, such as corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  • Lifestyle changes. Your orthopaedic doctor can help you make lifestyle changes. These can modify your physical activity, diet, and the ways you exercise to prevent the severity of the injury or condition.

Surgical treatments

Sometimes the condition or injury does not improve with conventional measures. In these cases, your doctor may recommend surgery. Some examples of operations performed by an orthopaedic surgeon are:

  • Joint replacement. Joint reconstruction Restorative surgery is the replacement of damaged or diseased joints, usually secondary to arthritis. Examples include knee replacement and hip replacement surgery.
  • Internal stabilization. Placing hardware such as dowels, screws, plates, and rods in the internal fixation will help hold them in place while healing the broken bones.
  • Fusion. This involves the use of some type of internal fixation along with a bone graft material to connect the two bones. This technique is often used in neck and spine surgeries.
  • Osteotomy is a type of surgery that involves cutting a piece of bone and replacing it. This type of surgery is sometimes used to treat arthritis.