Overview of the Nasopharynx In Children | ENT Specialist

What is nasopharynx in children?

Nasopharynx in children, nasopharyngeal cancer is the formation of malignant (cancer) cells in the tissues of the nasal cavity and throat. Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is made up of the nasal cavity (inside the nose) and the upper part of the throat.

The nasopharynx is more common in adolescents than in children under 10 years of age. Epstein-Barr virus infection increases the risk of the nasopharynx. Any risk factor that increases the chance of getting a disease is called. Having a risk factor does not mean you have cancer; The lack of risk factors does not mean that you will not have cancer. Talk to your pediatrician if you think your baby is at risk.

Symptoms of the nasopharynx

Nasopharynx signs and symptoms; headache and a stuffy or runny nose. These and other signs and symptoms can be caused by nasopharynx or other conditions. Check with your pediatrician if your child has any of the following:

  • Headache
  • The nose is stuffy or swollen
  • Nosebleeds
  • Deafness
  • Ear infection
  • Hearing loss
  • Problems moving the jaw
  • Trouble speaking
  • Looking at the eyelid or looking at the drooping
  • Lumps in the neck can be painful

Diagnosis of nasopharynx

Tests that examine the nasopharynx can help diagnose nasopharyngeal cancer. The following tests and procedures can be used:

  • Physical exam and health history: An exam of the body to detect general signs of health, including the appearance of lumps or any abnormalities. The health habits of the patient and the history of previous diseases and treatments are also taken into account.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): The process of using magnets, radio waves, and a computer to create a series of detailed images of parts of the body such as the head and neck. This procedure is also known as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).
  • Nasal endoscopy: A procedure that examines organs and tissues inside the body to examine abnormal areas. A flexible or fixed endoscope is inserted through the nose. The endoscope is a thin tube-shaped device that is lightweight with a lens for viewing. It may have a tool to remove tissue samples, which a pathologist examines under a microscope for signs of disease.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) testing: A blood test to detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA markers. They are found in the blood of EBV patients.

Stages of nasopharynx

After the nasopharynx is diagnosed, tests are done to see if cancer cells have spread to the nasal cavity and throat or other parts of the body. To plan treatment, it is important to know if cancer cells have spread to the nasal cavity or other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread is called staging. Most children with nasopharynx are in an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. nasopharynx most often spreads to the bones, lungs, and liver.

The following tests and procedures can be used to find out if cancer has spread:

  • Neurological exam: A series of questions and tests to check the function of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. The test examines a person’s mood, coordination, and ability to walk normally and how well muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This is also known as a neurological test or neurological test.
  • Chest X-ray: An X-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. X-rays are a type of energy beam that can pass through the body and into the film, creating an image of areas inside the body.
  • PET-CT scan: The process of combining images from a PET scan and a CT scan. PET and CT scans are performed simultaneously on the same machine. Combine images from both scans to create a more detailed image than the actual test produces.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan: The process of creating a series of detailed images taken from different angles, such as the chest or abdomen within the body. The pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or to help organs or tissues become more visible. This procedure is also known as a CT scan.
  • Bone scan: A procedure to check for the presence of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, in the bone. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected intravenously and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive material collects in cancerous bone and is detected by a scanner. The drawing shows a child sliding under a scanner, a technician operating the scanner, and a computer monitor displaying images taken during the scan. A small amount of radioactive material is injected into a child’s vein and travels through the blood. Radioactive material accumulates in the bones. When the child lies on a slippery table under the scanner, the radioactive material is detected and images are created on the computer screen.

There are three ways that cancer can spread throughout the body.

Cancer spreads through tissues, the lymphatic system, and the blood:

  • Tissue: Cancer spreads from where it started growing to nearby areas.
  • Lymphatic system: It spreads from the cancer site to the lymphatic system. Cancer travels through lymphatic vessels to other parts of the body.
  • Blood: Cancer spreads from where it started by entering the bloodstream. Cancer travels through blood vessels to other parts of the body.

The cancer started in other parts of the body:

  • When cancer spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells divide from where they started (the primary tumor) and travel through the lymphatic system or blood.
  • Lymphatic system. Cancer enters the lymphatic system, travels through the lymphatic vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
  • Blood. Cancer enters the bloodstream, travels through blood vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
  • A metastatic tumor is a cancer of the same type as a primary tumor. For example, if nasopharyngeal cancer has spread to the lungs, the cancer cells in the lungs are actually nasopharyngeal cancer cells. The disease is metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer, not lung cancer.

Treatment for nasopharynx

There are a variety of treatments for children with the nasopharynx. Some treatments are standard (treatment currently in use), while others are being tested in clinical trials. Treatment A clinical trial is a research study that can help improve current treatments or obtain information about new treatments for patients with cancer.

When clinical trials show that the new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Since cancer is very rare in children, participation in clinical trials should be considered. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.

Children with nasopharynx should have their treatment planned by a team of doctors who specialize in treating childhood cancer. Treatment is overseen by a pediatric oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating children with cancer. The pediatric oncologist works with other pediatric health professionals who specialize in treating children with cancer and who specialize in certain areas of medicine. This may include the following experts and others:

  • Pediatrician
  • Pediatric surgeon
  • Radiation Oncologist
  • Pediatric ear, nose, and throat specialist
  • Pathologist
  • Pediatric Nurse Specialist
  • Social worker
  • Rehabilitation specialist
  • Psychologist
  • Expert in child life

Four types of standard therapy are used:

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer using drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells by killing them or preventing them from multiplying. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy).

Radiotherapy: Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other forms of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation to the area of ​​the body where the cancer is.

Surgery: Surgery to remove the tumor is done if the tumor does not spread through the nasal cavity and throat at the time of diagnosis.


Symptoms and Causes of Ewing’s Sarcoma | Orthopaedics

What is Ewing’s sarcoma?

Ewing’s sarcoma is a rare type of cancer that occurs in the bones or in the soft tissue around the bones. Ewing sarcoma most often begins in the bones of the legs and pelvis, but it can occur in any bone. Less commonly, it begins in the soft tissues of the chest, abdomen, extremities, or other locations.

Ewing sarcoma is most common in children and teens, but it can occur at any age. Major advances in the treatment of Ewing’s sarcoma have helped improve the outlook for people with this cancer. After completion of treatment, lifelong follow-up is recommended to observe possible late effects of severe chemotherapy and radiation.

Symptoms of Ewing’s sarcoma

The signs and symptoms of Ewing sarcoma include:

  • Pain, swelling, or tenderness near the affected area
  • Bone-ache
  • Unexplained tiredness
  • Fever with no known cause
  • Lose weight without trying

Types of Ewing’s sarcoma

There are numerous kinds of Ewing sarcoma, including Ewing sarcoma of bone, Ewing’s sarcoma extraosseous, peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET), and Askin’s tumor. These tumors are considered related because they have similar genetic causes.

Causes of Ewing’s sarcoma

It is not clear what causes Ewing sarcoma.

Physicians know that Ewing sarcoma starts when a cell develops changes in its DNA. A cell’s DNA contains the instructions that tell the cell what to do. The changes tell the cell to multiply rapidly and to continue living when healthy cells would normally die. The result is a mass (tumor) of abnormal cells that can invade and end healthy body tissue. Abnormal cells can separate and spread (metastasize) throughout the body.

In Ewing sarcoma, DNA changes most often affect a gene called EWSR1. If your doctor suspects that you have Ewing sarcoma, your cancer cells may be tested for changes in this gene.

Risk factors of Ewing’s sarcoma

Risk factors for Ewing sarcoma include:

  • Your age: Ewing sarcoma can occur at any age, but it is more likely to occur in children and adolescents.
  • Your ancestry: Ewing sarcoma is more common in people of European descent. It is much less common in people of African and East Asian descent.

Diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma

The diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma usually begins with a physical exam to better understand the symptoms that you or your child may be experiencing. Based on those findings, other tests and procedures may be recommended.

Imaging tests: Imaging tests help your physician examine your bone symptoms, look for cancer, and look for signs that cancer has spread.

Imaging tests may include:

  • X-rays
  • Computed tomography (CT)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Bone scan

Removing a sample of cells for analysis (biopsy): A biopsy process is used to collect a sample of suspicious cells for research laboratory testing. The tests can show if the cells are cancerous and what type of cancer you have.

The types of biopsy procedures used to diagnose Ewing sarcoma include:

  • Needle biopsy: The doctor inserts a fine needle through the skin and guides it to the tumor. The needle is used to eliminate small pieces of tissue from the tumor.
  • Surgical biopsy: The doctor makes an incision through the skin and removes the entire tumor (excisional biopsy) or part of the tumor (incisional biopsy).

Determining the type of biopsy needed and the details of how it should be performed requires careful planning on the part of the medical team. Doctors must perform the biopsy in a way that does not interfere with future surgery to remove cancer. For this reason, ask your doctor for a referral to a team of experts with extensive experience treating Ewing sarcoma before your biopsy.

Cancer cell testing for genetic mutations: A sample of your cancer cells will be tested in the laboratory to determine what DNA changes are present in the cells. Ewing sarcoma cells often have changes in the EWSR1 gene. Very often, the EWSR1 gene fuses with another gene called FLI1, creating a new gene called EWS-FLI1. Testing cancer cells for these genetic changes can help confirm your diagnosis and give your doctor clues as to how aggressive your disease is.

Treatment for Ewing sarcoma

Treatment for Ewing’s sarcoma usually begins with chemotherapy. Surgery to remove cancer usually follows. In certain situations, other treatments may be used, including radiation therapy.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses powerful drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy treatment usually combines two or more drugs that can be given as an infusion into a vein (IV), as a pill, or by both methods. Treatment for Ewing’s sarcoma usually begins with chemotherapy. Medications can shrink the tumor and make it easier to remove cancer with surgery or target it with radiation therapy.

After surgery or radiation therapy, chemotherapy treatments can continue to kill any cancer cells that may remain. For advanced cancer that has spread to other areas of the body, chemotherapy can help relieve pain and slow the growth of cancer.

Surgery: The goal of surgery is to kill all cancer cells. But the planning of the operation also takes into account how it will affect your ability to carry out your daily life.

Surgery for Ewing sarcoma may involve the removal of a small piece of bone or the removal of an entire limb. Whether surgeons can eliminate all of the cancer without removing the entire limb rest on several factors, such as the size and locality of the tumor and whether it shrinks after chemotherapy.

Radiotherapy: Radiation therapy usages high-energy beams, such as x-rays and protons, to kill cancer cells. During radiation therapy, beams of energy are sent from a machine that moves around you as you lie on a table. The rays are carefully aimed at the area of ​​Ewing’s sarcoma to reduce the risk of damage to surrounding healthy cells.

Radiation therapy may be recommended after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells. It can also be used instead of surgery if Ewing’s sarcoma is in a part of the body where surgery is not possible or would lead to unacceptable functional results (such as loss of bowel or bladder function).

For advanced Ewing sarcomas, radiation therapy can deliberate the growth of cancer and help dismiss the pain.

Complications of Ewing’s sarcoma

Complications of Ewing sarcoma and its treatment include:

  • Cancer that spreads (metastasizes): Ewing’s sarcoma can spread from where it started to other areas, making treatment and recovery difficult. Ewing’s sarcoma most often spreads to the lungs and other bones.
  • Long-term side effects of treatment: The aggressive treatments needed to control Ewing sarcoma can cause substantial side effects, both short and long term. Your healthcare team can help you monitor the side effects that occur during treatment and provide you with a list of side effects to watch for in the years after treatment.

Prevention of Ewing’s sarcoma

While it is always good to maintain a healthy weight and stop smoking or using tobacco, there are currently no known lifestyle changes that can prevent Ewing sarcoma.