General Topics

What Are The Most Common ENT Problems In Children? | ENT Specialist

Common ENT problems in children

Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) problems are extremely common in kids. Part of that is because many parts of the ENT region in children have not developed enough and, therefore, are apt to not function properly. Another issue that often leads to ENT problems in children is allergies. It’s important to know the most common ENT troubles children face and be able to distinguish if allergies are playing a part in the problem.

Ear Infections: Most every child at some point is faced with an ear infection. In fact, ear infections in children are as common as a cold. Most ear infections are otitis media, or middle ear infection. Upper respiratory tract infections can make their way up the Eustachian tube and infect the middle ear to cause pain, fever, and even some hearing loss. In this instance, oral antibiotic medications typically help. In some cases, however, allergies can be to blame. If the child is under the age of two, most likely allergies aren’t to blame for any ear infection. But in older children, allergies can lead to fluid behind the eardrum and painful ear pressure.

Sore throat: Two common throat problems in children are tonsillitis and pharyngitis. The difference between the two is that pharyngitis specifically affects the throat while tonsillitis affects the tonsils. Both conditions can lead to infections and inflammation in the throat, and anti-inflammatory medications can often treat them. However, sore throats are simply caused by allergies. Allergies can cause too much mucus to form, leading to a postnasal drip (a runny nose down the back of the throat).

Sinusitis: Sinusitis is usually caused by an infection of the maxillary sinus in children. Typical symptoms are frequent runny nose, nasal obstruction, and cough, and antibiotics are usually given to treat sinusitis. But if symptoms persist, the underlying problem could be allergies. Chronic sinusitis can also be caused by an allergy that needs to be determined. It is a common ENT problem in children.

Rhinitis: Allergic rhinitis is commonly known as hay fever and is a common ENT problem in children. Allergic rhinitis can be seasonal or year-round and usually causes nasal congestion, runny nose, trouble sleeping, fatigue, and skin rashes. The chronic problem can be caused by several allergens, both indoors and outdoors, along with certain foods.

Ignoring the symptoms of ENT problems can lead to not only unnecessary pain and discomfort but also possible lifelong illness. If your child is experiencing any of these problems, make an appointment with a member ENT specialist to get a diagnosis and find out if allergies.

When to contact a specialist?

Pediatric Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) disorders remain one of the top reasons children go to the doctor, according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology. Most paediatricians are prepared to handle an ear infection or runny nose, but how do you know when your child needs to see a specialist?

Snoring is not normal

Many parents think snoring is cute and fun, but it is not normal. When a child snores obstinately, it is not a cause for instant concern, but it deserves further evaluation by a paediatrician or ENT specialist.

Certain conditions, such as sleep apnea, can lead to a variety of health problems, including malformed facial bones, behaviour problems, and even bedwetting. Be sure to tell your child’s paediatrician if she snores frequently. The doctor can decide if your child should be referred to a pediatric otolaryngologist.

A recurring cold does not always turn into a sinus infection

Children can have a runny nose and cough every three to four weeks.

It’s completely normal for children, particularly those in daycare, to have a recurring cold. Cold is viral and cannot be treated with antibiotics. The decision to prescribe antibiotics should be made carefully by your primary care physician.

If your child’s cold symptoms last longer than seven days, especially if the symptoms get worse, it’s probably time to call the doctor.

Consider using ear tubes for recurring ear infections

The ear tubes improve air pressure and your child’s hearing. In many cases, ear pipes are a great solution for ear infections.

Under certain circumstances, placing tubes in the ears will help prevent upcoming ear infections and the need for additional rounds of antibiotics.

The decision to use ear tubes is made with the input of the child’s parents, paediatrician, and pediatric otolaryngologist.

If your child has had more than three ear infections in six months, you should ask your child’s paediatrician if ear tubes are appropriate.

Ear, nose, and throat physicians treat additional than ear infections and tonsillitis

Ear infections, a runny nose, and tonsillitis are indeed common reasons that parents bring their children to a pediatric otolaryngologist. However, pediatric otolaryngology specialists also treat everything from head and neck cancer to hearing loss or impairment, facial fractures, swallowing disorders, balance disorders, and more.

General Topics

What is Tonsillitis in Children | ENT Specialist

Overview of tonsillitis in children?

Tonsillitis most commonly affects children between preschool ages and mid-teens. Common signs and symptoms of tonsillitis include red and swollen tonsils. White or yellow lining or patches on the tonsils.

Symptoms of tonsillitis in children

Inflamed tonsils appear red and swollen, and may be covered with a yellow or whitish coating or spots. A child with tonsillitis may have:

  • Throat pain
  • Fever
  • Bad breath
  • Swollen glands (lymph nodes) in the neck
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Stomach ache
  • Headache

Causes tonsillitis in children

Tonsillitis is frequently caused by a virus such as:

  • Adenovirus
  • The flu
  • Epstein-Barr virus (monkey)
  • Bacteria can also cause it, most commonly group A strep (strep throat). In rare cases, tonsillitis can be caused by more than just an infection.

Diagnosis of tonsillitis in children

The diagnosis is based on a physical examination of the throat. Your doctor may also take a throat culture by gently rubbing the back of your throat. The culture will be sent to a lab to identify the cause of your throat infection.

Your physician may also take a sample of your blood for a whole blood count. This test can show whether your infection is viral or bacterial, which can affect your treatment options.

Treatment for tonsillitis in children

Treatment usually depends on the cause of the infection. A doctor will examine the throat and may include a throat culture to determine if the cause is a bacterial infection. If the doctor determines that the cause is bacterial, such as strep throat, your child may be prescribed antibiotics. If the infection is viral, antibiotics will not exertion to clear the infection.

  • Stay hydrated
  • Gargling with salt water
  • Using throat lozenges
  • Use of acetaminophen to help relieve pain

Home care: Most children with tonsillitis can receive care at home after consulting a doctor (if necessary).

You can take care of your child in the following ways:

  • Make sure they get enough rest.
  • Give them pain relievers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen. See our fact sheet Pain Relief for Children.
  • Give them more fluids to drink. This will prevent your child from becoming dehydrated and help her throat feel less dry and painful. Ice cream sticks are a good option, as they provide more fluids, as well as soothing and numbing a sore throat.
  • There are no restrictions on what your child can eat or drink. However, they may prefer milder foods if they have a sore throat.
  • Your child should stay home until the fever is gone and they can swallow again. Usually, this will be three to four days.

If antibiotics are prescribed, give them to your child as directed, and be sure to complete the full course of antibiotics.

You should see your general physician again if your child has tonsillitis and:

  • Shortness of breath with increased snoring when sleeping
  • Difficulty swallowing and demonstrations signs of dehydration
  • Difficulty opening your mouth
  • You are worried for any reason

Block the airways: Swollen tonsils are easier to see and form a reddish oval mass. Now and then they are big enough to touch in the middle. The severity and frequency of tonsillitis should be taken into account when considering a tonsillectomy. Hugely enlarged tonsils and adenoids can block the airways and cause sleep apnea and shortness of breath during the day.

Fortunately, the size of the tonsils and adenoids generally begins to shrink after age 9 and shrinks rapidly during adolescence. Also, the incidence of tonsillitis peaks between ages 4 and 7 and then begins to decline. Tonsillitis becomes relatively rare after the age of 15. Getting your child through these critical years with antibiotics and conservative treatment can eliminate the need for a tonsillectomy.

As part of the immune system, the tonsils and adenoids are part of the general lymphatic system and help fight infection by filtering bacteria and viruses from the air and food. Some parents are concerned that their child will get sick more often after the tonsils and adenoids are removed, but this is not true. The human body offers a lot of protection. For example, about 250 infection-fighting lymph nodes are located between the clavicle and the cheekbone.

The frequency of tonsillectomies combined with adenoidectomies has been increasing slowly over the past 40 years. Though, the reasons for performing the surgeries have been changing.

Surgery criteria: There are few absolute conditions for tonsillectomy other than an obstruction severe enough to cause a lack of oxygen in the body and cardiopulmonary changes. The following may indicate the need for a tonsillectomy:

  • The child has a severe sore throat seven times in a year, or five in each of two years, or three in each of three years.
  • The child has a throat infection severe enough to cause an abscess or an area of ​​pus and swelling behind the tonsils.
  • The child has a case of tonsillitis that does not get better with antibiotics.
  • Your child’s swollen tonsils and adenoids make normal breathing difficult.

As with all elective surgeries, the risks of surgery, including the risks of general anesthesia, bleeding, nausea, and postoperative vomiting, as well as the child’s absence from school and the parent’s absence from work, must be weighed against the benefits. Any decision concerning tonsillectomy must be made in collaboration with the family, surgeon, and pediatrician. Tonsillectomies are usually same-day surgeries, but doctors may suggest an overnight stay for very young patients. Your child will miss about a week of school and then resume her normal routine.

It doesn’t take long, 20 to 30 minutes, for an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist like me to remove your child’s tonsils.

Risk factors of tonsillitis in children

Risk factors for tonsillitis include:

Early age: Tonsillitis occurs most often in children, but rarely in children under 2 years of age. Tonsillitis caused by bacteria is most shared in children ages 5 to 15, while viral tonsillitis is more common in newer children.

Frequent exposure to germs: School-age children are in close contact with their peers and are often exposed to viruses or bacteria that can cause tonsillitis.

Complications of tonsillitis in children

Inflammation or swelling of the tonsils from recurrent or ongoing (chronic) tonsillitis can cause complications such as:

  • Labored breathing
  • Interrupted breathing during sleep (obstructive sleep apnea)
  • Infection that spreads bottomless into the surrounding tissue (tonsillar cellulitis)
  • Infection that consequences in a collection of pus behind a tonsil (per tonsillar abscess)
  • Streptococcal infection

If tonsillitis caused by group A strep or another strain of strep bacteria is not treated, or if treatment with antibiotics is incomplete, your child is at increased risk for rare conditions such as:

Rheumatic fever, a provocative disorder that affects the heart, joints, and other tissues.

Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, an inflammatory disorder of the kidneys that causes inadequate removal of waste and excess fluids from the blood.

Prevention of tonsillitis in children

The germs that cause viral and bacterial tonsillitis are contagious. So, the best prevention is to repetition good hygiene. Teach your child to:

  • Wash your hands thoroughly and often, especially after using the bathroom and before eating
  • Avoid sharing food, glasses, water bottles, or utensils
  • Replace Your Toothbrush After Tonsillitis Is Diagnosed

To assistance your kid prevents the spread of a bacterial or viral infection to others:

  • Keep your child home when sick
  • Ask your doctor when it is okay for your child to return to school
  • Teach your child to cough or sneeze into a tissue or, when necessary, into their elbow
  • Impart your child to wash their hands after sneezing or coughing

Preparation and Uses of Esophagoscopy | ENT Specialist

What is esophagoscopy?

An esophagoscopy is a procedure that lets your doctor examine the inside of your esophagus using an extended thin instrument called an endoscope. The endoscope covers light and a camera that transmits pictures of the inside of your esophagus to a video screen. Esophagoscopy can assistance diagnose and treat diseases and illnesses of the esophagus, such as esophageal cancer, Barrett’s esophagus, and objects stuck in the esophagus.

The esophagus is a muscular tube situated in the upper gastrointestinal tract that connects your mouth to your stomach. An esophagoscopy can help your physician diagnose mysterious symptoms you may be having, such as difficulty swallowing, upper abdominal pain, vomiting blood, or regurgitation. An esophagoscopy can also demonstrate certain structures of the throat and larynx (voice box).

Esophagoscopy is a slightly invasive procedure that can often be performed in an outpatient setting. The process does not require an incision and generally has a quick recovery and a very low risk of complications.

Esophagoscopy is only one technique used to treat and diagnose conditions of the esophagus. Ask your physician or healthcare provider about all of your options to understand which option is best for you.

Why do I need this test?

This procedure provides your doctor with specific information that X-rays and other tests do not. Your doctor may recommend NETs to determine the cause of symptoms such as heartburn or chest pain or to assess healing after weight loss surgery. Your doctor may also use NET as a therapeutic procedure and may obtain a tissue sample (biopsy) for examination under a microscope.

Types of esophagoscopy

The types of esophagoscopy include:

Flexible esophagoscopy: Flexible esophagoscopy is done by inserting a thin, flexible endoscope through the mouth and depressed the throat into the esophagus.

Transnasal supple esophagoscopy: Transnasal supple esophagoscopy is performed by inserting a thin, flexible endoscope through the nose and down the throat into the esophagus.

Rigid esophagoscopy: Rigid esophagoscopy is done by inserting a rigid endoscope through the mouth and depressed the throat into the esophagus.

Preparation of esophagoscopy

You can prepare for an esophagoscopy by responsibility for the following:

  • Do not eat or drink for about six to eight hours before your esophagoscopy. This clears your stomach so your doctor can see the inside of your upper GI tract more easily. You can motionlessly drink clear liquids, such as water, juice, coffee, or clear soda.
  • Stop attractive blood thinners, such as warfarin (Coumadin) or aspirin. This reduces your risk of bleeding in case your doctor needs to take a tissue sample or perform surgery.
  • Make sure your doctor knows about any other medications you are taking. Include dietary supplements or vitamins.
  • Ask a friend or family member to drive you and accompany you to the procedure. This will ensure that you get home safely. If you do the procedure without sedation or anesthesia, you can drive home on your own.

Procedure of esophagoscopy

These procedures are performed by the Division of Pediatric General Surgery for diagnosis and treatment. Foreign bodies can be identified and retrieved, abnormal tissue can be identified and removed, mucus plugs blocking the branches of the trachea can be cleared, and areas of narrowing can be identified and dilated. The narrowing can be congenital or it can result from surgery or inflammation.

These procedures are done under general anesthesia, often on an outpatient basis. Esophagoscopy and bronchoscopy are performed with rigid or flexible visors that incorporate viewing ports and instrumentation and intense lighting. Often, the viewing channel is connected to television monitors in the operating room so that the entire team can see.

Images can be saved and printed so the surgeon can show the family what was found and document the findings in the patient’s medical record. Endoscopes are passed through the mouth into the esophagus or windpipe (windpipe). Instruments are passed through the endoscope to grasp tissue or foreign bodies, biopsy tissue, stop bleeding, or suction fluid. Bronchoscopes allow the anesthesiologist to breathe for the patient through the scope while the procedure is being performed.

Esophageal dilation is done to treat the narrowing or stricture of the esophagus. It is performed by passing a series of flexible rubber dilators of increasing size, or by placing a balloon inside the esophagus under fluoroscopic guidance that is then inflated to establish pressure for a specific period of time to stretch the esophagus.

After the procedure

After the procedure, you may experience some irritation in your nose or the back of your throat, but this should go away within 24 hours. After the test, you can eat and resume your normal medications once you are no longer sleepy, unless your doctor tells you otherwise.

Risks of esophagoscopy

Possible side effects are nausea, vomiting, nasal and throat irritation, malaise, and pain. Possible complications from this procedure comprise, but are not limited to: bleeding, infection, or perforation of the esophagus or stomach. These complications, if they occur, may require surgery, hospitalization, and/or transfusion. Other risks that can be serious and possibly fatal include difficulty breathing, heart attack, stroke, or aspiration. These risks are extremely rare but can occur.

Side effects of esophagoscopy

Esophagoscopy can cause side effects such as

  • Sore throat
  • Gas and bloating
  • Cramps

These side effects usually resolve on their own within 24 hours.

Complications of esophagoscopy

Esophagoscopy carries risks associated with sedation or anesthesia in addition to the risk of direct instrumental perforation of the pharynx, esophagus, or stomach. Drug reactions, tracheobronchial aspiration, and hypoxic brain damage are all possible and almost entirely preventable complications related to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Instrumental perforation must be completely preventable; sadly, this complication still occurs.

Before flexible endoscopy, the most common perforation sites involved the posterior pharynx in children who were immobilized and examined while awake. Esophagoscopy associated with dilatation of narrow strictures still carries a higher risk of perforation than a purely diagnostic procedure, but there are no reliable figures on the incidence of instrumental perforation for children.

Smooth for a simple diagnosis, the risk of perforation in the presence of severe esophagitis, whether from reflux or caustic ingestion, should be better than in a patient with a non-inflamed esophagus. The predominant use of flexible instruments in recent years is an important factor in reducing and almost eliminating instrumental perforation in children. As extended as a magnified view of the esophageal lumen is maintained throughout the procedure, perforation remains unlikely.

Esophagoscopy is typically performed by a gastroenterologist as an outpatient procedure. The procedure can take between 20 and 30 minutes.

Uses of this procedure

An esophagoscopy may be complete as part of a routine physical examination. It may also be complete if you have one or more of the following symptoms:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Trouble swallowing
  • Continuous feeling of lumping in your throat(globus pharyngeus)
  • A long-term cough that won’t go away
  • Long-term heartburn that must go away with changes to your diet or by taking antacids
  • stomach acid touching up the esophagus into the throat (laryngopharyngeal reflux)

An esophagoscopy may be used to:

  • Figure out whatever’s causing abnormal throat, stomach, or intestinal symptoms
  • Take a tissue example (biopsy) for diagnosis of cancer or other conditions, such as dysphagia or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Eliminate any large collection of food (known as a bolus) or foreign object stuck in the esophagus
  • See the confidential of your upper GI tract during surgery

It may also be used with additional GI imaging procedures, such as:

  • Gastroscopy to examine your stomach
  • Enteroscopy to examine your small intestine
  • Colonoscopy to examine your large intestine


In most cases, your doctor will review your test results on the day of the procedure. If a biopsy is required, the test results will be available in 7 to 10 days.


What Is Tympanometry? | ENT Specialist

Overview of tympanometry

Tympanometry is a medical test that measures the function and movement of the eardrum and the middle ear. Tympanometry results are represented on a graph called a tympanogram. The test is usually quick and painless unless the eardrum or middle ear is inflamed.

Important definitions to know:

  • Tympanic membrane: the eardrum.
  • The middle ear: which consists of the air-filled tympanic cavity, several small bones that aid hearing, and the Eustachian tube.
  • Tympanometry: a test that measures air pressure in the middle ear.
  • Tympanometer – The device that a physician uses to perform a tympanometry test.
  • Tympanogram – The test results plotted on a graph.

Tympanometry can be done in a hearing healthcare professional’s office or a doctor’s office. First, the doctor will do a visual inspection of your ear canal and eardrum using a lighted scope (otoscope) placed in the ear. Then a probe with a flexible rubber tip will be located in your ear. This probe is connected to a manometer.

Why is tympanometry done?

Tympanometry can help diagnose complaints that can cause hearing loss, especially in children. The test measures the movement of the tympanic membrane in response to pressure changes.

The tympanic membrane is a thin tissue that splits the middle and outer segments of the ear. Tympanometry results are recorded on a graph called a tympanogram.

The test can help your physician determine if you have:

  • fluid in the middle ear.
  • a perforation (tear) in the tympanic membrane.
  • a problem with the Eustachian tube, which connects the upper part of the throat and nose to the middle ear.

Your child’s doctor may perform a tympanometry every few weeks for several months to record the amount of fluid your child has in the middle ear over time.

How is tympanometry performed?

Before the test, a primary care doctor can look into your ear canal with a special instrument called an otoscope. This is to make sure that no earwax or any foreign objects are blocking the ear canal.

They will then residence a probe-type device in your ear canal. You may feel a bit uncomfortable and hear loud tones when the device begins to take measurements.

This test variation the air pressure in your ear to make the eardrum move back and forth. Measurements of the movement of your eardrum are recorded on a tympanogram.

You will not be able to move, speak, or swallow during the test. Doing so may give an incorrect result.

The test takes about two minutes or less for both ears and is usually done in a doctor’s office. People of all ages can have tympanometry, although it can be more difficult for children who are too young to cooperate.

What mean if my test results are normal?

Normal tympanometry test results mean:

  • There is no fluid in the central ear.
  • The eardrum moves normally.
  • There is normal pressure in the mid-ear.
  • There is a normal movement of the ossicles (the small bones in the middle ear that conduct sound and aid hearing) and the eardrum.

Normal pressure within the middle ear can range from +50 to -200 decapascals for both children and adults.

What does it mean if my test results are abnormal?

Abnormal tympanometry test results may suggest:

  • fluid in the middle ear.
  • perforation of the eardrum (tympanic membrane).
  • scarring of the eardrum, which is usually the result of frequent ear infections.
  • middle ear pressure beyond the normal range.
  • growths in the middle ear.
  • earwax that blocks the eardrum.

Why it’s used?

Tympanometry is typically used to detect or rule out several things: the presence of fluid in the middle ear, a middle ear infection, a hole in the eardrum (perforation), or Eustachian tube dysfunction. This test is especially important for children who have suspected middle ear problems, but it’s also sometimes given to adults as part of a routine hearing test to determine if any middle ear problems are contributing to hearing loss.

Adults and children seeking medical clearance for hearing aids will generally receive a tympanometry test. Fluid behind the eardrum is the most common cause of an abnormal tympanogram because it prevents the eardrum from moving and transmitting sound correctly. This condition is almost always temporary and medically treatable.

If you have fluid in your ear, you may not need hearing aids to correct your hearing loss, but you should consult with your doctor and hearing healthcare professional to determine the best course of action.


Types and Procedure of Mastoidectomy | ENT Specialist

What is mastoidectomy?

Mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure that excludes diseased mastoid air cells. These cells are found behind the ear in a hollow area of the skull. In general, mastoidectomy (with or without tympanoplasty) is recommended for patients with chronic cholesteatoma and/or chronic otitis media that have not responded to medical treatment. Your doctor is specially trained to perform mastoidectomy surgery on your suburban ear, nose, and throat.

Types of mastoidectomy

Various procedures are described, such as simple mastoidectomy, canal-wall-up, and canal-wall-down mastoidectomy.

Simple mastoidectomy: The lateral wall of the mastoid is excluded. The upper posterior wall of the external vocal cords is preserved. The eye chain cannot be visualized.

Canal wall up (closed) mastoidectomy: Similar to a normal mastoidectomy in which the lateral wall of the mastoid is excluded and the superior posterior wall of the external vocal cords is conserved. Besides, the septum of the cochlea is removed, providing access to the middle ear cavity and helping to visualize the first ossicle.

Canal wall down (open) mastoidectomy: Similar to the canal wall of the mastoidectomy, the septum of the cochlea is removed to create a conversation with the lateral wall of the mastoid and the cavity of the middle ear. The main difference is that the upper back wall of the external healthy meat is also removed. The tympanic membrane is usually rebuilt. Mastoidectomy is similar to the modified downward canal wall but does not change the ossicular chain of the tympanic membrane.

Purpose of mastoidectomy

Mastoidectomy is done to exclude infected mastoid air cells made by an ear infection such as mastoiditis or chronic otitis, or by inflammatory disease of the middle ear (cholesteatoma). Mastoid air cells project from the temporal bone of the skull into the open spaces, which contain air throughout the mastoid bone, the prominent bone behind the ear.

The air cells are connected to a cavity in the upper part of the bone, which is connected to the middle ear. Sometimes aggressive middle ear infections spread through the mastoid bone. When antibiotics cannot clear the infection, it may be necessary to surgically remove the infected area. The main goal of surgery is to completely remove the infection to produce an infection-free ear. Mastoidectomies are sometimes performed to correct frozen facial nerves.

Risk factors of mastoidectomy

Risk factors may include:

  • Changes in taste
  • Dizziness
  • Hearing loss
  • Infection that persists or keeps returning
  • Noises in the ear (tinnitus)
  • A weakness of the face

Mastoidectomy procedure

Preparation: Healthcare provider will talk with you about how to prepare for surgery. They may tell you not to eat or drink anything after midnight on the day of your surgery. He will tell you what medications to take or not take on the day of your surgery. If you have an ear infection, you may be given antibiotics before surgery. Before surgery, you may need blood tests, hearing tests, X-rays, or CT scans.

During the procedure: Your doctor will usually perform a mastoidectomy under general anesthesia. This will ensure that you are asleep and not in pain. For a general mastoidectomy, your surgeon will generally do the following:

  • Access your mastoid bone through the cut made behind your ear
  • Use a microscope and a tiny drill to start your mastoid bone
  • Use suction watering to keep the surgical area clear of bone dust
  • Drill out the infected air cells
  • Stitch up the operative site
  • Cover the site with gauze to keep the wound clean and dry

Your specialist may also use a facial nerve adviser during surgery. Helps limit facial nerve injury.

After the procedure: There are stitches behind the ear. You may also have a large dressing on your operated ear. A gauze mastoid bandage or flexible neoprene bandage is placed around the head over the operation site to collect drainage from the ear and reduce the risk of bruising from injury. This dressing is removed 24 hours after surgery. Patients are usually instructed by covering the operative ear with a cup or by placing a petroleum jelly-coated cotton ball in the external ear canal while bathing.

You must stay in the hospital overnight. Your provider will give you pain relievers and antibiotics to prevent infection.

Postoperative care is usually visited to remove the plugging in the ear canal 1-2 weeks after surgery. Patients may receive topical antibiotic drops the day after surgery or several days before the initial surgery. Topical antibiotic drops serve the dual purpose of reducing the risk of postoperative infection and hydrating the package to facilitate removal during the initial post-surgery visit.

Patients undergoing the canal wall descent procedure may have reusable sponge packs, gauze strips, or packings in the mastoid cavity and/or metastasis. This tamponade is often removed in the first 2 weeks after surgery. It takes weeks to months for the cavity canal wall to heal completely. Intermittent debridements of the lower canal wall cavity are required periodically (3-12 months) even after the cavity has fully healed.

Complications of mastoidectomy

Like other surgeries, mastoidectomy can be associated with certain risks and complications. There are common problems:

  • Temporary Dizziness
  • Dry mouth
  • Temporary loss of taste on the surface of the tongue
  • Infections, including meningitis or brain abscesses
  • Determined ear discharge
  • Tinnitus
  • Hearing loss
  • General anesthesia problems

Rare complications include:

  • Facial weakness
  • Eye problems
  • Hematoma

Procedure and Uses of Electrocochleography | ENT Specialist

What is electrocochleography?

Electrocochleography, commonly known as ECochG, is a painless test of hearing function that is usually done to determine if there is excess fluid in the inner ear. Often referred to as Meniere’s disease, this condition is called endolymphatic dropsy. Excess fluid in the inner ear can cause dizziness/vertigo, fluctuations in hearing, fullness and/or pressure in the ears, and tinnitus (ringing/buzzing/buzzing in the ears).

These symptoms appear in one or both ears, alone or in various combinations, and can be caused by conditions other than Meniere’s disease. ECochG is given to help diagnose endolymphatic dropsy / Meniere’s disease.

Why electrocochleography is done?

Different parts of the auditory system generate electrical signals in response to sound stimuli. This objective test measures the electrical signals from the cochlea (action potential / potential adder complex) and the compound produced by the auditory nerve. This is the “ECG” of the cochlea. It can provide useful information on the function of the cochlear hair cells and especially the pressure of the endolymph fluid in the surrounding membrane compartment.

The fluid pressure in the cochlea closely reflects the fluid pressure of the labyrinth, so that objective diagnostic information can be provided on Meniere’s disease and other related disorders that affect the fluid balance of the inner ear before all clinical symptoms habitual are evident. There was irreparable damage.

Electrocochleography preparations

For patients, ECoG is a very simple procedure. When you arrive for your appointment, you will be asked to remove your facial makeup and cleanse your face thoroughly. It is best not to apply makeup before your appointment. A few small electrodes are placed on the forehead.

The ear canals are rubbed clean, and the electrodes are placed deep inside them without minor pain. When you lie quietly on the table, you will hear loud noises. It is important that you remain calm and relaxed during the test. Any unnecessary movement or muscle tension can interfere with the testing process and slow down.

If all goes well, the Electrocochleography test will only take about an hour.

Electrocochleography procedure

ECochG can be performed with invasive or non-invasive electrodes. Invasive electrodes, such as transatomic needles (TT), give clearer and more robust electrical responses (with greater amplitude) because the electrodes are so close to the voltage generators. The middle needle ear is placed on the promontory wall and round window.

Non-invasive or extrotympanic (ET), the electrodes do not cause pain or discomfort to the patient. Unlike invasive electrodes, no anesthesia, anesthesia, or medical supervision is required. However, the answers are small.

Before electrocochleography test

The only requirement for the test is that the patient’s ear canals are free of wax. If the effect of wax has been a problem in the past, the patient may want to clean the ears prior to testing. Drug and diet suspension does not apply to this test. This test takes about 60 minutes to complete.

During an electrocochleography test

  • An adhesive electrode is placed on the forehead and foil-covered earphones are inserted into the ear canals, which are gently pre-cleaned.
  • Audio stimulation is shown to the patient through headphones.
  • An electrode selects the cochlear activity that occurs in response to sound.
  • Once the measurements are collected, the electrode and headphones are removed and the patient can continue with their day as usual.
  • The dimensions (waves) are described by the audiologist.

To facilitate preparation, avoid wearing face makeup prior to the ECoG test. Patients are asked to close their eyes during the test and rest in the test chair. The audiologist will then understand the data and prepare a report for your doctor to review. The next appointment with your doctor is usually scheduled five days after the exam.

Uses of electrocochleography

Electrocochleography is used primarily in the diagnosis, evaluation, and monitoring of Meniere’s disease and endolymphatic dropsy. In Meniere’s disease, the probability of addition increases. It is also used for intraoperative monitoring of the peripheral auditory system. It is also useful for objectively evaluating hearing limitations.


Overview of the Nasopharynx In Children | ENT Specialist

What is nasopharynx in children?

Nasopharynx in children, nasopharyngeal cancer is the formation of malignant (cancer) cells in the tissues of the nasal cavity and throat. Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is made up of the nasal cavity (inside the nose) and the upper part of the throat.

The nasopharynx is more common in adolescents than in children under 10 years of age. Epstein-Barr virus infection increases the risk of the nasopharynx. Any risk factor that increases the chance of getting a disease is called. Having a risk factor does not mean you have cancer; The lack of risk factors does not mean that you will not have cancer. Talk to your pediatrician if you think your baby is at risk.

Symptoms of the nasopharynx

Nasopharynx signs and symptoms; headache and a stuffy or runny nose. These and other signs and symptoms can be caused by nasopharynx or other conditions. Check with your pediatrician if your child has any of the following:

  • Headache
  • The nose is stuffy or swollen
  • Nosebleeds
  • Deafness
  • Ear infection
  • Hearing loss
  • Problems moving the jaw
  • Trouble speaking
  • Looking at the eyelid or looking at the drooping
  • Lumps in the neck can be painful

Diagnosis of nasopharynx

Tests that examine the nasopharynx can help diagnose nasopharyngeal cancer. The following tests and procedures can be used:

  • Physical exam and health history: An exam of the body to detect general signs of health, including the appearance of lumps or any abnormalities. The health habits of the patient and the history of previous diseases and treatments are also taken into account.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): The process of using magnets, radio waves, and a computer to create a series of detailed images of parts of the body such as the head and neck. This procedure is also known as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).
  • Nasal endoscopy: A procedure that examines organs and tissues inside the body to examine abnormal areas. A flexible or fixed endoscope is inserted through the nose. The endoscope is a thin tube-shaped device that is lightweight with a lens for viewing. It may have a tool to remove tissue samples, which a pathologist examines under a microscope for signs of disease.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) testing: A blood test to detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA markers. They are found in the blood of EBV patients.

Stages of nasopharynx

After the nasopharynx is diagnosed, tests are done to see if cancer cells have spread to the nasal cavity and throat or other parts of the body. To plan treatment, it is important to know if cancer cells have spread to the nasal cavity or other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread is called staging. Most children with nasopharynx are in an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. nasopharynx most often spreads to the bones, lungs, and liver.

The following tests and procedures can be used to find out if cancer has spread:

  • Neurological exam: A series of questions and tests to check the function of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. The test examines a person’s mood, coordination, and ability to walk normally and how well muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This is also known as a neurological test or neurological test.
  • Chest X-ray: An X-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. X-rays are a type of energy beam that can pass through the body and into the film, creating an image of areas inside the body.
  • PET-CT scan: The process of combining images from a PET scan and a CT scan. PET and CT scans are performed simultaneously on the same machine. Combine images from both scans to create a more detailed image than the actual test produces.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan: The process of creating a series of detailed images taken from different angles, such as the chest or abdomen within the body. The pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or to help organs or tissues become more visible. This procedure is also known as a CT scan.
  • Bone scan: A procedure to check for the presence of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, in the bone. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected intravenously and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive material collects in cancerous bone and is detected by a scanner. The drawing shows a child sliding under a scanner, a technician operating the scanner, and a computer monitor displaying images taken during the scan. A small amount of radioactive material is injected into a child’s vein and travels through the blood. Radioactive material accumulates in the bones. When the child lies on a slippery table under the scanner, the radioactive material is detected and images are created on the computer screen.

There are three ways that cancer can spread throughout the body.

Cancer spreads through tissues, the lymphatic system, and the blood:

  • Tissue: Cancer spreads from where it started growing to nearby areas.
  • Lymphatic system: It spreads from the cancer site to the lymphatic system. Cancer travels through lymphatic vessels to other parts of the body.
  • Blood: Cancer spreads from where it started by entering the bloodstream. Cancer travels through blood vessels to other parts of the body.

The cancer started in other parts of the body:

  • When cancer spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells divide from where they started (the primary tumor) and travel through the lymphatic system or blood.
  • Lymphatic system. Cancer enters the lymphatic system, travels through the lymphatic vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
  • Blood. Cancer enters the bloodstream, travels through blood vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
  • A metastatic tumor is a cancer of the same type as a primary tumor. For example, if nasopharyngeal cancer has spread to the lungs, the cancer cells in the lungs are actually nasopharyngeal cancer cells. The disease is metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer, not lung cancer.

Treatment for nasopharynx

There are a variety of treatments for children with the nasopharynx. Some treatments are standard (treatment currently in use), while others are being tested in clinical trials. Treatment A clinical trial is a research study that can help improve current treatments or obtain information about new treatments for patients with cancer.

When clinical trials show that the new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Since cancer is very rare in children, participation in clinical trials should be considered. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.

Children with nasopharynx should have their treatment planned by a team of doctors who specialize in treating childhood cancer. Treatment is overseen by a pediatric oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating children with cancer. The pediatric oncologist works with other pediatric health professionals who specialize in treating children with cancer and who specialize in certain areas of medicine. This may include the following experts and others:

  • Pediatrician
  • Pediatric surgeon
  • Radiation Oncologist
  • Pediatric ear, nose, and throat specialist
  • Pathologist
  • Pediatric Nurse Specialist
  • Social worker
  • Rehabilitation specialist
  • Psychologist
  • Expert in child life

Four types of standard therapy are used:

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer using drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells by killing them or preventing them from multiplying. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy).

Radiotherapy: Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other forms of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation to the area of ​​the body where the cancer is.

Surgery: Surgery to remove the tumor is done if the tumor does not spread through the nasal cavity and throat at the time of diagnosis.


Symptoms and Causes of Frontal Sinusitis | ENT Specialist

What is frontal sinusitis?

Frontal sinusitis is an inflammation or infection of the sinuses behind the eyes and on the forehead. The sinuses are a system of hollow cavities connected to the face that contains a thin layer of mucus. All the sinuses produce mucus, which moistens the airways and leaks into the nasal passages.

If the frontal sinuses are inflamed or infected, they will not be able to drain the mucus effectively and this will make it difficult to breathe. This leads to an increased feeling of pressure around the eyes and forehead. When the symptoms of frontal sinusitis last more than 4 weeks, but less than 12, the medical term for this is acute frontal sinusitis. The frontal sinuses are small air-filled cavities behind the eyes in the forehead area.

In addition to the other three pairs of paranasal sinuses, these cavities produce fine mucus that flows through the nasal passages. Excessive mucus production or inflammation of the frontal sinuses can prevent this mucus from drying properly, resulting in what is known as acute frontal sinusitis.

Symptoms of frontal sinusitis

The most common signs and symptoms of frontal sinusitis are:

  • Runny nose
  • “Weight” or pressure behind the eyes
  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Sore throat
  • Muscle pains
  • Facial congestion or stuffy nose
  • Ability to reduce odor.
  • Poor or unpleasant breathing
  • High or mild fever

Symptoms of frontal sinusitis vary slightly depending on the cause. Fatigue, fever, muscle aches, and a sore throat are more likely to be a sign of a viral infection than a bacterial infection. A person can have severe viral sinusitis if symptoms last less than 10 days and do not get worse.

Bacterial sinusitis occurs when symptoms do not improve or get worse after 10 days. If symptoms persist for more than a few months, frontal sinusitis stems from a structural problem such as a deviated septum or nasal polyps.

Causes of frontal sinusitis

The main cause of acute frontal sinusitis is mucus formation due to inflammation of the sinuses. Several factors produce mucus and affect the ability of the frontal sinuses to drain mucus:

Virus: The common cold virus is the most common cause of acute frontal sinusitis. When you have a cold or flu virus, the amount of mucus your sinuses produce increases. It obstructs and inflames them.

Bacteria: The nasal cavity of the sinuses is filled with tiny hairs called cilia, which help prevent organisms from entering the sinuses. These cilia are not 100 percent effective. Bacteria can still enter your nose and travel to the sinus cavities. Bacterial sinus infection often follows a viral infection because it is easier for bacteria to grow in an environment where mucus is high due to a viral infection such as the common cold. Bacterial infections often cause severe symptoms of acute sinusitis.

Nasal polyps: Polyps are abnormal growths in your body. Polyps in the frontal sinuses can prevent the sinuses from filtering air and increasing the amount of mucus that collects.

Nasal septum: People with a nasal septum cannot breathe evenly on both sides of the nose. Lack of adequate air circulation can cause swelling if the frontal sinus tissue is compromised.

Diagnosis of frontal sinusitis

  • A doctor, often an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist, will perform a physical exam to diagnose frontal sinusitis after looking at a person’s symptoms and medical history.
  • Imaging techniques such as computed tomography and MRI show the extent of sinusitis and, in some cases, the most common cause.
  • Acute frontal sinusitis does not usually require scans. In cases of chronic sinusitis, doctors can use them to find out how well the course of treatment is working or to help identify other problems that affect the sinuses.
  • If frontal sinusitis occurs frequently, nasal endoscopy is a useful diagnostic procedure, during which the doctor uses a thin tube with a light and imaging source to take pictures of the inner sinuses. The doctor can then view these images on a computer screen and recommend the appropriate treatment.

Treatment for frontal sinusitis

  • The goal of treating frontal sinusitis is to improve mucus drainage and keep the sinuses clear. Treatment options vary depending on the cause of the blockage.
  • Viral infections are the cause of many cases of frontal sinusitis. Treatment plans generally include rest, plenty of fluids, and the use of over-the-counter nasal sprays or decongestants.
  • If a bacterial infection is an underlying cause, a course of antibiotics will usually clear the infection.
  • If frontal sinusitis is the result of an allergy, doctors generally recommend avoiding the allergen and using nasal sprays with corticosteroids and antihistamines.
  • Some people benefit from using over-the-counter medications that dry and shrink mucous membranes, such as decongestants and nasal sprays that contain phenylephrine or oxymetazoline.
  • Ask your doctor if these medications are part of a treatment plan. For a short period of time, it is important to use them only as prescribed. They can cause discomfort and problems if a person uses them for a long time.
  • Medications containing phenylephrine or oxymetazoline can also interact with prescription medications and complicate ongoing problems such as high blood pressure.
  • A person with a deviated septum or nasal polyps may benefit from surgery. Surgery can fix these problems permanently and improve the health and function of the sinuses.

Home remedies for frontal sinusitis

Steam inhalation quickly soothes and clears sinuses in the short term.

Flushing the saline solution through the nasal passages can relieve chronic symptoms. Most of these solutions are available without a prescription, or a person can have their own at home:

  • 4 cups of boiled, filtered, or distilled water
  • 1 teaspoon of baking soda
  • 1 teaspoon iodized salt
  • If boiled water is used, boil the solution for 3 to 5 minutes before preparing
  • Nasal saline solutions are also available for purchase online

Complications of frontal sinusitis

Chronic frontal sinusitis is the term for this condition if symptoms last longer than 12 weeks. Inflammation is more of an ongoing cause than an infection. Since tumors and cancers can develop in the sinus cavities, it is important to see a doctor determine the cause of chronic frontal sinusitis.

Bacterial sinus infections get better instead of getting worse over time. Symptoms include increased discharge, pain, and fever. If left untreated, a bacterial infection that causes frontal sinusitis can spread to other organs in the head and neck, including the brain, causing deep tissue infections that can be fatal.

Examine symptoms closely and see a doctor right away if you experience any of the following signs or symptoms:

  • Severe and persistent headache
  • Neck pain or stiffness
  • Confusion
  • High fever
  • Difficult to focus
  • Sudden vision problems
  • Swelling or redness of the face, eyes, or eyelids.

Prevention of frontal sinusitis

Washing your hands regularly can help prevent infection. Good personal hygiene is essential to reduce the risk of sinus infections. This is usually hand washing, especially:

  • Before and after eating
  • While cooking
  • When taking care of the children
  • After using the bathroom

Avoid common allergens like tobacco products, smoke, pollution, and dirt, as they can trigger respiratory reactions.

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle that includes regular physical activity and a balanced diet goes a long way toward keeping the immune system healthy and reducing the risk of sinus infections.


Treatment and Causes of Perilymphatic Fistula | ENT Specialist

What is the perilymphatic fistula?

A perilymphatic fistula in one of the layers that separate the middle and inner ear. Your middle ear is full of air. Your inner ear, on the other hand, is filled with a fluid called perilymph. Typically, thin layers at the opening called round and oval windows separate the inner and middle ear. This window separates the inner ear from the middle ear.

The inner ear is filled with a fluid called perilymph, so when a tear occurs, it leaks into the middle ear area. But these layers break causing the perilymphatic fluid to flow from the inner ear to the middle ear. This exchange of fluids causes stress changes that affect your balance and hearing.

Symptoms of perilymphatic fistula

Symptoms of perilymphatic fistula include:

  • The feeling of fullness in your ear
  • Sudden hearing loss
  • Hearing loss occurs
  • Dizziness or vertigo
  • Mild and persistent nausea
  • Memory loss
  • Motion sickness
  • Feeling off-balance, often on one side
  • Headache
  • Ringing in the ears

You may find that when your symptoms get worse:

  • You will experience changes in height
  • Lift something heavy
  • Sneeze
  • Cough
  • Laughter

Some experience no symptoms, while others have very mild symptoms. Some people feel a bit “out of place.”

Keep in mind that perilymphatic fistulas only affect one ear at a time. However, severe head injuries can, in rare cases, lead to the bilateral perilymphatic fistula.

Causes of perilymphatic fistula

Perilymph fistulas occur after suffering a head injury or barotrauma (with severe and rapid changes in pressure). These extreme changes in pressure can be the result of many things, such as air travel, diving, childbirth, and heavy lifting.

Other possible causes:

  • Enjoying the whiplash
  • Pierce your eardrum
  • A gun near your ear can be exposed to very loud noises, including gunshots or sirens
  • Acute or frequent ear infection
  • Pinching your nose too hard
  • Perilymph fistulas are also present in some cases at birth

Some people report the development of sudden perilymphatic fistula for no apparent reason. However, in these cases, the root cause may be an old injury or no immediate symptoms.

Diagnosis of perilymphatic fistula

Diagnosis of the perilymphatic fistula is difficult because the symptoms overlap with other inner ear disorders, such as Meniere’s disease. There is also no “gold standard” test to diagnose a perilymphatic fistula. However, you can sometimes make a diagnosis from an MRI or CT scan.

Because diagnosis is so challenging and treatment often involves surgical intervention, they recommend adopting a second opinion and the following tests to increase the likelihood of an accurate diagnosis:

  • Fistula examination
  • Fraser test
  • Valsalva test
  • Audiometry
  • Electrococciography (ECOG) (a test that records the function of the inner ear)
  • Electronystagmography (ENG)
  • Temporal computed tomography of bone, high resolution

Treatment for a perilymphatic fistula

There are several treatment options depending on the symptoms you are experiencing. Bed rest or limited activity for a week or two weeks is sometimes the first approach to treatment. If this leads to improvement, your healthcare provider may recommend more bed rest to see if the improvement continues.

There is also a new treatment called a blood patch injection that helps. It can be used as the first line of treatment. This treatment involves injecting your own blood into the middle ear, which attaches itself to the defective window membrane. The 2016 reliable review source saw 12 cases of suspicious perilymphatic fistula. Symptoms improved for all but one person.

Blood patch: The first line of treatment is a procedure called a blood patch. It can be done in the office and you will go home the same day. The blood patch procedure usually works the first time. From time to time, you need to repeat it.

Surgery: If the blood patch procedure only temporarily works twice, surgery is the next line of treatment. This process, which takes about 30 minutes, involves lifting the eardrum through the ear canal and gluing the round and oval windows.

Raise your head: It is important to follow all of your healthcare provider’s recommendations after surgery. The recovery period may seem long, but straining before the fistula heals completely can lead to a persistent fistula.

Recovery: Two weeks to recover from perilymphatic fistula surgery:

  • No rigorous activity
  • Do not lift more than 20 pounds
  • Raising the head of the bed

After that, normal activities can be resumed. The chances of dizziness getting better after surgery are very high, although the chances of hearing recovery are low.


Causes and Types of Vocal Cord Dysfunction | ENT Specialist

What is vocal cord dysfunction?

Vocal cord dysfunction(VCD) means that your vocal cords intermittently stop working and close when you inhale. This reduces the space available for air to flow in and out when you breathe. It is found in people of all ages but is most often found in people between the ages of 20 and 40. It happens more to women than to men.

Another name for this condition is the contradictory movement of the vocal cords. Because it feels like asthma and is also known as “vocal cord asthma”. Both asthma and vocal cord dysfunction make breathing difficult. Signs and symptoms of this condition include coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, and numbness, but they are two different disorders.

Vocal cord dysfunction means that the vocal cords are abnormally closed when you breathe in or out. It is also known as laryngeal dysfunction or laryngeal dislocation. As with asthma and lung irritation can be caused by breathing, an upper respiratory infection, or laryngeal dysfunction. However, unlike asthma, vocal cord dysfunction is not an immune system reaction and you have fewer airways. Treatment for the two conditions is also different.

Your doctor may suspect a vocal cord malfunction other than asthma. It is more difficult to breathe than when the symptoms are burning. Asthma medicines do not reduce your symptoms.

Because they have similar triggers and symptoms, it is common to mistakenly conclude that vocal cord dysfunction is asthma. This can lead to the use of asthma medications that do not help or cause side effects. Some people have vocal cord dysfunction and asthma, both of which require treatment.

Treatment for vocal cord dysfunction may include maneuvers, speech therapy, biofeedback, and special breathing exercises to prevent irritation.

Symptoms of vocal cord dysfunction

Vocal cord dysfunction features include:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Ough cough
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Sore throat
  • Hoarseness
  • Voice changes

Like asthma, lung and lung irritation, breathing, exercise, colds or viral infections, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can cause symptoms of vocal cord dysfunction.

Unlike asthma, DCV causes more difficulty in breathing than breathing. The opposite is true for asthma symptoms.

Types of vocal cord dysfunction

  • Nodules on the vocal cords: These are small, rough, like growths caused by abuse of the voice. They occur in pairs, with a nodule on each irritated cord at the site of greatest irritation. They are sometimes called singer, talk, or teacher nodules.
  • Vocal cord polyps: Polyps are small, smooth growths that usually appear alone on the vocal cords. These are usually caused by abuse of the voice or chronic exposure to irritants such as chemical fumes or cigarette smoke.
  • Contact ulcers: It is a less common disorder. Contact ulcers are cuts and sores on the vocal cords. They occur in people who gradually increase in great power and sound when they begin to speak. For example, contact ulcers can affect people who act as public speakers. Ulcers can also be caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or heartburn. Reflux when the acidic contents of the stomach go back up the esophagus and irritate the larynx.
  • It is an inflammation of the vocal cords caused by inflammation or infection. Swollen vocal cords vibrate differently than usual, changing the distinctive pitch of your voice. If the inflammation is severe you cannot make noise.

Causes of vocal cord dysfunction

The most common cause of vocal cord disorders is the abuse or misuse of the voice. The type of vocal cord disorder can have different causes. This includes excessive use of the voice when singing, speaking, coughing, or greeting. Smoking and inhaling irritants are also considered vocal abuse.

Risk factors of vocal cord dysfunction

There are several risk factors for voice disorder, including:

  • Aging
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Allergies
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Illnesses such as colds or upper respiratory infections
  • Inadequate throat clearing is time-consuming
  • Neurological disorders
  • Mental stress
  • Scars on the front of the neck from neck surgery or injury
  • Screams
  • Smoking
  • Throat cancer
  • Throat dehydration
  • Thyroid problems
  • Abuse or excessive use of the voice

Diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction

Your doctors will ask you questions about your symptoms and the causes of episodes that make it hard for you to breathe. Some questions can help your doctor as to whether you have vocal cord dysfunction or asthma. They may ask you:

  • To describe your exact symptoms: Breathing with vocal cord dysfunction causes shortness of breath, asthma causes shortness of breath.
  • Episodes occur any day: Vocal cord dysfunction does not occur when you are asleep, asthma attacks can occur.
  • If something improves or worsens your symptoms: Inhalers can trigger or worsen an attack of vocal cord dysfunction, which usually improves asthma symptoms.
  • If your doctor diagnoses vocal cord dysfunction by looking at your vocal cords
  • Vocal cord dysfunction and asthma are difficult to distinguish. One study wrongly concludes that more than 40 percent of people with a reliably-sourced VCD have asthma.

Your doctor may notice if you hold your throat or point to it while describing your symptoms. People with vocal cord dysfunction do this without knowing it.

Tests for vocal cord dysfunction

Here are some tests that your doctor can use to diagnose vocal cord dysfunction. To be helpful, testing must be done when you have an episode. Otherwise, the test is usually normal.

Spirometry: A spirometer is a device that measures the amount of air you breathe in and out. It also measures how fast the air is moving. During the vocal cord dysfunction episode, she shows less air than usual as she is blocked by her vocal cords.

Laryngoscopy: The laryngoscope is a flexible tube connected to the camera. It is inserted into the larynx through the nose so your doctor can see your vocal cords. When you inhale, they should be open. If you have a vocal cord dysfunction, they will turn off.

Pulmonary function tests: Pulmonary function tests give a complete picture of how your airways are working.

In diagnosing vocal cord dysfunction, the most important components are your oxygen level and the pattern and amount of airflow you breathe. If you have a vocal cord dysfunction, your oxygen level should be normal at the time of the attack. In lung and lung diseases like asthma, it is often less than normal.

Treatment for vocal cord dysfunction

Short-term treatment for severe episodes. It may sound like it, but severe episodes do not cause respiratory failure like asthma. However, they can be uncomfortable and can scare you, and cause anxiety, which can cause the episode to continue. Some treatments can help stop the severe episode by calming or calming your episode.

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP). The CPAP compressor blows air intermittently through a mask that is worn over the face. Air pressure helps keep the vocal cords open. It is less dense than oxygen, so it passes more smoothly through the vocal cords and trachea. No matter how turbulent the airflow is, he will breathe easier and his breathing will make less noise. When your breathing becomes easier and calmer, you become less anxious.

Anti-anxiety medications. In addition to calming you down, benzodiazepines such as alprazolam (Gainax) and diazepam (Valium) can reduce anxiety, which can help end the episode. These medications are addictive, so they should not be used for more than a few days or as a long-term treatment for vocal cord dysfunction.

Chronic treatment: Avoidable triggers should be eliminated whenever possible. Some treatments:

  • Proton pump inhibitors like omeprazole (Prilosec) and esomeprazole (Nexium) inhibit the production of stomach acid, which helps stop GERD and LPRD.
  • Over-the-counter antihistamines can help stop the postnasal drip
  • Prevent known irritants at home and work, including smoking and secondhand smoke.
  • Receive treatment for underlying conditions such as depression, stress, and anxiety.
  • Control the existing asthma diagnosis well
  • Speech therapy is the key to long-term management.
  • Relaxed breathing techniques
  • Ways to relax your throat muscles
  • Voice training

Techniques that suppress irritating behaviors in the throat, such as coughing and throat clearing.

One breathing pattern is called a “quick release.” Breathe in through the lips you are pursuing and use your abdominal muscles to help move the air. Relax your vocal cords faster.