Adenoidectomy (Adenoid Removal) – an Overview | ENT

What is an adenoidectomy?

An adenoidectomy, or adenoid removal, is surgery to remove the adenoid glands. Although adenoids help protect the body from viruses and bacteria, they sometimes become inflamed and enlarged or become chronically infected. This can be due to infections, allergies, or other reasons. Some children can also be born with abnormally large adenoids.

When a child’s adenoids are enlarged, they can cause problems by partially blocking her airway. When this happens, children can have breathing problems, ear infections, or other complications, which can lead to snoring or more serious conditions, such as sleep apnea (stoppage of breathing) at night.

Chronic (long-term) nasal discharge, congestion, and sinus infections may also be seen. Enlarged adenoids can also affect the recurrence (return) of ear infections and chronic fluid in the ear, which can lead to temporary hearing loss.

Surgery is often needed to remove the glands. Removing them has not been shown to affect a child’s ability to fight infection. Adenoidectomy is mostly done in children who are between 1 and 7 years old. When the child is 7 years old, the adenoids begin to shrink and are considered a vestigial organ in adults (a purposeless remnant).

How does a physician define if a child needs an adenoidectomy?

If you suspect that your child has a problem with the adenoids due to problems with breathing, ears, or recurrent sinus infections, you should see your doctor. After taking a medical history, the doctor will examine your child’s adenoids, either with an X-ray or with a small camera placed in your child’s nose.

Based on your child’s symptoms and if her adenoids seem enlarged, her doctor may endorse that the adenoids be removed.

What are the risks and complications of adenoidectomy?

Your child’s surgery will be done safely and with care for the best possible results. You have the right to be informed that surgery may involve risks of unsuccessful results, complications, or injury from known and unforeseen causes. Because persons differ in their response to surgery, their anaesthetic reactions, and their healing results, ultimately, results or potential complications cannot be guaranteed.

The subsequent complications have been reported in the medical literature. This list is not envisioned to include all possible complications. They are listed here for your information only, not to scare you, but to make you more aware and knowledgeable about this surgical procedure.

  • Failure to resolve ear or sinus infections, or relieve nasal drainage.
  • Bleeding. In very infrequent situations, the essential for blood products or a blood transfusion. You have the right if you wish, to have autologous blood (your own blood) or designated donor-directed blood prepared in advance in case an emergency transfusion is necessary. We recommend that you consult with your doctor if you are interested.
  • A permanent change in voice or nasal regurgitation (rare).
  • Need for additional and more aggressive surgery, such as sinus, nasal, or tonsil surgery.
  • Infection.
  • Failure to improve nasal airways or resolve to snore, sleep apnea, or mouth breathing.
  • Need for evaluation, treatments or environmental controls of allergies. Surgery is not a cure or a substitute for good allergy management or treatment.

Before adenoidectomy surgery

In most situations, the surgery is performed on an outpatient basis at the hospital or surgical centre. Both facilities provide quality care without the expense and inconvenience of spending the night. An anesthesiologist will screen your child throughout the procedure. Typically, the anesthesiologist will call the night before surgery to review your medical history. If he cannot reach you the night before surgery, he will speak with you that morning. If your doctor has ordered preoperative lab studies, you must arrange for them to be done several days in advance.

Your child should not take aspirin or any products that contain aspirin, within 10 days of the date of their surgery. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as Ibuprofen / Advil or Naproxen / Aleve) should not be taken within 7 days of the date of surgery. Many over-the-counter products contain aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, so it is important to review all medications carefully. If you have any questions, call your doctor’s office or ask your pharmacist. Acetaminophen / Tylenol is an acceptable pain reliever. Often times, your doctor will give you several prescriptions for postoperative pain at the visit BEFORE the operation. It is best to fill them out before your surgery date.

It is recommended that you be honest and frank with your child when explaining his upcoming surgery. Encourage your child to think of this as something the doctor will do to improve his health. Let them know that they will be safe and that you will be around. A reassuring and reassuring attitude will greatly ease your child’s anxiety. You can assure them that most children have minimal pain after adenoidectomy. Let them know that if they have pain, it will be for a short time and that they can take medication that will reduce it considerably.

Your child should not eat or drink anything for 6 hours before surgery. This even includes water, candy, or gum. Whatever in the stomach increases the chances of an anaesthetic complication.

If your youngster is sick or has a fever the day before surgery, call the hospitals. If your child wakes up sick the day of surgery, proceed to the surgical centre as planned. Your doctor will decide if it is safe to continue with the surgery. However, if your child has chickenpox, do not take him to the office or surgery centre.

Preparing for adenoidectomy procedure

The mouth and throat bleed more easily than other areas of the body, so your doctor may order a blood test to determine if your child’s blood is clotting properly and if his white and red blood cell count is normal. Preoperative blood tests can help your child’s doctor make sure there will not be excessive bleeding during and after the procedure.

In the week before surgery, do not give your child any medications that can affect blood clottings, such as ibuprofen or aspirin. You can use acetaminophen (Tylenol) for pain. If you have questions about which medications are appropriate, speak with your doctor.

The day before surgery, your child should not eat or drink after midnight. This includes water. If the doctor prescribes medicine for you before surgery, give it to your child with a small sip of water.

How an adenoidectomy is performed?

A surgeon will do an adenoidectomy under general anaesthesia, a drug-induced deep sleep. This is usually done in an outpatient setting, which means your child can go home on the day of surgery.

Adenoids are usually removed through the mouth. The surgeon will insert a small instrument into your child’s mouth to keep it open. The adenoids will then be detached by making a small cut or cauterizing, which involves sealing the area with a heated device.

Cauterizing and covering the area with absorbent material, such as gauze, will control bleeding during and after the procedure. Stitches are not usually necessary.

After the procedure, your child will stay in a recovery room until he wakes up. You will receive medicine to reduce pain and swelling. Usually, your child will go home from the hospital the same day as the surgery. Full recovery from an adenoidectomy usually takes one to two weeks.


Electroencephalography (ENG) – an Overview | ENT

What is electroencephalography (ENG)?

Electroencephalography (ENG) is a test that shows the movement of your eyes to see how well the two cranial nerves are working in your brain. The two nerves are the vocal nerve and the common oculomotor nerve. The acoustic nerve connects the brain and inner ear and regulates hearing and balance. The common oculomotor nerve connects the brain with the muscles of the eye.

Electroencephalography is actually a series of tests that have the following 1 or more measurements:

  • Calibration test: For this test, you will follow a light with your eyes. This test checks for ocular dysmetria, a condition that causes students to exceed the target.
  • Nystagmus exam of the eyes: For this test, you will see a fixed light placed in the centre or to the side as you sit or lie down. This test measures how well you can fix your gaze on an object without unintentionally moving your eyes.
  • Pendulum tracking test: For this test, you follow a light with your eyes as it moves like the pendulum of a clock.
  • Optokinetic test: Check your ability to follow the light. The light quickly moves in and out of your field of vision and returns while keeping your head still.
  • Position test: For this test, you not only move your eyes but also your head and possibly your entire body. For example, you may be told to turn your head quickly to one side. Or you can ask them to sit up quickly after you go to bed. The amount of eye movement caused by this action is recorded.
  • Water caloric test: This test involves placing warm or cold water in a syringe in the ear canal. The water touches the tympanic membrane. If there is no problem, your eyes will involuntarily move to this stimulus. Your provider may use air instead of water as a stimulant for this test. If you have a damaged tympanic membrane, it is very tall.

Types of electroencephalography tests and how they are administered

There are different types of electroencephalography tests. Your doctor may administer one or more. The standard test generally consists of three parts.

  • Caloric test: For the calorie test, electrode patches are placed above, below, and on each side of the eyes. Another electrode is placed on your forehead. When your head is held in position, your doctor will stimulate your balance system using hot and cold air. Sometimes the water is also used. The electrodes record all the movements of your eyes as your inner ear and nearby nerves respond to changes in temperature.
  • Oculomotor test: For the oculomotor test, your doctor will ask you to keep your head still while allowing your eyes to follow the light as your eyes move rapidly through and beyond your field of vision. This allows your doctor to understand how your eyes follow and move as you pursue the target.
  • Position test: For a position test, your doctor will ask you to quickly turn your head to the side or lie down, and then sit or stand very quickly. This test measures how your eyes respond to movement.

Why do I need electroencephalography (ENG) test?

Your healthcare provider uses ENG to locate parts of the inner ear that describe defects, balance, and spatial orientation of the peripheral vestibular system, or the nerves that connect the vestibular system to the brain and eye muscles.

You may have this test if you have unexplained dizziness, vertigo, or hearing loss. These are symptoms, not a diagnosis. ENG can help you find the exact cause of your symptoms. Possible causes:

  • Acoustic neuroma: Nerve tumor that regulates sound and balance.
  • Labyrinthitis: Inflammation of the inner ear, often caused by a virus.
  • Usher syndrome: A congenital disorder that causes hearing loss.
  • Ménière’s disease: This happens when you have too much fluid in your inner ear. It affects hearing and balance.

If there is a known sore (lesion), ENG can locate the original site. There may be other reasons why your healthcare provider may recommend ENG.

When does my doctor order this electroencephalography test?

Vertigo is a very common but challenging treatment. Sometimes it disappears. At other times, it comes back randomly. This is especially true for people with Meniere’s disease, a disorder of the inner ear.

Used to detect even the slightest eye movements, ENG is an important tool for diagnosing vertigo and other “vestibular” problems – things related to balance, movement, the nerves that send messages to the inner ear and brain. The tests can detect physical signs of disease.

Your doctor may order ENG if you have symptoms of vertigo, including:

  • Dizziness
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of balance
  • Tinnitus (not really when you think you hear sounds)

How do I prepare for the Electroencephalography (ENG) test?

Your healthcare provider will explain this policy to you and you can ask any questions you have about this policy.

  • You may be asked to sign a consent form that gives you permission to perform the procedure. Read the form carefully and ask questions if you don’t know anything clearly.
  • Follow the instructions you were given not to eat or drink before the test.
  • Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines (prescription and over-the-counter), vitamins, and herbs you take.
  • Avoid taking narcotics, sedatives, and other medications prescribed by your healthcare provider before the test.
  • Carefully clean the ears of excess wax. Before ENG, your ears may be checked for wax, inflammation, or other problems that may interfere with the test.
  • If you wear \ cords or headphones, please bring them for the test.
  • Depending on your health condition, your healthcare provider may request other specific preparations.

What happens during the Electroencephalography (ENG) test?

You may have ENG depending on the patient. That means you go home the same day. Or it can be part of a hospital stay. Policies may vary depending on your situation and the practices of your healthcare provider.

Generally, ENG follows this procedure:

  • Your healthcare provider will remove the wax from your ear.
  • Before placing the electrodes, your healthcare provider will clean the skin areas on your face with an alcohol-saturated cotton ball and air dry them.
  • Your provider uses paste to place the electrodes. He or she will place an electrode in the centre of your forehead. Another electrode is placed above the eyebrow and below the eye. You can still close your eyes. You may also have electrodes on each side of your eye.
  • You may be asked to look up, down, or to the side, depending on the type of test being done. Or you may be asked to move your head or your whole body. You may also be asked to close your eyes. It does not interfere with the recording of your eye movement.
  • For a calorie test, your provider puts air or water in your ear. This happens by recording the movements of your eyes.
  • The recorder detects electrical activity from the electrodes. The logger amplifies the signal and graphics so your provider can understand the results.

What happens after the electroencephalography (ENG) test?

  • After the ENG test is complete, your provider will remove the electrodes and wash off the electrode paste. Do not rub your eyes to prevent the electrode paste from spreading.
  • Your provider will look for signs of weakness, dizziness, and nausea. You need to lie down or sit for a few minutes to recover.
  • Your healthcare provider will tell you when to stop taking the medicine before the test.
  • Depending on your particular situation, your healthcare provider may give you other instructions after the procedure.
  • You may also have a videonystagmogram (VNG). It is also a test that detects the movement of the eyes. But use video cameras instead of electrodes.

Next steps

Make sure you know before accepting the electroencephalography test or procedure:

  • Name of the test or procedure
  • The reason the test or procedure is being performed
  • What results to expect and what they mean
  • Disadvantages and advantages of the test or procedure.

What are the side effects or problems of electroencephalography?

An electroencephalography (ENG) test or procedure should be performed when and where

  • Who performs the test or procedure and what are the qualifications of that person?
  • What happens if the test or procedure is not done?
  • Consider alternative tests or procedures
  • When and how you get results?
  • Who to call after the test or procedure if you have questions or problems?
  • How much do you pay for the test or procedure?

What are the electroencephalography (ENG) results?

After completing the electroencephalography series, your doctor will remove the electrodes (or camera device) from your face. If you feel dizzy, you may be asked to lie down for a few minutes.

Then it is time to review the data and find out what it means.

  • Electroencephalography (ENG) is excellent for detecting inner ear disorders, and since it regulates the balance of the inner ear, it is crucial for a variety of diagnoses.
  • If ENG diagnoses a type of vertigo, your doctor may prescribe medications including physical therapy, surgery, or medications for vestibular (or balance-related) disorders.
  • If the electroencephalography is unresponsive, your doctor may recommend a rotational chair exam, fistula testing (applying pressure to your ear), or other tests, including an MRI.

What does a barium swallow test show? | ENT

What is a barium swallow test?

A barium swallow also called an esophagram, is an imaging test that checks for problems in your upper GI tract. Your upper GI tract includes your mouth, back of the throat, esophagus, stomach, and first part of your small intestine. The test uses a special type of x-ray called fluoroscopy. Fluoroscopy shows internal organs moving in real-time. The test also involves drinking a chalky-tasting liquid that contains barium. Barium is a substance that makes parts of your body show up more clearly on an x-ray.

During a barium swallow, an x-ray will take precise images of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GI) tract as liquid barium travels through it. The barium will help highlight any abnormalities as well as show the motion of your swallowing on the x-ray image.

Your doctor may ask you to do a barium swallow to help diagnose any conditions that make it difficult for you to swallow or if they suspect that you have a disorder of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Your upper GI tract includes:

  • The esophagus
  • The stomach
  • The first part of the small intestine called the duodenum

To do a barium swallow, you swallow a chalky white substance known as barium. It’s often mixed with water to make a thick drink that looks like a milkshake. When it’s swallowed, this liquid coats the inside of your upper GI.

Barium absorbs X-rays and looks white on X-ray film. This helps highlight these organs, as well as their inside linings and the motion of your swallowing, on the X-ray image. These images help your doctor diagnose any disorders of the GI tract.

Why use barium swallow tests?

The barium swallow test can be used if someone has the following conditions:

  • Often painful heartburn
  • Gastric reflux, where food or acid travels up the esophagus
  • Difficulty eating, drinking or swallowing
  • This test can tell the doctor how the person swallows.

It also reveals if someone has any of the following symptoms in the first part of the esophagus, stomach, or intestines:

  • Ulcers
  • Abnormal growth
  • Obstacles
  • Narrow

If someone has a tumor, it can be seen as an uneven appearance on the X-ray extending from the wall of the affected organ.

Who is a candidate for swallowing barium?

Swallowing barium can help diagnose conditions such as:

  • Hyoid hernia: The stomach moves into or alongside the esophagus.
  • Inflammation or obstruction in the upper gastrointestinal tract
  • Benign or malignant tumors of the head, neck, pharynx, and esophagus (non-cancerous and cancerous)
  • Gastric ulcer
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Structural conditions: Conditions such as roughness (compression), polyps (growth), diverticula (bags)
  • Esophageal variations: Dilated veins
  • Achalasia: The lower esophageal sphincter does not rest to allow food to enter the stomach

You may not be able to swallow barium if you have any of the following conditions:

  • Tear or hole in the esophagus or intestines
  • Severe constipation
  • Swallowing problems that allow barium to inadvertently enter the lungs.

What are the side effects of swallowing barium?

Some people experience constipation or constipation if the barium is not completely removed from the body after the procedure. If you experience constipation or constipation, drink plenty of fluids, and eat a high-fibre diet to move the barium through the digestive tract. If that doesn’t work, your doctor may prescribe a laxative.

If the barium is not completely removed from your body after the procedure, it can sometimes cause constipation or a bowel effect. You need to drink plenty of fluids and eat a high fibre diet to help move the barium through your digestive system and out of your body. If that doesn’t help, your doctor may give you a laxative to move it.

After your procedure, you may notice that your stools are lighter in colour. This happens because your body does not absorb the barium. Once all the barium has been passed, the stool will return to its normal colour.

There are also side effects associated with the radiation used in the test. The more exposure you have, the greater the risk of radiation exposure.

If this happens, see your doctor immediately:

  • You may have trouble having or not having a bowel movement
  • You may feel pain or swelling in your abdomen.
  • You have benches with a smaller diameter than usual.

In addition, barium swallows are exposed to radiation like all X-ray procedures. The risks of complications related to radiation exposure accumulate over time and are linked to the number of X-ray tests and treatments an X-ray receives. person throughout his life. It is helpful to share a record of past radiation procedures with your doctor before swallowing the barium.

Exposure to radiation during pregnancy can cause birth defects in the fetus. For this reason, pregnant women should not be exposed to barium swallowing procedures.

What conditions can a barium swallow help diagnose?

Your doctor may order barium swallowing to help identify a structural or functional problem in your upper GI tract. Some common problems with swallowing barium can help diagnose:

  • Hyoid hernia
  • Inflammation
  • Obstacles
  • Muscle disorders can cause spasms or swallow
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Ulcers
  • Both cancerous and non-cancerous tumors

Ingestion of barium sometimes occurs as part of a series of x-rays that look into the upper gastrointestinal tract. A continuous x-ray beam called fluoroscopy is often used to capture movement through your gastrointestinal tract during a barium swallow.

A common test performed with barium swallow is upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, also known as esophagogastroduodenoscopy or EGD. Barium swallows are often done as part of a series of upper gastrointestinal and small intestine tests.

What is a barium swallow test procedure?

A barium swallow is a test used to determine the cause of painful swallowing, difficulty swallowing, abdominal pain, spotting, or unexplained weight loss.

Barium sulfate is a metallic compound that shows up on x-rays and helps look for abnormalities in the esophagus and stomach. When performing the test, you should drink a preparation that contains this solution. X-rays trace their way through your digestive system.

These problems can be identified by swallowing barium:

  • Narrowing or irritation of the esophagus (for example, Shotsky’s ring)
  • Swallowing disorders (dysphagia – difficulty swallowing), spasms of the esophagus or pharynx.
  • Hydatid hernia
  • Abnormally dilated veins in the esophagus (variants) that cause bleeding
  • Ulcer
  • Tumors
  • Polyps (usually non-cancerous growths, but that turn into cancer)
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

How do you prepare for the barium swallow test?

Learn about the barium swallow test: who performs it, where is it done, and how long does it take?

  • Home Care: You may be asked to eat a low-fibre diet for 2 to 3 days before your barium swallow test. He was asked not to eat or smoke after midnight before the test.
  • Before the barium swallow test: You are instructed to change into a hospital gown and remove all jewellery, including navel and nipple rings, dentures, hair clips, or other items found in the radiography. You will receive a form requesting your consent to perform the test. Please read this form carefully. Make sure you understand and agree with the form before signing. Ask your doctor if you have any questions before signing the form.

What happens during the barium swallow test?

  • If you have any questions or problems before, during, or after your barium swallow test, feel free to speak with the technicians.
  • Drink 1 1/2 cups of chalk drink to make barium with the consistency (but not the flavour) of a smoothie. Children drink less.
  • Barium can be seen on X-rays as it passes through the digestive tract.
  • The barium swallow procedure can take up to 30 minutes to complete. In some cases, it can take up to 60 minutes to fill the stomach.
  • At the front table, you are securely tied behind your back. X-rays are taken to examine the heart, lungs, and abdomen before drinking barium. Next, you will be asked to swallow the barium mixture.
  • X-rays are taken again as the barium moves through the digestive tract. You will be asked to dig more swallows so that more pictures can be taken.
  • As the barium descends from your digestive tract, the table tilts at different angles to diffuse the barium for different views. The barium can put pressure on your abdomen to make it spread. Finally, you will be placed in a horizontal position, asked to swallow a little more barium, and an X-ray will be taken again.

What happens after the barium swallow test?

  • When you return home, you can resume your normal diet if your doctor does not advise you. Since the barium is white, its banks will be chalky and light in colour for 1 to 3 days. Do not worry about that.
  • You should try to drink plenty of fluids to reduce constipation.
  • Eat foods rich in fibre and forages, such as raw fruits and vegetables.

Risk factors of barium swallow test

You should not do this test if you are pregnant or think you are pregnant. Radiation is harmful to the fetus.

For others, this test may be less risky. The radiation dose is very low and is not harmful to most people. Talk to your provider about all X-rays you have had in the past. The risks of radiation exposure may be related to the number of x-ray treatments you undergo over time.

Results of barium swallow test

The overall result is that no abnormalities of size, shape, and movement are found in the first part of the throat, esophagus, stomach, or small intestine.

If your results are not normal, it means you have one of the following conditions:

  • Hyoid hernia
  • Ulcer
  • Tumors
  • Polyps
  • Diverticula, a condition in which small pockets form on the inner wall of the intestine.
  • Esophageal stiffness, the narrowing of the esophagus, makes swallowing difficult.

If you have questions about your results, speak with your healthcare provider.


Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) | Prevention | ENT

What is noise-induced hearing loss?

Every day, we experience sound in our setting, such as the sounds of TV and radio, appliances, and traffic. These sounds are normally at safe levels that do not harm our hearing. But sounds can be damaging when they are too loud, smooth for a short period of time, or when they are both lurid and long-lasting. These sounds can injury sensitive constructions in the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL).

Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) may be immediate or it may take a long time to notice. It can be provisional or permanent and can affect one or both ears. Even if you can’t tell that your hearing is being damaged, you could have hearing problems in the future, such as not being able to understand other people when they speak, especially on the phone or in a noisy room. Regardless of how it may affect you, one thing is for sure: noise-induced hearing loss is something you can prevent.

Symptoms of noise-induced hearing loss

If you experience hearing loss after exposure to very loud noise (such as a gunshot), you may have hearing damage. You should see a hearing care earner as soon as possible. Other signs that you need a hearing care professional to do a hearing test include:

  • You can hear but have trouble understanding what other people are saying, or seem to be mumbling
  • You have pain in your ears after exposure to loud noise.
  • Other people comment that you are talking loudly or yelling.
  • You have tinnitus (ringing, whistling, roaring, or buzzing in the ears) after exposure to noise.
  • In rare cases, you may experience diplacusis or “double hearing.”

Common causes of noise-induced hearing loss

A staggering 1 in 4 American workers has been exposed to hazardous noise, according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health at the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and about 12% of all workers are hard of hearing. Eight per cent have tinnitus (which can result from exposure to noise). CDC data shows that jobs with the highest risk include:

  • Mining and oil and gas extraction
  • farming
  • Construction and carpentry
  • Military: VA provides hearing aids for qualified veterans.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires employers to have hearing conservation programs to limit employee exposure to hazardous noise, including the provision of hearing protection equipment, maintenance of machinery, donning barriers or isolation of the noise source, and the development of a hearing conservation program to evaluate employees. listening. Read more about OSHA’s hearing regulations here. If hearing protection is provided in your workplace, take it seriously. Noise-induced hearing loss can be prevented.

How is noise-induced hearing loss diagnosed?

Your doctor can offer you a hearing test that will determine if you have hearing loss. If the test shows that you have a hearing loss, you will be referred to an audiologist (ear and hearing loss care professionals) or otolaryngologist (a doctor with special training in ear and hearing disorders) for a more comprehensive hearing test. This test will determine how much hearing loss you have (mild, moderate, or profound). It will also identify for which frequencies (sound tones: high and low sounds) you have a hearing loss. For example, your hearing loss may affect only the high frequencies (birdsong) or the low frequencies (a kick drum).

Hearing loss is usually progressive. That income it happens over a long period of time. Because it happens over time, you are less likely to notice it happening. If you have trouble hearing in crowded places or have difficulty speaking on the phone, it may be time to have a hearing test.

Can noise-induced hearing loss be prevented or avoided?

Following a few simple steps could protect you from noise-induced hearing loss.

  • Reduce your exposure to noise: This step is particularly important for people who work in noisy places and who go to and from work in loud city traffic. Special ear muffs are available to protect your ears for people who work in noisy environments (such as around heavy machinery). You can also reduce your exposure to noise by choosing quiet leisure activities over noisy ones.
  • Get into the habit of wearing earplugs when you know you will be exposed to noise for a long time. Disposable foam earplugs are inexpensive and available at drug stores. These earplugs, which can silence up to 25 dB of sound, can mean the difference between a dangerous noise level and a safe one. You should always wear ear plugs when equestrian snowmobiles or motorcycles, attending concerts, using power tools, lawn mowers, or leaf blowers, or when equestrian in noisy motorized vehicles.
  • Use sound-absorbing resources to reduce noise at home and at work. Rubber mats can be placed under noisy kitchen appliances and computer printers to reduce noise. Curtains and rugs also help reduce interior noise. Shutters or double-pane windows can reduce the amount of outside noise that enters the home or workplace.
  • Do not use several noisy machines at the same time. Try to keep the volume on televisions, stereos, and headphones. Loudness is a habit that can be broken.
  • Don’t try to sink out annoying noise with other sounds. For example, do not turn up the volume on your car radio or headphones to drown out traffic noise, or turn up the volume on the television while vacuuming.
  • Has your hearing checked if you are regularly exposed to loud noises at work or at play?

Treatment of noise-induced hearing loss

There is no cure for permanent hearing loss. One of the most obvious “treatments” for this type of hearing loss is avoiding exposure to noise. This can prevent your hearing loss from getting worse.

There are teams that can help you hear better. Depending on the degree of your hearing loss, you may benefit from wearing a hearing aid (a device that is placed in the ear to amplify sound). For profound hearing loss, you may qualify for a cochlear implant. A cochlear implant is an electronic hearing device that replaces the damaged inner ear with a beam of electrodes. These electrodes are surgically implanted in your inner ear. They provide sound signals to your brain.

Risk factors for noise-induced hearing loss

Factors that can damage or cause the loss of hair and nerve cells in the inner ear include:

  • Aging: Degeneration of the inner ear structures occurs over time.
  • Loud noise: Exposure to loud sounds can damage cells in your inner ear. Damage can occur with prolonged exposure to loud noise or from a short burst of noise, such as from a gunshot.
  • Heritatory: Your genetic makeup can make you more susceptible to hearing damage from sound or to deterioration due to aging.
  • Occupational noise: Jobs where loud noise is a common part of the work environment, such as agriculture, construction, or working in a factory, can cause hearing damage.
  • Recreational noise: Exposure to explosive noise such as firearms and jet engines can cause immediate and permanent hearing loss. Other recreational activities with dangerously high noise levels include snowmobiling, motorcycling, carpentry, or listening to loud music.
  • Some medications: Medications such as the antibiotic gentamicin, sildenafil (Viagra), and certain chemotherapy drugs can damage the inner ear. Temporary effects on hearing (ringing in the ear (tinnitus) or hearing loss) may occur if you take very high doses of aspirin, other pain relievers, antimalarial drugs, or loop diuretics.
  • Some diseases: Illnesses that cause high fever, such as meningitis, can damage the cochlea.

Complications of noise-induced hearing loss

Noise-induced hearing loss can have a significant effect on your quality of life. Older adults with hearing loss can report feelings of depression. Because noise-induced hearing loss can make conversation difficult, some people experience feelings of isolation. Hearing loss is also associated with cognitive decline and impairment.

The interaction mechanism between hearing loss, cognitive impairment, depression and isolation is being actively studied. Initial research suggests that treating noise-induced hearing loss may have a positive effect on cognitive performance, especially memory.


Ototoxicity | Symptoms and Preventive Measures | ENT

What is ototoxicity?

Ototoxicity occurs when a person develops hearing or balance problems from a medication. This can happen when someone is taking a high dose of a medicine that treats cancer, infections, or other diseases.

When doctors catch ototoxicity early, they may be able to prevent it from getting worse. They can also help children find the right treatments and therapies to control the problems the condition can cause.

What about ototoxicity?

Ototoxicity damages the inner ear. This part of the ear receives and sends sounds and controls balance. The amount of damage that occurs depends on:

  • The type of medicine that causes it
  • How much medicine did the child receive?
  • How long the child took the medicine?

What are the symptoms of ototoxicity?

Symptoms of cochleotoxicity range from mild tinnitus to complete hearing loss, depending on the individual and the manner and level of exposure to the ototoxin. They can include unilateral or bilateral hearing loss and constant or fluctuating tinnitus.

The symptoms of vestibulotoxicity range from mild imbalance to total disability. Symptoms of a loss of vestibular function or balance depend on the degree of damage, whether the damage occurred quickly or slowly, whether it is unilateral or bilateral, and how long ago the damage occurred. A one-sided slow leak might not produce any symptoms, while a rapid leak might produce enough vertigo, vomiting, and nystagmus (twitching of the eyes) to keep a person in bed for days. Most of the time, symptoms pass slowly, allowing the person to return to normal activities.

A bilateral loss of vestibulotoxicity often causes a headache, a feeling of full ears, an imbalance to the point of being unable to walk, and outgoing, blurred vision (oscillopsia) rather than severe vertigo, vomiting, and nystagmus. It also tends to crop an inability to tolerate head movement, a wide-based gait (walking with the legs beyond apart than usual), difficulty walking in the dark, unsteadiness or feelings of instability, lightheadedness, and significant fatigue. If the damage is severe, symptoms like oscillopsia and trouble walking in the dark or with eyes closed will not lessen over time.

How common is ototoxicity?

It is not known how many persons suffer from ototoxicity each year or the percentage of vestibular complaints caused by ototoxicity. What is known is that when extensive and permanent ototoxicity occurs, the effects can take a terrible toll on a person’s functional ability.

What causes ototoxicity?

  • The exact mechanism is not fully understood, but certain medications can destroy or damage parts of the inner ear (cochlea) or auditory nerve.
  • Some types of medications can be more ototoxic than others. It also depends on the dosage and duration of use of the drug.
  • Some medications can cause more damage to hear aids, others can affect the balance system.

Ototoxicity treatment

If ototoxicity is detected early, no intervention may be necessary as medication can be changed. If the medication and dosage cannot be changed, the damage can permanently affect communication and/or the balance system. Hearing aids, hearing aid technology, and cochlear implants can be used to improve communication if permanent damage is detected. Physical therapy can also be used to help when the balance has been affected.

Diagnosis of ototoxicity

Several specific audiological tests are available that your doctor can perform. They include various tests of hearing and balance. These should be done before the start of treatment with a known ototoxic agent, as well as during treatment and after it has been stopped.

  • Pure Tone Air Conduction Test: Can detect very small changes even before the onset of tinnitus, as most ototoxic agents cause hearing loss at higher frequencies first. Early detection allows treatment to be modified before speech frequencies are affected.
  • Pure Tone Bone Conduction: Used to regulate sensorineural purpose.
  • Word recognition tests
  • Romberg test: Balance test to detect vestibular damage.

For critically ill infants and patients who are bedridden or in a coma, alternative tests are available:

  • An otoacoustic emission (OAE): Involves the use of a microphone to measure the signals produced by the cochlea.
  • Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR): Measures auditory function using responses produced by the auditory nerve and brainstem. Helps differentiate sensory from neural hearing loss.

Prevention of ototoxicity

Ototoxic antibiotics should be avoided during pregnancy as they can damage the fetal labyrinth. The elderly and people with pre-existing hearing loss should not be treated with ototoxic drugs if other effective drugs are available. The lowest effective dose of ototoxic drugs should be used and levels should be closely monitored, particularly for aminoglycosides (both peak and trough levels).

If likely before treatment with an ototoxic drug, the hearing should be slow and then monitored during treatment; symptoms are not reliable warning signs. The risk of ototoxicity increases with the use of multiple drugs with ototoxic potential and the use of ototoxic drugs excreted through the kidneys in patients with renal involvement; in such cases, closer monitoring of drug levels is recommended. In patients known to have mutations in mitochondrial DNA that predispose to aminoglycoside toxicity, aminoglycosides should be avoided.


Halitosis (Bad Breath) | Causes and Preventive Measures | ENT

What is halitosis?

Bad breath, also recognized as halitosis, is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant breath odor is current. It can result in anxiety among those affected. It is also associated with depression and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Symptoms of halitosis

Besides the bad smell, you may also notice a bad taste in your mouth. If the taste is due to an underlying condition and not trapped food particles, it may not go away, even if you brush your teeth and use mouthwash.

Causes of halitosis

Possible causes of bad breath include:

  • Tobacco: Tobacco crops cause their own types of mouth odor. Also, they increase the chances of gum disease which can also cause bad breath.
  • Food: The decomposition of food particles stuck in the teeth can cause bad odors. Some foods like onion and garlic can also cause bad breath. Once digested, its breakdown products are transported in the blood to the lungs, where they can affect respiration.
  • Dry mouth: Saliva naturally cleanses the mouth. If the mouth is naturally dry or dry due to a specific condition, such as xerostomia, odors can build up.
  • Dental hygiene: Brushing and flossing ensure the removal of small food particles that can accumulate and slowly decompose, producing odor. A film of bacteria called plaque builds up if brushing is not regular. This plaque can irritate the gums and cause inflammation between the teeth and gums called periodontitis. Dentures that are not cleaned regularly or properly can also harbor bacteria that cause halitosis.
  • Strict diets: Fasting and low-carbohydrate eating programs can cause halitosis. This is due to the breakdown of fats that produce chemicals called ketones. These ketones have a strong aroma.
  • Medications: Certain medications can reduce saliva and therefore increase odors. Other drugs can produce odors as they break down and release chemicals into the breath. Examples include nitrates used to treat angina, some chemotherapy chemicals, and some tranquilizers, such as phenothiazines. People who take vitamin supplements in large doses can also be prone to bad breath.
  • Mouth, Nose, and Throat Conditions: Small bacteria-covered stones can sometimes form on the tonsils at the back of the throat and cause a bad odor. Too, infections or inflammation in the nose, throat, or sinuses can cause halitosis.
  • Foreign body: Bad breath can occur if you have a foreign body lodged in the nasal cavity, especially in children.
  • Diseases: Some cancers, liver failure, and other metabolic diseases can cause halitosis due to the specific mixtures of chemicals they produce. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can cause bad breath due to the regular reflux of stomach acids.

Rarer causes of bad breath (halitosis)

As mentioned above, the most common reason for bad breath is oral hygiene, but other situations can also be to blame.

The rarer causes of bad breath include:

  • Ketoacidosis: When the insulin levels of a person with diabetes are very low, their bodies can no longer use sugar and they begin to use fat stores. When fat is broken down, ketones are produced and accumulated. Ketones can be poisonous when found in large amounts and produce a distinctive, unpleasant odor on the breath. Ketoacidosis is a serious and life-threatening condition.
  • Intestinal obstruction: The breath may smell like faeces if there has been a prolonged period of vomiting, especially if there is intestinal obstruction.
  • Bronchiectasis: This is a long-term condition in which the airways widen more than normal, allowing the accumulation of mucus that leads to bad breath.
  • Aspiration pneumonia: Swelling or infection in the lungs or airways due to inhaling vomit, saliva, food, or liquids.

What health problems are associated with halitosis?

Persistent bad breath or a bad taste in your mouth can be a warning sign of gum (periodontal) disease. Gum disease is caused by a build-up of panels on the teeth. Bacteria cause the formation of toxins that irritate the gums. If gum disease continues without treatment, it can damage the gums and jaw. Other dental causes of bad breath include ill-fitting dental appliances, yeast infections in the mouth, and tooth decay (cavities).

The medical condition of dry mouth (also called xerostomia) can also cause bad breath. Saliva is necessary to moisten the mouth, neutralize the acids produced by plaque, and remove dead cells that accumulate on the tongue, gums, and cheeks. If not removed, these cells break down and can cause bad breath. Dry mouth can be a side effect of numerous medications, salivary gland problems, or continuous mouth breathing.

Many other illnesses and ailments can cause bad breath. Here are a few to watch out for: respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia or bronchitis, chronic sinus infections, postnasal drip, diabetes, chronic acid reflux, and liver or kidney problems.

Prevention of halitosis (bad breath)

Bad breath can be reduced or prevented if:

  • Practice good oral hygiene. Brush twice a day with fluoride toothpaste to eliminate food debris and plaque. Brush your teeth after eating (have a toothbrush at work or school to brush after lunch). Don’t forget to brush your tongue too. Replace your toothbrush every 2 to 3 months or after an illness. Use dental floss or an interdental cleaner to remove food particles and plaque between your teeth once a day. Rinse with an antibacterial mouthwash twice a day. Dentures must be removed at night and cleaned thoroughly before being placed in the mouth the next morning.
  • Visit your dentist habitually, at least twice a year. They will perform an oral exam and professional dental cleaning and will be able to detect and treat periodontal disease, dry mouth, or other problems that may be the cause of mouth odor.
  • Stop smoking and chewing tobacco products. Drink a lot of water. This will keep your mouth moist. Chewing gum (preferably sugar-free) or sucking on candy (preferably sugar-free) also stimulates saliva production, which helps eliminate food particles and bacteria. Gum and mints that contain xylitol are best.
  • Keep track of the food you eat. If you think they may be causing bad breath, take the record to your dentist for review. Likewise, make a list of the medications you take. Some drugs can play a role in creating mouth odors.

Halitosis treatment

If you do not notice an improvement with home remedies for halitosis, you should visit your dentist. Don’t be afraid or ashamed to share your condition with a licensed professional. They will likely be able to diagnose you and help you find the best treatment option for you.

Types of bad breath

Bad breath, also known as oral malodor or halitosis, is a very common problem. While it’s unclear how many people actually experience bad breath on a regular basis, some research cites that roughly 50% of the adult population have had occasional or persistent bad breath.

Morning breath

Most people find that their breath is not fresh when they first wake up and this is unfortunately normal. Your natural saliva removes bacteria and leftover food particles from your mouth, and saliva production in your mouth decreases while you sleep. Without saliva to remove them, bacteria multiply and break down food scraps, creating an unpleasant odor. Because the mouth is a bit drier than normal at night, it’s hard to avoid a little morning breath.

Food smells on your breath

Some foods are known to cause bad breath, but perhaps not in an expected way. You may think that particularly spicy or flavorful foods only cause residual odor because food particles remain in your mouth. While this is a common cause of bad breath, other factors may be at play.

Once consumed, the components of certain foods such as onions, garlic, some vegetables, and spices enter the bloodstream and are transported to the lungs and affect respiration when inhaling and exhaling. For example, as you eat, garlic is also absorbed into your bloodstream, allowing a secondary wave of odor to reach your lungs, where it can escape freely through your mouth. Once absorbed, garlic emits a bitter smell from the pores.

Smoker’s breath

Whether smoking, chewing, dipping, or using a pipe, all tobacco products cause an unpleasant odor in the mouth. Smoking also affects the moisture levels in the mouth and leaves a stale film on the teeth and gums. Smokers are also at higher risk for gum disease.

Diagnosis of halitosis

Your dentist will likely smell both the breath from your mouth and the breath from your nose and rate the smell on a scale. Because the back of the tongue is often the source of the odor, your dentist may also scrape it off and rate its odor. There are sophisticated detectors that can identify the chemicals responsible for bad breath, although they are not always available.


Alport syndrome – an Overview | ENT

What is Alport syndrome?

Alport syndrome is a disease that damages the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys. It can lead to kidney disease and kidney failure. It can also cause hearing loss and eye problems. Alport syndrome causes damage to the kidneys by attacking the glomeruli. The glomeruli are the small filtering units within the kidneys.

Alternative names

  • Hereditary nephritis;
  • Hematuria – nephropathy – deafness;
  • Hemorrhagic familial nephritis;
  • Hereditary deafness and kidney disease

Causes of Alport syndrome

Alport syndrome is a congenital form of kidney inflammation (nephritis). It is caused by a defect (mutation) in a gene for a protein in connective tissue, called collagen.

The disorder is rare. There are three genetic types:

  • X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS): This is the most common type. The disease is additional serious in men than in women.
  • Autosomal recessive Alport syndrome (ARAS): Men and women have an equally serious disease.
  • Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome (ADAS): This is the oldest type. Men and women have an equally serious illness.

Symptoms of Alport syndrome

Alport syndrome is considered by kidney disease, hearing loss, and eye abnormalities. Symptoms usually begin in childhood and the first sign of the condition is usually blood in the urine (hematuria). Other symptoms of kidney disease can comprise having protein in the urine (proteinuria). Over time, an affected person may experience swelling (edema), weakening of the bones, and pain in the joints (osteodystrophy). Without treatment, affected people will experience end-stage kidney disease.

Alport syndrome also causes sensorineural hearing loss or hearing loss that is due to the inner ear or nerves not working properly. Hearing loss typically develops during late childhood or early adolescence, and most affected people become deaf by age 40. Alport syndrome is also considered by specific eye changes. More often, affected individuals have an ocular finding called an anterior lenticonus, which causes the lens to form a cone shape. Other affected individuals may have abnormal retinal discolouration (dot and speck retinopathy), which can sometimes lead to vision loss. Some people may experience maculopathy or damage to the part of the eye (macula) that allows central vision.

This table lists the symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all of the listed symptoms. This info comes from a database called Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). The HPO collects information about symptoms that have been described in medical capitals. The HPO is periodically updated. Use the HPO ID to access more full information about a symptom.

Diagnosis of Alport syndrome

A diagnosis of Alport syndrome is suspected based on the identification of characteristic symptoms, a detailed history of the patient, and a complete clinical evaluation. The likelihood of diagnosis is increased in people with a family history of Alport syndrome, unexplained renal failure, early hearing loss, or hematuria. A variety of specialized tests can help confirm a suspected diagnosis.

Clinical tests and exams

The diagnostic approach to confirm a suspected diagnosis of Alport syndrome has evolved over the last decade. Though tissue studies (kidney or skin biopsy) are very useful tools in the evaluation of patients with hematuria, early genetic testing is increasingly important. When clinical information and family history strongly propose a diagnosis of Alport syndrome, genetic testing, using next-generation or whole-exome sequencing techniques, can confirm the diagnosis, establish the pattern of inheritance, and provide useful prognostic information. Several salable labs, as well as some hospital labs, offer genetic testing for Alport syndrome, but there is wide variation in insurance coverage.

When genetic testing is unavailable or inaccessible, studies of tissue samples (biopsies) are performed. A suspected diagnosis of XLAS can be confirmed by a skin biopsy. An exact test known as immunostaining is performed on the sample. With immunostaining, an antibody that reacts against the alpha-5 chain proteins of type IV collagen is added to the skin sample. This allows doctors to determine if a specific protein is present and in what quantity. Normally, alpha-5 chains are found in skin samples, but in XLAS males they are almost completely absent. Alpha-3 and alpha-4 chains are not currently in the skin and therefore skin biopsies cannot be used to diagnose ARAS or ADAS.

A kidney biopsy may also be done. A kidney biopsy can reveal characteristic changes in kidney tissue, including glomerular basement membrane (GBM) abnormalities that can be detected with an electron microscope. Immunostaining can also be done on a kidney biopsy sample. In addition to detecting alpha-5 chains, kidney samples can be evaluated to determine whether and in what quantity alpha-3 or alpha-4 chains of type IV collagen are present.

Examination of urine samples (urinalysis) can reveal microscopic or large amounts of blood (hematuria) in the urine. Hematuria can come and go (intermittent) in some cases, especially in women with XLAS or people with ADAS. If kidney disease has proceeded, elevated levels of protein can also be detected in urine samples. People diagnosed with Alport syndrome should undergo hearing tests that determine a person’s perceptible variety for tones and speech (audiometry) and a comprehensive eye exam (ophthalmologic).

In cases where a father has a known genetic abnormality (i.e., heterozygous mothers), prenatal diagnosis or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may be options. Prenatal diagnosis is likely by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis. During CVS, fetal tissue tasters are removed and enzymatic tests (assays) are performed on cultured tissue cells (fibroblasts) and/or white blood cells (leukocytes). During amniocentesis, an example of the fluid that surrounds the developing fetus is detached and studied.

PGD ​​can be performed on embryos created by in vitro fertilization. PGD ​​refers to analyzing an embryo to determine if it has the same genetic abnormality as the father. Families interested in such an option should seek the advice of a certified genetic professional.

Alport syndrome treatment

The goals of treatment include monitoring and controlling the disease and treating symptoms.

Your provider may recommend any of the following:

  • A diet that limits salt, fluids, and potassium.
  • Medicines to control high blood pressure

Kidney disease is managed by:

  • Taking medicine to slow kidney damage
  • A diet that limits salt, fluids, and protein.

Hearing loss can be treated with hearing aids. Eye problems are treated as needed. For example, an abnormal lens can be replaced due to lenticonus or cataracts. Genetic counselling may be recommended because the disorder runs in families.


Earache | Home Treatments & Remedies for Ear infection | ENT

What is earache?

The earache usually appears in children, but also in adults. The ear affects one or both ears, but most of the time it remains in one ear. It can be constant or come and go, and the pain can be dull, sharp, or burning.

Earache is very common. It is seen especially in children. There are many causes of deafness, but the most common cause is infection. It often clears up on its own without any treatment. However, if you do not improve or have other serious symptoms, you should see a doctor.

If you have an ear infection, fever and temporary hearing loss can occur. Young children with ear infections tend to be fussy and irritable. They can pull or rub the ears.

Earache symptoms

Ears can develop from an ear infection or injury. Symptoms in adults:

  • Earache
  • Hearing-impaired people
  • Drainage of fluid from the ear

Children can usually show additional symptoms, including:

  • Earache
  • Difficulty responding to muffled sounds or hearing
  • Fever
  • The feeling of fullness in the ear.
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Pulling or pulling the ear
  • Crying or acting more irritated than usual
  • Headache
  • Lack of appetite
  • Loss of balance

What are the common causes of earache?

Injury, infection, ear irritation, or prescribed pain can cause earaches. The indicated pain is felt elsewhere than the site of infection or injury. For example, pain that arises in the jaw or teeth can be felt in the ear. The causes of earache include:

Ear infection

An ear infection is a common cause of earache. Ear infections occur in the outer, middle, and inner ear.

  • Outer ear infections can be caused by wearing hearing aids or hearing aids that damage the skin inside the ear canal or by wiping a cotton swab or finger in the ear canal.
  • Scratching or irritating the skin in the ear canal can lead to infection. The water in the ear canal softens the skin, which promotes the reproduction of bacteria.
  • Middle ear infections are caused by infections that arise from a respiratory tract infection. These infections cause bacteria to collect in the fluid behind the eardrums.
  • Labyrinthitis is an inner ear disorder that is sometimes caused by a viral or bacterial infection from a respiratory infection.

Other common causes of earache

  • A change in pressure, as when flying in an aeroplane.
  • Wax construction
  • A foreign object in the ear
  • Strep throat
  • Sinus infection
  • Shampoo or water trapped in the ear
  • Using a cotton swab on the ear
  • Temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ)
  • Pierced earlobe
  • Arthritis affecting the jaw
  • Infected teeth
  • Affected teeth
  • Eczema in the ear canal
  • Trigeminal neuralgia (chronic facial nerve pain)

Less common causes for ears

  • Temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ)
  • Pierced earlobe
  • Arthritis affecting the jaw
  • Infected teeth
  • Affected teeth
  • Eczema in the ear canal
  • Trigeminal neuralgia (chronic facial nerve pain)

Treatment for earache 

There are several steps you can take at home to reduce earache. Try these options to reduce earache:

  • Apply a cool cloth to the ear
  • Avoid getting your ear wet
  • Sit up straight to reduce ear pressure
  • Use over-the-counter (OTC) ear drops
  • Take over-the-counter pain relievers
  • Chew gum to reduce stress
  • Feed your baby to reduce stress

Medical treatment for the ears

  • If you have an ear infection, your doctor may prescribe oral antibiotics or earrings. In some cases, they refer to both.
  • Do not stop taking the medicine after your symptoms have improved. It is important that you fill your entire prescription to ensure that the infection is completely removed.
  • If the wax build-up is causing your earache, you may be given soft wax-like earrings. They can make the wax fall off on its own. Your doctor can also remove the wax through a procedure called ear washing, or she can use a suction device to remove the wax.
  • Your doctor will directly treat TMJ, sinus infections, and other causes of ear infections to improve your earache.

Nine home remedies for earache

If the deafness is not severe or if a person is awaiting medical treatment, they can try home remedies to reduce pain.

Here is a list of nine effective home remedies for people with earache:

  • Over the counter drugs
  • Anti-inflammatory medications can help relieve pain and discomfort.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can temporarily reduce earache. People with an earache can try:

  • Ibuprofen
  • Paracetamol
  • Aspirin

It is important to remember that giving aspirin to infants and toddlers is not safe. The reason for this is the risk of a fatal condition called Ray’s syndrome.

  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that parents speak with their physician before giving over-the-counter medications to children younger than 2 years old.

These medications can cause serious side effects in babies and young children. The dose for children is much lower than the optimal dose for adults.


Warming with an electric heating pad or hot compress reduces inflammation and pain in the ear. Apply a heating pad to your ear for 20 minutes. For best results, people should touch their neck and throat with a heating pad.

The heating pad should not be unbearably hot. People with a heating pad should never sleep or allow a child to use a heating pad without adult supervision.


The cold compress helps with an earache. Try wrapping ice in paper towels or freezing a cold pack. Keep it for 20 minutes immediately on the ear and the area under the ear. Parents should not get colds and should never put ice on their children’s skin.

Some people find that heat provides more relief than a cold. For others, alternating hot and cold compresses (20 minutes hot, then 20 minutes cold) provides the best pain relief.

Ear drops

The eardrops reduce the pressure in the ear due to fluid and earwax. People should read the instructions carefully and speak with a doctor before using ear drops in children. Ear drops are not a substitute for prescribed ear drops or antibiotics, so people should only use them for a few days. If symptoms return, people should see a doctor.

Remember not to use eardrops in children with tubes in the ear or whose eardrum is ruptured.


Gentle massage can help with earaches that emanate from the jaw or teeth or that cause tension headache. People can message the sensitive area and the surrounding muscles. For example, if the area behind your ear hurts, try massaging the muscles in your jaw and neck.

Massage can also help with pain from an ear infection. With the downward motion, begin applying pressure from behind the ears and below the neck. Continuing to press down, move forward to the front of the ears. This type of massage helps drain excess fluid from the ears and relieves pain.


Eating garlic cloves daily can help prevent ear infections. Garlic has long been used in folk medicine to reduce pain. Some research suggests that it has antimicrobial properties that can fight infection.

People should not use it as an alternative to antibiotics prescribed by a doctor. Instead, consider adding garlic to your antibiotic regimen to speed up relief.

To prevent ear infections, try to eat garlic cloves every day. Garlic ear drops can reduce pain and prevent the infection from getting worse. Boil two or three cloves in two tablespoons of mustard or sesame oil until golden brown and strain the mixture. Then put one or two drops in each ear.


Like garlic, onions can help fight infection and reduce pain. Like garlic, onions are not a substitute for medical treatment. Heat the onion in the microwave for a minute or two. Then, filter the liquid and put several drops in the ear. A person may want to lie down for 10 minutes and then let the fluid drain out of the ear. Repeat this as needed.


Inhalation helps reduce pressure in the Eustachian tubes, providing some relief. Children who are breastfeeding feel better when allowed and encouraged to breastfeed as often as possible. Adults and children can inhale hard candy or cough drops.

Breast milk

Breast milk has antimicrobial properties. Some research suggests that breast milk. This means that breast milk is most effective in babies. However, some sources suggest that breast milk may even help adults. Infants and children should continue nursing to get the most benefits from breast milk.

In nursing babies, as well as in children and adults, the topical application of breast milk may also help. Even if it doesn’t, breast milk is unlikely to cause any serious side effects. People can try dropping a few drops of breast milk in each ear, and repeat the application every few hours as needed.


Cholesterol Granuloma | Diagnosis and Treatment | ENT

What is cholesterol granuloma?

Cholesterol granulomas are rare, benign (non-cancerous) cysts that can occur at the tip of the petrous apex, a part of the skull next to the middle ear. Cysts are increasing masses that contain fluids, lipids, and cholesterol crystals, surrounded by a fibrous lining.

Granulomas can happen through the body as a reaction to foreign material. They usually do not have serious symptoms or effects. However, petrosal vertex cholesterol granulomas are dangerous because of their proximity to the ear and several important nerves.

If left untreated and the mass continues to expand, petrosal apex cholesterol granulomas can cause:

  • Permanent hearing loss
  • Nerve damage
  • Bone destruction

Cholesterol granulomas can form when air cells in the petrous apex become blocked. The obstruction creates a vacuum that forces blood into the air cells. As red blood cells break down, cholesterol is released into haemoglobin. The immune system reacts to cholesterol as a foreign body, creating an inflammatory reply.

Associated small blood vessels rupture as a result of inflammation. Recurrent bleeding causes the mass to expand. The surgical approach depends on the location of the cyst and the state of your hearing.

At UPMC, the favoured surgical treatment for cholesterol granulomas is the Endoscopic Endonasal Method (EEA). This innovative, minimally invasive technique uses the nose and nasal cavities as natural passageways to access previously inoperable or difficult-to-access tumors and cysts. EEA benefits include:

  • No incisions to heal
  • No disfigurement
  • Faster recovery time

Causes of cholesterol granulomas

Inside the skull are numerous air-containing spaces called air cells. Blockage of these air cells was before thought to cause cholesterol granuloma. A more recent theory, the “exposed marrow” hypothesis, proposes an inflammatory response to by-products of eroded bone marrow cavities in the chronological bone.

Chronic middle ear infections can also cause this disease. Some cases of this disease have been observed in families with familial hypercholesterolemia.

Risks of cholesterol granulomas

Chronic ear infections or head injuries can lead to this disease. If the mass continues to grow and is not treated, it can eventually cause hearing loss, facial numbness, bone exhaustion, and severe headaches.

Prevention of cholesterol granuloma

Other than treating middle ear infections, there is no known way to prevent this disease.

Symptoms of cholesterol granuloma

Presenting symptoms commonly include headache, diplopia, pressure in the ears, vertigo or dizziness, and occasionally hearing loss and/or facial weakness. About half of these patients have a history of previous trauma to the ear (eg, surgery).

Treatment of cholesterol granuloma

Treatment includes drainage and ventilation of the cholesterol granuloma. In cases where the granuloma is chiefly large and destructive, surgical removal may be necessary. Access to the petrous apex is problematic and needs special surgical skills. The approach to treatment depends on the location of the mass, the skills of the surgeon, and the state of your hearing.

Cholesterol granulomas of the petrosal vertex, particularly those rising in the direction of the clivus, with medium development or with inferior expansion below the level of the internal carotid artery, can be approached directly through the endonasal endoscopic approach (EEA). The state-of-the-art, minimally invasive method allows surgeons to access the tumor finished the natural corridor of the nose, without making an open incision. The surgeons then remove the cholesterol granuloma through the nose and nasal cavities.

EEA surgery suggests the benefits of no slits to heal, no disfigurement, and a faster recovery time. In addition to being minimally invasive, EEA also preserves hearing. Hearing can also be preserved by infralabyrinthine or infracochlear approaches. The translabyrinthine approach, in which a slit is made behind the ear, is rarely used. Generally, this approach is reserved for people who already have severe hearing loss, as it results in complete sensorineural hearing loss.

Diagnosis of cholesterol granuloma

Examination of the ear with an otoscope may reveal that the eardrum is blue in colour or there may be a brown bulge behind it. Imaging tests, such as MRI and CT scan, can detect this disease An audiogram can be done to evaluate any hearing loss.


What are the Causes and Diagnosis of Vocal Cord Paralysis? | ENT

Overview of vocal cord paralysis

Laryngeal paralysis (Vocal cord paralysis) occurs when nerve impulses to the larynx are damaged. This causes paralysis of the vocal cords. Vocal cord paralysis affects your ability to speak and breathe. Because your vocal cords, sometimes called vocal cords, do more than making a sound. They also protect your airways by preventing food, drink, and even saliva from entering your windpipe and suffocating you.

Possible causes of nerve damage, viral infections, and some cancers during surgery. Treatment for laryngeal paralysis usually involves surgery and sometimes voice therapy. Vocal cord paralysis is a health problem in which two folds of tissue on the vocal cords are called the vocal cords. One or both vocal cords are affected by vocal cord paralysis.

Pharyngeal paresis, also known as recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy or laryngeal paralysis, is an injury to one or both recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLN) that control all the muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid muscle. RLN is important for speaking, breathing, and swallowing.

Basically, the primary laryngeal-related functions of the RLN afferent nerve fibre are the membrane of the larynx that transmits nerve signals to the muscles responsible for controlling the position of the vocal cords and the tension that initiates the tone, as well as the transmission of sensory nerve signals from the mucosa.

Unilateral nerve injury is usually caused by decreased mobility of one of the vocal cords. It can cause shortness of breath and aspiration problems, especially with fluids. The bilateral injury causes the vocal cords to impede airflow, resulting in breathing problems, stridor and snoring, and rapid physical fatigue. It largely depends on the medial or paramedical position of the frozen vocal cords. It rarely occurs in bilaterally frozen vocal cords.

Causes of vocal cord paralysis

In laryngeal paralysis, nerve impulses to the larynx are damaged, resulting in muscle paralysis. Doctors often do not know the cause of laryngeal paralysis. Known causes can include:

  • Injury to the vocal cords during surgery: Surgery on or near the neck or upper chest can damage the nerves that operate in the larynx. There is a risk of surgery to damage the thyroid or parathyroid glands, esophagus, neck, and chest.
  • Neck or chest injury: An injury to the neck or chest can damage the nerves that make up the vocal cords or larynx.
  • Career: A stroke interrupts the blood flow in your brain and damages the part of your brain that sends messages to the larynx.
  • Tumors, cancerous and non-cancerous, grow in or around the muscles, cartilage, or nerves that control the function of the larynx and may cause vocal fold paralysis.
  • Infections: Some infections, such as Lyme disease, Epstein-Barr virus, and herpes, cause inflammation and direct damage to the nerves in the larynx.
  • Nervous conditions: If you have certain neurological conditions like multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease, you may experience laryngeal paralysis.

Symptoms of vocal cord paralysis

Your vocal cords are two simple bands of muscle tissue that meet at the entrance to your windpipe. When you speak, the bands come together and make noise. The rest of the time, the vocal cords relax in the open position, so you can breathe.

Paralysis of the two vocal cords is a rare but serious condition. It can cause vocal difficulties and significant breathing and swallowing problems.

The signs and symptoms of laryngeal paralysis can include:

  • Breathing quality to the voice
  • Blunt
  • Noisy breathing
  • Loss of vocal tone
  • Oking or coughing when swallowing food, drink, or saliva
  • Frequent breathing is required when speaking
  • Not being able to speak out loud
  • Losing the gag reflex
  • Useless cough
  • Clear throat frequently

Risk factors for vocal cord paralysis

Factors that increase the risk of laryngeal paralysis (Vocal cord paralysis):

  • Have throat or chest surgery: People who need surgery for the thyroid, throat, or upper chest are at risk for damage to the laryngeal nerve. Sometimes the windpipe used in surgery or if you have a severe breathing problem can help the breathing cord to damage the nerves.
  • You have a nervous condition.
  • The breathing problems associated with laryngeal paralysis can be very mild, you have a hoarse and loud voice or are very serious, they can be fatal.
  • Since laryngeal paralysis keeps the airways fully open or closed, other problems can include going or inhaling (waiting for) food or liquids. Aspiration leading to severe pneumonia is very rare but serious and requires immediate medical attention.

Diagnosis of vocal cord paralysis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and lifestyle, hear your voice, and ask how long you’ve got had voice problems. to raised assess your voice problems, the subsequent tests could also be performed:

  • Laryngoscopy: Your healthcare provider will view your vocal cords employing a mirror or a skinny, flexible tube (called a laryngoscope or endoscope), or both. you’ll even have a test called videostrobolaryngoscopy, which involves the utilization of a special endoscope with a little camera on the tip or an outsized camera attached to the viewing of a part of the endoscope.

These special high-power endoscopes allow your doctor to look at your vocal cords live or on a video monitor to work out the movement and position of the vocal cords and to work out if one or both vocal cords are affected.

  • Laryngeal electromyography: This test measures electrical currents within the muscles of the larynx. to get these measurements, your doctor will usually insert small needles into the laryngeal muscle through the skin of the neck.

This test usually doesn’t provide information that will change the course of treatment, but it does tell your doctor how well you’ll recover. This test is extremely useful for evaluating how you’ll recover between six weeks and 6 months after the onset of your symptoms.

  • Blood tests and scans: Many diseases can cause nerve damage, you would like additional tests to work out the explanation for the paralysis. Tests may include blood tests, X-rays, MRIs, or CT scans.

Treatment of vocal cord paralysis

Treatment of vocal fold paralysis depends on the cause, the severity of the symptoms, and therefore the onset of the symptoms. Treatment can include voice therapy, bulk injections, surgery, or a mixture of treatments.

In some cases, it can improve without surgery. due to this, your doctor may delay permanent surgery for a minimum of a year from the beginning of your laryngeal paralysis.

However, surgery with bulk injections containing collagen-like substances often occurs within the primary 3 months of loss of voice. During the waiting period for surgery, your doctor may prescribe voice therapy to stop your throat from being misused while the nerves heal.

Voice therapy

Occasionally, voice therapy is that the only treatment you would like if your vocal cords are frozen in a neighbourhood that doesn’t require additional volume installation or repositioning.


If your laryngeal paralysis symptoms don’t fully recover, surgical treatments could also be offered to enhance your ability to talk and swallow.

Surgical options:

  • Bulk injection: vocal fold nerve palsy will likely leave the vocal fold muscle thinner and weaker. to feature more volume to your frozen larynx, a doctor who focuses on laryngeal (laryngeal) disorders may inject your larynx with body fat, collagen, or another approved filler. This extra volume brings the affected vocal cords closer to the middle of your larynx so that the opposing performance and therefore the moving vocal cords are in close contact with the chord string once you speak, swallow, or cough.
  • Construction implants: Instead of employing a bulk injection, this procedure, also referred to as a thyroplasty, medialization laryngoplasty, or laryngeal structure surgery, relies on the utilization of an implant within the larynx to reposition the larynx. In rare cases, people that have had this surgery will need a second surgery to revive the implant.
  • Establishment of vocal fold repositioning: During this procedure, a surgeon moves a window of his own tissue inward from the surface of your larynx, pushing the paralyzed vocal fold into the middle of your larynx. this enables him weak vocal cords to vibrate well against his frozen partner.
  • Replacement of a damaged nerve (regeneration): During this surgery, a healthy nerve is moved from a special area of the neck to exchange the damaged vocal fold. It can take six to nine months for the voice to enhance.
  • Tracheotomy: If both of your vocal cords are frozen and held close, your airflow will decrease. during this condition, you’ll have great difficulty breathing and can need surgery called a tracheostomy. In a tracheostomy, the front of your neck is cut and therefore the opening is made directly into the windpipe (windpipe). The trachea is inserted, allowing air to bypass the fixed vocal cords.

Emerging therapies

Connecting the vocal cords with an alternate source of electrical stimulation, perhaps a nerve-like device or pacemaker from another part of the body can restore the opening and shutting of the vocal cords. Researchers still study this and other options.