Categories
Procedures

Preparation and Results of Nasal Endoscopy | ENT Specialist

What is nasal endoscopy?

Nasal endoscopy is a procedure to look at the nasal and sinus parts. This is done with an endoscope. It’s a slim, comfortable hose with a small chamber and light. An ear, nose, and throat doctor (otolaryngologist) often performs this procedure in their office.

The sinuses are a group of spaces made up of the bones in your face. They connect with your nasal cavity. This is the air-filled area behind your nose.

During the procedure, the doctor will place an endoscope in your nose. He or she will guide you through your nasal and sinus parts. Images of this area can be seen through an endoscope. Helps diagnose and treat health problems. In some cases, small instruments can be used to take small samples of tissue (biopsy) or to perform other tasks.

Indications of nasal endoscopy

Nasal endoscopy indications may include:

  • Diagnosis in patients with cyanosis symptoms such as facial pressure or pain, mucus discharge, decreased sense of smell, or nasal congestion or obstruction.
  • Evaluation of arbitrary diseases.
  • Assess the response to medical treatment in patients with antibiotics, antihistamines, oral steroids, or topical nasal steroids after treatment such as purulent secretions, inflammation, and resolution of mucous edema or polyps.
  • Evaluation of patients with upcoming complications of sinusitis.
  • Endoscopic functional debridement of the nasal sinuses and removal of mucus, scabs, and fibrin from the blocked sinus and nasal cavities after surgery.
  • Acquire a culture of purulent secretions.
  • Repeated evaluation of potential pathology after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS).
  • Evaluation of the nasopharynx for eustachian tube problems, lymphoid hyperplasia, and nasal obstruction.
  • Evaluation and biopsy of nasal lesions or masses.
  • Evaluation of anosmia or hyposmia.
  • Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak.
  • Evaluation and treatment of nasal foreign bodies.
  • Evaluation and treatment of epistaxis

Why do you need nasal endoscopy?

An otolaryngologist may recommend a nasal endoscopy to diagnose nasal conditions, such as sinusitis (infection of the sinuses), nasal obstruction, nasal congestion, nasal polyps (non-cancerous growth in the lining of the nasal or sinus passages), as well as a variety of larynx. Injury (injury to the larynx).

How does nasal endoscopy work?

The doctor uses a device called an endoscope or a small scope. The endoscope is a thin, flexible tube with a small camera built into the end that holds the nose of the doctor. Since it is too dark for your nose, the scope also has a light at the end.

  • Nasal endoscopy can help your doctor find out why you have problems like a runny nose, facial pain, or earache.
  • If you are having trouble breathing or swallowing, nasal endoscopy can help doctors find out what is causing these problems.
  • Your doctor will also be able to see if you have a nose or sinus infection or if it is causing an obstruction, such as a polyp.

Risk factors of nasal endoscopy

Nasal endoscopy is generally safe. But in rare cases, these problems can occur:

  • Nosebleed
  • Fainting
  • Harmful reaction to the decongestant or anesthetic

There is a risk of bleeding, if you have a bleeding defect or if you take blood thinners. Your own risks may vary based on your age and your other health conditions. Ask your healthcare provider about the risks that apply most to you.

Nasal endoscopy preparation

Ask your healthcare provider if you stopped taking any medications before the procedure. Of these, the blood may be thinner. You should normally eat and drink before the procedure. Your healthcare provider can give you further instructions on what to do before the test.

Before the procedure, a topical decongestant may be sprayed into the nose. It helps reduce inflammation and allows the nasal endoscope to easily pass through the nasal cavity and sinuses. You can spray your nose with an anesthetic, which will briefly numb your nose. Healthcare providers should avoid these drugs in special circumstances. In some cases, you may even need an injection (shot) of the medicine.

During the test

First, apply decongestant and anticonvulsant medications to the nose. Next, your doctor will insert a narrow scope. Your doctor needs to examine the entire nasal area, including the sinuses. This will help us check your nasal septum and areas such as turbinates for abnormalities.

Also, it allows you to examine the area where the sinuses flow into the nose, the posterior nasal cavity, and the nasopharynx (the area where the adenoids are located) that are not really visible without this procedure.

After the procedure

Your healthcare provider can talk with you about the results before you go home. Or you can schedule an upcoming visit to discuss the results and treatment options. After the endoscopy, you can immediately return to your normal routine. Follow the instructions given to you.

To soothe the nasal passages, you may be advised to flush your nose with saline. If so, your healthcare provider will explain how to do it. Call your healthcare provider if you have a severe runny nose in the next few days.

What abnormal results mean

Nasal endoscopy helps with the diagnosis of:

  • Polyps
  • Blockages
  • Sinusitis
  • Swollen and runny nose that will not go away
  • Nasal masses or tumors
  • A foreign object (like a marble) in the nose or sinus
  • Deviated septum (many security plans need a nasal endoscopy before surgery to correct it)

Complications of nasal endoscopy

Most nasendoscopy is done without side effects or complications. There will be some pain in the nose and throat (pharynx) after about a day. Occasionally, the scope can cause sneezing, which stops immediately after the test. The endoscope can also occasionally cause slight bleeding from the nose. It usually stops very quickly.

Categories
Disease

Overview of the Nasopharynx In Children | ENT Specialist

What is nasopharynx in children?

Nasopharynx in children, nasopharyngeal cancer is the formation of malignant (cancer) cells in the tissues of the nasal cavity and throat. Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is made up of the nasal cavity (inside the nose) and the upper part of the throat.

The nasopharynx is more common in adolescents than in children under 10 years of age. Epstein-Barr virus infection increases the risk of the nasopharynx. Any risk factor that increases the chance of getting a disease is called. Having a risk factor does not mean you have cancer; The lack of risk factors does not mean that you will not have cancer. Talk to your pediatrician if you think your baby is at risk.

Symptoms of the nasopharynx

Nasopharynx signs and symptoms; headache and a stuffy or runny nose. These and other signs and symptoms can be caused by nasopharynx or other conditions. Check with your pediatrician if your child has any of the following:

  • Headache
  • The nose is stuffy or swollen
  • Nosebleeds
  • Deafness
  • Ear infection
  • Hearing loss
  • Problems moving the jaw
  • Trouble speaking
  • Looking at the eyelid or looking at the drooping
  • Lumps in the neck can be painful

Diagnosis of nasopharynx

Tests that examine the nasopharynx can help diagnose nasopharyngeal cancer. The following tests and procedures can be used:

  • Physical exam and health history: An exam of the body to detect general signs of health, including the appearance of lumps or any abnormalities. The health habits of the patient and the history of previous diseases and treatments are also taken into account.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): The process of using magnets, radio waves, and a computer to create a series of detailed images of parts of the body such as the head and neck. This procedure is also known as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).
  • Nasal endoscopy: A procedure that examines organs and tissues inside the body to examine abnormal areas. A flexible or fixed endoscope is inserted through the nose. The endoscope is a thin tube-shaped device that is lightweight with a lens for viewing. It may have a tool to remove tissue samples, which a pathologist examines under a microscope for signs of disease.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) testing: A blood test to detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA markers. They are found in the blood of EBV patients.

Stages of nasopharynx

After the nasopharynx is diagnosed, tests are done to see if cancer cells have spread to the nasal cavity and throat or other parts of the body. To plan treatment, it is important to know if cancer cells have spread to the nasal cavity or other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread is called staging. Most children with nasopharynx are in an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. nasopharynx most often spreads to the bones, lungs, and liver.

The following tests and procedures can be used to find out if cancer has spread:

  • Neurological exam: A series of questions and tests to check the function of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. The test examines a person’s mood, coordination, and ability to walk normally and how well muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This is also known as a neurological test or neurological test.
  • Chest X-ray: An X-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. X-rays are a type of energy beam that can pass through the body and into the film, creating an image of areas inside the body.
  • PET-CT scan: The process of combining images from a PET scan and a CT scan. PET and CT scans are performed simultaneously on the same machine. Combine images from both scans to create a more detailed image than the actual test produces.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan: The process of creating a series of detailed images taken from different angles, such as the chest or abdomen within the body. The pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or to help organs or tissues become more visible. This procedure is also known as a CT scan.
  • Bone scan: A procedure to check for the presence of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, in the bone. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected intravenously and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive material collects in cancerous bone and is detected by a scanner. The drawing shows a child sliding under a scanner, a technician operating the scanner, and a computer monitor displaying images taken during the scan. A small amount of radioactive material is injected into a child’s vein and travels through the blood. Radioactive material accumulates in the bones. When the child lies on a slippery table under the scanner, the radioactive material is detected and images are created on the computer screen.

There are three ways that cancer can spread throughout the body.

Cancer spreads through tissues, the lymphatic system, and the blood:

  • Tissue: Cancer spreads from where it started growing to nearby areas.
  • Lymphatic system: It spreads from the cancer site to the lymphatic system. Cancer travels through lymphatic vessels to other parts of the body.
  • Blood: Cancer spreads from where it started by entering the bloodstream. Cancer travels through blood vessels to other parts of the body.

The cancer started in other parts of the body:

  • When cancer spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells divide from where they started (the primary tumor) and travel through the lymphatic system or blood.
  • Lymphatic system. Cancer enters the lymphatic system, travels through the lymphatic vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
  • Blood. Cancer enters the bloodstream, travels through blood vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
  • A metastatic tumor is a cancer of the same type as a primary tumor. For example, if nasopharyngeal cancer has spread to the lungs, the cancer cells in the lungs are actually nasopharyngeal cancer cells. The disease is metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer, not lung cancer.

Treatment for nasopharynx

There are a variety of treatments for children with the nasopharynx. Some treatments are standard (treatment currently in use), while others are being tested in clinical trials. Treatment A clinical trial is a research study that can help improve current treatments or obtain information about new treatments for patients with cancer.

When clinical trials show that the new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Since cancer is very rare in children, participation in clinical trials should be considered. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.

Children with nasopharynx should have their treatment planned by a team of doctors who specialize in treating childhood cancer. Treatment is overseen by a pediatric oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating children with cancer. The pediatric oncologist works with other pediatric health professionals who specialize in treating children with cancer and who specialize in certain areas of medicine. This may include the following experts and others:

  • Pediatrician
  • Pediatric surgeon
  • Radiation Oncologist
  • Pediatric ear, nose, and throat specialist
  • Pathologist
  • Pediatric Nurse Specialist
  • Social worker
  • Rehabilitation specialist
  • Psychologist
  • Expert in child life

Four types of standard therapy are used:

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer using drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells by killing them or preventing them from multiplying. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy).

Radiotherapy: Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other forms of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation to the area of ​​the body where the cancer is.

Surgery: Surgery to remove the tumor is done if the tumor does not spread through the nasal cavity and throat at the time of diagnosis.

Categories
Disease

Symptoms and Causes of Triad asthma | ENT Specialist

What is triad asthma?

Triad asthma is a clinical syndrome clear by three conditions that exist together:

  • Asthma
  • Aspirin sensitivity
  • Nasal polyps

Triad asthma is also recognized as Samter’s triad or aspirin-related respiratory disease.

Triad asthma usually begins in patients over the age of 20, but it can occur in younger adults or even children. At the University of Michigan adult clinics, most patients report the onset of symptoms between the ages of 20 to 40.

We have developed advanced treatment programs for patients with this disease, including postoperative desensitization to aspirin, which is not typically available in most community clinics. Aspirin desensitization provides substantial relief and much better results for approximately 70% of patients with triad asthma.

Symptoms of triad asthma

People with Samter’s triad have asthma, sinus inflammation or congestion, and recurrent nasal polyps. Often these symptoms do not respond to standard treatment. People who have nasal polyps and asthma are often told to avoid taking aspirin even if they have never had an adverse reaction.

People with Samter’s triad develop a severe reaction with both upper and lower respiratory symptoms when they take aspirin or other NSAIDs. These symptoms usually appear 30 to 120 minutes after taking aspirin. Symptoms of this reaction include:

  • Coughing
  • Wheezing
  • Chest tightness
  • Nasal congestion
  • Headache
  • Sinus pain
  • Sneeze

Other possible symptoms include:

  • Eruption
  • Redness of the skin
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea or vomiting

Some people with Samter’s triad may lose their sense of smell and have recurring sinus infections. In some reports, up to 70 percent of people with Samter’s triad report sensitivity to red wine or other alcoholic beverages.

Causes of triad asthma

Triad asthma usually appears suddenly. It usually affects people between the ages of 20 and 50 first. Doctors don’t always know what triggers triad asthma or why some people get it.

NSAIDs and aspirin block an enzyme called COX1, which promotes pain and inflammation. If you have triad asthma, that blocking action could backfire. Your body can make too many things called leukotrienes. And that, in turn, can lead to respiratory problems similar to allergic reactions.

Researchers don’t know why aspirin leads to high levels of leukotrienes in some people. But if you’ve ever been a smoker, that may mean you’re at risk of developing triad asthma. The same is true if he was exposed to secondhand smoke as a child.

Diagnosis of triad asthma

Millions of Americans have sinus disease, but it is one of the most difficult conditions to diagnose correctly. The Michigan Sinus Center uses a step-by-step approach that, along with our years of experience treating thousands of patients, produces an accurate diagnosis and helpful treatment.

Patient history: Before your first visit, we will do a pre-assessment that will help us build an accurate history of your sinus difficulties. This will be done over the phone. On your first visit, make sure all previous medical records are available for our review.

Physical exam: Usually, we will examine your nose, nasopharynx (the back of the nose), sinuses, ears, and throat. We will also examine your lungs (because many patients with chronic sinusitis also have asthma), as well as your mouth, throat, larynx, and neck.

The test is done with care and does not cause pain or discomfort. The exam is done by hand and with small instruments, such as a small endoscope (called an otoscope) or a small nasal speculum. We look for signs of allergies, nasal polyps, infection draining from the sinuses, and other less common findings. Depending on our findings, we may also perform nasal endoscopy and/or a CT scan.

Nasal endoscopy: An endoscope is like a telescope for viewing your sinuses, only much smaller. With the endoscope, our doctors can see the sinuses and nasal cavity in great detail. Endoscopy is very well tolerated by patients. We can apply a topical nasal decongestant and numbing medicine to the lining of the nose with a nasal spray before the endoscopy, but generally, the exam can be completed without any special medications.

CT scans: A “CT” or “CAT” scan is the term used to describe a radiological test known as a “CT scan.” The CT scanner is a donut-shaped machine that takes X-ray images of cross-sections of your body, called “slices.” CT scans can see parts of the body that cannot be seen on regular x-ray exams and cause less discomfort and fewer side effects than older methods. CT scans are particularly helpful in diagnosing sinus disease.

Treatment for triad asthma

Before indorsing surgery, we may prescribe saline sprays, daily saltwater irrigations, prescription steroid nasal sprays, or a short course of oral steroids.

Surgery: The attendance of nasal polyps alone is not necessarily an indication for surgery, because patients with this disease will virtually always have some degree of nasal polyps. The decision to proceed with surgery be contingent on your symptoms and their influence on your lifestyle. Here are some general guidelines:

  • How bothered are you by nasal obstruction and symptoms (i.e. snoring, poor sleep, continuous mouth breathing)?
  • How frequent and severe is your sinusitis? Sinus infections in asthma triad patients are often difficult to clear because the sinuses do not drain well and ill cavities are quickly reinfected once antibiotics are still.
  • Do sinus and sinus problems make asthma worse? Patients who require substantial amounts of oral steroids can reduce their asthma medication needs with successful surgery.
  • Do you have chronic headaches or other signs of possible complications from polyps and sinus disease? Your Michigan Sinus Center specialist is qualified to evaluate these more unusual reasons for surgery.

Is there a cure for triad asthma?

There is no cure for triad asthma, but there are several treatment options available, based on symptoms and the results of a clinical evaluation. Oftentimes, a combination of treatments works best. Options include:

  • Avoid aspirin and NSAIDs, unless your doctor specifically prescribes aspirin desensitization.
  • Taking medications to control asthma, such as inhaled corticosteroids.
  • Surgery to remove nasal polyps, although recurrence is common.
  • Taking medications such as montelukast (Singulair) or zileuton (Zyflo) to block the effects of leukotrienes.
  • Taking biologic, injection, asthma, or polyps medications when other medications don’t work (although these medications can be expensive).
  • Undergoing aspirin desensitization, in which aspirin is initially given in the doctor’s office in gradually increasing doses over two days and then taken daily in high doses, can help reduce the need for oral steroids and possibly reduce the recurrence of nasal polyps.