What is a skull fracture?
A skull fracture is a fracture of the skull bone. There are 4 main types of skull fractures:
- Linear skull fractures: In a linear fracture, there is a fracture in the bone, but it does not move the bone. In many cases, these children can be observed for a short time in the emergency department or hospital and can resume normal activities within a few days. Usually, no intervention is required.
- Depressed skull fractures: This type of fracture can be seen with or without an incision in the scalp. In this fracture, part of the skull sinks out of the wound. If the inside of the skull is pressed against the brain, surgery is required to correct this type of skull fracture deformity.
- Diastolic skull fractures: These are fractures that occur along the suture lines in the skull. The points are the areas between the bones of the head that coincide with the growth of the child. In these types of cracks, the normal seam lines widen. These cracks are more common in newborns and babies.
- Basilar skull fracture: It is a severe skull fracture and a fracture in the bone at the base of the skull. Children with this type of fracture often have bruises around the eyes and behind the ear. A part of the covering of the brain causes clear fluid to flow from the nose or ears due to tears. These children sometimes require close observation in the hospital.
Head injuries are one of the most common causes of disability and death in children. The injury can be a blow, a bruise (contusion) or a cut to the head, or a concussion, a deep cut or open wound, a skull broken or of a moderate nature from the inside. Bleeding and brain damage.
Head injury is a broad term that describes a wide variety of injuries to the skin, skull, brain, and underlying tissues and blood vessels in a child’s head. Head injuries are also commonly known as brain injury or traumatic brain injury (TBI), depending on the extent of the head injury.
Other types of acute brain injury:
- Skull Fracture: A skull fracture is a fracture or fracture in one of the bones of the skull. In most cases, the skull fracture only causes injury to the surface of the brain. If the skull bends inward (depressed skull fracture), the broken bone fragments will be pushed to the surface of the brain. Fixing this may require more immediate care and specialized surgery.
- Epidural Hematoma: The most serious bleeding that occurs inside the head as a result of a skull fracture. This occurs when a sharp piece of bone is cut through one of the major blood vessels in the skull. As the injured character bleeds, a blood clot called a hematoma forms in the space between the skull and the outer layer (dura) that covers the brain. A ruptured blood vessel is usually an artery, and the hematoma expands rapidly and puts pressure on the brain. It can also cause serious injury and even death. Epidural hematomas are more common after major injuries to the temple, baseball hat, or baseball bat.
- Subdural hematoma: is the accumulation of blood between the covering of the brain and its surface. The head injury occurs when a tear is placed in the large veins that carry blood from the surface of the brain. Subdural hematomas increase in size slowly, sometimes over days or weeks, and symptoms gradually worsen. This type of bleeding can lead to serious brain injury and death if it is not diagnosed and treated right away.
- Intraparenchymal hemorrhage and contamination (bleeding and trauma to the brain): These lesions remain in the brain. Both types of injuries occur with a direct blow to the head or indirectly when the force of the injury rebounds from one side of the skull to the other side of the brain. This causes the damaged area on the side of the brain opposite the head.
What should I do if my child has a head injury?
- Check if your baby is breathing or has a pulse. Enable CPR if necessary. The hospital for help.
- Do not move your child until medical help is available. If your child is vomiting, support both sides of his or her head and shoulders while moving and turning toward him or her. Don’t allow your head and neck to bend, distort or twist.
- Do not put anything in your child’s mouth.
- Don’t touch anything that sticks out of your head.
- Apply direct pressure to your child’s head if they are bleeding. If it is soaked in blood, place another cloth on top of the first cloth.
- If your child has epilepsy, stay with him until the seizure is over. After stopping, turn it towards him. Don’t move your child when he has epilepsy.
What are the signs and symptoms of a skull fracture?
Signs and symptoms depend on the cause of your child’s skull fracture:
- Malformed head
- Headache, dizziness, or jaw pain.
- Nausea or vomiting
- Swelling of fontanelles (soft spots) in babies
- A lump or swelling on the head.
- Blood or clear fluid draining from your nose or one or both ears
- Blurred or double vision
- Injuries behind the ears or around the eyes.
- Increased sleepiness or confusion
- Loss of memory (amnesia)
- Poor coordination
- Irrational behaviour
- Aggressive behaviour
- Seizures (convulsions)
- Numbness or weakness (paralysis) of part of the body
In addition, physical signs can include:
- A bump, bruise or cut on the head
- A visible dent at the site of impact
- A black and blue discolouration around the eyes or behind the ear
- Blood coming out of the ear
- Clear fluid oozing from the nose (this may be the clear fluid that bathes the brain leaking through a skull fracture near the nose)
- A bulging soft spot between the skull bones (fontanelle) in an infant
How is a skull fracture diagnosed?
Also known as neurological signals, neurological signals, neurological checks, or neurological status to check brain function. During a neurological checkup, the healthcare provider checks how your child’s students respond to light. He or she can check your child’s memory and how easily he or she wakes up. You can also test your hand grip and balance. It shows how your child responds to neurological checks and whether her injury has affected her brain.
You can use X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs to examine your baby’s skull, brain tissue, and blood vessels. You can give your child a contrast liquid to make her skull show up better in the pictures. Tell your healthcare provider if your child has ever had an allergic reaction to contrast liquid. Do not enter the MRI room with any metal. Metal can cause serious injury. Inform your healthcare provider if there is any metal on your child’s body.
A nasal CSF test is done to check for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage caused by a skull fracture. A test strip is used to collect fluid from your baby’s nose. The strip shows whether the fluid is CSF or normal nasal drainage.
Head injury treatment
Children with mild head trauma usually require no more treatment than 48 hours of careful follow-up. Careful vigilance is also important for children with concussions and the child should be kept away from sports for longer periods of time. If your child’s injury is more serious and she is being monitored in the emergency room or hospitalized for an examination, the medical staff will assess your child’s condition from time to time.
Once your doctor is satisfied that your child can be safely sent home, they will allow you to leave with instructions. If your child complains of a headache, her doctor will probably prescribe acetaminophen (Tylenol). You should not give your children aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (naprosin), or indomethacin (indocin) because these medications increase the risk of bleeding inside the head.
Your child’s healthcare provider will find the best treatment based on:
- How old is the boy
- Your complete medical and health history
- How sick he is
- How well your child can handle specific medications, procedures, or treatments
- How long is this situation expected to last?
- Your opinion or preference
Depending on the severity of the injury, treatment may include:
- Topical antibiotic ointment and an adhesive bandage.
- Seek medical attention immediately
- Admission to hospital for examination
It helps with moderate anaesthesia or breathing that may need to be placed in a breathing apparatus, also known as a mechanical ventilator or mechanical respirator.
Prevention of skull fracture
To prevent head injuries in children:
- Do not leave your child alone on a changing table, bed, chair, or raised surface. Instead, place your baby in a crib, playpen, or on the floor.
- Do not use baby walkers, as these devices can cause falls and serious injury.
- Install window bars and place security gates near doors and stairs.
- If you have a young child, remove rugs and furniture with sharp edges from playgrounds.
- If your child uses a playground, make sure there is a shock-absorbing surface (a thick piece of rubber or a deep layer of sand, sawdust, or wood chips) under all play equipment.
- Use car seats that are appropriate for your child’s age and weight until they fit snugly into the normal seat belt.
- Make sure your child wears a well-fitting safety helmet when riding a bike or scooter. A formal bicycle safety course, if available, can be very helpful.
- If your child is playing sports, they should wear a professionally fitted and appropriate protective helmet. Helmets are required in football, baseball, ice hockey, skiing, inline skating, skateboarding, skateboarding, and snowboarding.
- Do not allow your child to play on trampolines unless properly supervised.
- When you go shopping, wear a seat belt to keep your child safe in the shopping cart seat. Never leave your child unsupervised in the stroller and never put them in the stroller basket.